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Technical Paper

Touch Feel and Appearance Characteristics of Automotive Door Armrest Materials

2007-04-16
2007-01-1217
This paper presents results of a five phase study conducted to evaluate touch feel and appearance of door armrest materials. Seven different production door armrests with different material characteristics such as softness, smoothness, compressibility, texture, etc. were evaluated. In the first phase, the subjects seated in a vehicle buck in their preferred seating position with the armrests adjusted at their preferred heights, provided ratings on a number of touch feel and appearance of the door armrest materials using 5-point semantic differential scales. In the second phase, the armrests were presented to each subject in all possible pairs and they were asked to select preferred armrest material in each pair.
Technical Paper

Simulating an Integrated Business Environment that Supports Systems Integration

2010-10-19
2010-01-2305
This paper describes the design and application of a business simulation to help train employees about the new business model and culture that for an automotive supplier company that designs connected vehicle and other advanced electronic products for the automotive industry. The simulation, called SIM-i-TRI, is a three to four day collaborative learning activity that simulates the executive, administrative, engineering, manufacturing, and marketing functions in three divisions of a manufacturer that supplies parts and systems to customers in industries similar to the automotive industry. It was originally designed to support the new employee orientation at the Tier 1 supplier and to provide the participants a safe environment to practice the lessons from the orientation. The simulation has been used several times a month in the US, England, and Germany for over four years.
Technical Paper

Corrosion-Fatigue Modeling and Materials Performance Ranking

2018-04-03
2018-01-1409
Corrosion-fatigue (CF) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have long been recognized as the major degradation and failure mechanisms of engineering materials under combined mechanical loading and corrosive environments. How to model and characterize these failure phenomena and how to screen, rank, and select materials in corrosion-fatigue and stress corrosion cracking resistance is a significant challenge in the automotive industry and many engineering applications. In this paper, the mathematical structure of a superposition-theory based corrosion-fatigue model is investigated and possible closed-form and approximate solutions are sought. Based on the model and the associated solutions and test results, screening and ranking of the materials in fatigue, corrosion-fatigue are discussed.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Optimization of Seat and Suspension Parameters for Occupant Ride Comfort in a Passenger Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1404
This study presents a methodology for comparative analysis of seat and suspension parameters on a system level to achieve minimum occupant head displacement and acceleration, thereby improving occupant ride comfort. A lumped-parameter full-vehicle ride model with seat structures, seat cushions and five occupants has been used. Two different vehicle masses are considered. A low amplitude pulse signal is provided as the road disturbance input. The peak vertical displacement and acceleration of the occupant’s head due to the road disturbance are determined and used as measures of ride comfort. Using a design of experiments approach, the most critical seat cushion, seat structure and suspension parameters and their interactions affecting the occupant head displacement and acceleration are determined. An optimum combination of parameters to achieve minimum peak vertical displacement and acceleration of the occupant’s head is identified using a response surface methodology.
Technical Paper

Energy Method for Torque Control of a Synchronous Traction Motor

2018-04-03
2018-01-0766
The problem of increasing the accuracy of determining the torque and the load angle of the permanent magnet synchronous motor of an electric traction drive to the predicted level (2.5...3)% of the full-scale error is solved by an indirect method. We considered the algorithms for calculating the generalized current and voltage of the electric motor, the total power, the instantaneous values of the power factor, and the sine of the phase angle between the first harmonics of voltages and currents. We determined the requirements for the accuracy of determining these values at the level of 1% of the full-scale error. We considered the algorithms for determining the total instantaneous power losses by the indirect method at the predicted level (15...20)% of the full-scale error with the efficiency of the motor (90...95)%.
Technical Paper

Development of Lightweight Hanger Rods for Vehicle Exhaust Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1709
Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
Technical Paper

A Modular Designed Three-phase ~98%-Efficiency 5kW/L On-board Fast Charger for Electric Vehicles Using Paralleled E-mode GaN HEMTs

2017-03-28
2017-01-1697
Most of the present electric vehicle (EV) on-board chargers utilize a conventional design, i.e., a boost-type Power Factor Correction (PFC) controller followed by an isolated DC/DC converter. Such design usually yields a ~94% wall-to-battery efficiency and 2~3kW/L power density at most, which makes a high-power charger, e.g., 20kW module difficult to fit in the vehicle. As described in this paper, first, an E-mode GaN HEMT based 7.2kW single-phase charger was built. Connecting three such modules to the three-phase grid allows a three-phase >20kW charger to be built, which compared to the conventional three-phase charger, saves the bulky DC-bus capacitor by using the indirect matrix converter topology. To push the efficiency and power density to the limit, comprehensive optimization is processed to optimize the single-phase module through incorporating the GaN HEMT switching performance and securing its zero-voltage switching.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen-Diesel Engine: Problems and Prospects of Improving the Working Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0541
The diesel engine with direct injection of hydrogen gas has clear advantages over the hydrogen engine with forced ignition of a hydrogen-air mixture. Despite of this, the concept of hydrogen-diesel engine has not investigated until now. In the paper, a detailed study of the working process of hydrogen-diesel engine carried out for the first time. Based on the results of the experimental studies and mathematical modeling, it has established that the behavior of thermo-physical processes in the combustion chamber of hydrogen-diesel engine, in a number of cases, differs fundamentally from the processes that take place in the conventional diesel engines. There have been identified the reasons for their difference and determined the values of the operating cycle parameters of hydrogen diesel engine, which provide the optimal correlation between the indicator values and the environmental performance.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload in an Autonomous Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0872
As intelligent automated vehicle technologies evolve, there is a greater need to understand and define the role of the human user, whether completely hands-off (L5) or partly hands-on. At all levels of automation, the human occupant may feel anxious or ill-at-ease. This may reflect as higher stress/workload. The study in this paper further refines how perceived workload may be determined based on occupant physiological measures. Because of great variation in individual personalities, age, driving experiences, gender, etc., a generic model applicable to all could not be developed. Rather, individual workload models that used physiological and vehicle measures were developed.
Technical Paper

Energy-Efficient Traction Induction Machine Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-0598
The article solves the problem of increasing the energy efficiency of the traction electric drive in the low load conditions. The set objective is achieved by analogy with internal combustion engines by decreasing the consumed energy using the amplitude control of the three-phase voltage of the induction machine. The basis of the amplitude control is laid by the constancy criterion of the overload capacity with respect to the electromagnetic torque, which provides a reliable reserve from a "breakdown" of the induction machine mode in a wide range of speeds and loads. The control system of the traction electric drive contains a reference model of electromechanical energy conversion represented by the generalized equations of the instantaneous balance of the active and reactive power and the mechanical load. The induction machine is controlled by two adaptive variables: the electromagnetic torque and the voltage amplitude.
Technical Paper

Formability Analysis of Thermoplastic Lightweight Fiber-Metal Laminates

2006-04-03
2006-01-0118
This study investigates numerically and experimentally the formability of two Fiber-Metal Laminate systems based on a thermoplastic self-reinforced polypropylene and a glass fiber polypropylene composite materials. These hybrid systems consist of layered arrangements of aluminum 2024-T3 sheets and thermoplastic-based composite materials. Flat panels were manufactured using a fast one step cold press manufacturing procedure. Punch-stretch forming tests and numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the formability of the hybrid systems. Experimental and simulation results revealed that the self reinforced thermoplastic composite-based Fiber-Metal Laminate exhibit excellent forming properties similar to that of the monolithic aluminum alloy of comparable thickness.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Response of Composite Reinforced Aluminum Foam Sandwich Systems for Automotive Structures

2007-04-16
2007-01-1722
This paper presents the design and manufacture a sandwich structure bumper beam that could withstand at least the same load required to have plastic deformation in a 2002 Jeep Wrangler bumper beam at a lower weight. The dimensions from a bumper beam were scaled down in order to match the limiting length of the sandwich structure specimens. Theoretical optimization calculations were conducted in order to find the optimal dimensions and face thicknesses for the hybrid structures. Sandwich panels were based on Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene (Twintex) and an Aluminum foam core (Alporas). Three point bending tests were performed on the sandwich structures. The resulting failure modes were revealed and found to be in agreement with those offered by the analytical predictions.
Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-1277
A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Innovative Design Concepts for Automotive Center Consoles

2006-04-03
2006-01-1474
The objective of the paper is to present a unique design approach and its outputs: the design concepts for automotive center consoles for a near term SUV that can be produced in 2-3 years, and the second for, a more futuristic SUV, that could be produced in 10 or more years. In the first phase of this two phase project, we benchmarked center consoles from a number of existing and concept vehicles, analyzed available data (e.g. J.D. Power customer feedback surveys), and conducted studies (e.g. survey of items stored in the vehicles, item location preferences in the console area) to understand customer/user needs in designing the center consoles. In the second phase, we provided the information generated in the first phase to four groups of student teams who competed to create winning designs of the center consoles.
Technical Paper

Spot Friction Welding of Mg-Mg, Al-Al and Mg-Al Alloys

2008-04-14
2008-01-0144
Spot friction welding is considered a cost-effective method for joining lightweight automotive alloys, such as magnesium and aluminum alloys. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the strength of spot friction welded joints of magnesium to magnesium, aluminum to aluminum, magnesium to aluminum and aluminum to magnesium. The joint structures and failure modes were also studied.
Technical Paper

Sybil Attacks on Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

2008-04-14
2008-01-0770
Security is a huge concern in VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks) since the information being conveyed may affect life-or-death decisions. One of the security concerns is the Sybil Attack. This attack attempts to create multiple identities to disrupt or control the network. A malicious node utilizing the Sybil Attack in VANETs can disrupt the network in various ways. It can create a large number of Sybil nodes to intervene in message forwarding, potentially causing a massive pileup and great loss of life. A malicious node can also use the Sybil Attack to create illusions of traffic congestions, getting other drivers to take alternate routes and leaving a clear path for the malicious node to its destination. In this paper, we discuss several defense strategies for the Sybil Attack in VANETs.
Technical Paper

LS-DYNA3D Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming using Damage Based User Subroutine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1129
LS-DYNA3D has been widely used to perform computer simulation of sheet metal forming. In the material library of LS-DYNA3D there are a number of user defined material models. In order to take full advantage of the material subroutines, it is important for the users to be able to display user defined history variables in the post processing and to establish user-defined failure criterion. In this report, the development of a damage coupled plastic model is firstly described. The damage model is then programmed in a user defined material subroutine. This is followed by performing finite element simulation of sheet metal forming with the LS-DYNA3D that has incorporated the damage coupled plastic model. The way to display the user defined history variables and how to deal with the failure criterion during the postprocessing of ETA/DYNAFORM are described. History variable distributions at several time steps are displayed and discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Towards Development of a Methodology to Measure Perception of Quality of Interior Materials

2005-04-11
2005-01-0973
The automotive interior suppliers are challenged to develop materials, that not only perform functionally, but also provide the right combination sensory experience (e.g. visual appeal, tactile feeling) and brand differentiation at very competitive costs. Therefore, the objective of this research presented in this paper is to develop a methodology that can be used to measure customer perception of interior materials and to come up with a unique system for assessing value of different interior materials. The overall methodology involves the application of a number of psychophysical measurement methods (e.g. Semantic Differential Scaling) and statistical methods to assess: 1) overall customer perceived quality of materials, 2) elements (or attributes) of perception, and 3) value of materials from OEM's viewpoint in terms of the measurement of perception of quality divided by a measure of cost.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of the Scavenging Process in a Two-Stroke Engine

1994-10-01
941929
Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas exchange process in a crankcase-scavenged, two-stroke engine were used to study the scavenging characteristics of the engine over the whole operating range and to investigate the effects of various design changes. The simulations used time-dependent velocity and pressure boundary conditions in the transfer and exhaust ports, respectively, which were obtained from a one-dimensional gas exchange code. The bulk flow characteristics, scavenging and trapping efficiencies, computed from these simulations compared well with experimental data. Investigation of the highest load and speed case showed that moderate port angle variations only weakly influenced the scavenging efficiency and velocity field. On the other hand, modifying the exhaust pressure to simulate single cylinder operation had a more significant effect on the scavenging and showed a possible way to control the gas exchange process.
Technical Paper

Web-Based Vehicle Performance Simulations Using Microsoft Excel

2001-03-05
2001-01-0335
Although computer models for vehicle and sub-system performance simulations have been developed and used extensively in the past several decades, there is currently a need to enhance the overall availability of these types of tools. Increasing demands on vehicle performance targets have intensified the need to obtain rapid feedback on the effects of vehicle modifications throughout the entire development cycle. At the same time, evolution of the PC and development of Web-based applications have contributed to the availability, accessibility, and user-friendliness of sophisticated computer analysis. Web engineering is an ideal approach in supporting globalization and is a cost-effective design-analysis integration business strategy. There is little doubt that this new approach will have positive impacts on product cost, quality, and development cycle time. This paper will show how Microsoft Excel and the Web can be powerful and effective tools in the development process.
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