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Technical Paper

Dynamics of Torque Meter for Car Test Stands

2003-03-03
2003-01-1034
Always for means of a measurement of the torque of car units are made great requirements. In the paper presented the opportunities of more exact measurement of the torque using the microprocessor meter and the dynamics of an offered meter are analyzed. The use of the given torque meter will allow improving technical, economic, operational and other properties of car stands.
Technical Paper

An Elastoplastic Damage Coupled Analysis for Crashworthiness of Aluminum Materials

1996-02-01
960169
This paper presents a comprehensive damage model capable of predicting crash behavior of aluminum structures under varying applied loading conditions. The damage model has been implemented in a general purpose explicit nonlinear finite element code and crash analysis has been carried out for aluminum tubes. The response obtained from the finite element analysis shows a close agreement with the experimental data. The finite element program containing the proposed generalized damage model can be used to analyze aluminum structures subjected to complex service loading conditions and identify associated failure modes to assess crashworthiness.
Technical Paper

A Fitting Algorithm for Determination of Minimum Zone Form Tolerances

1996-05-01
961642
In this paper, a new algorithm, named Nonlinear Optimization Method (NOM) has been mathematically and computationally developed for several geometric elements. The initial condition of the NOM is obtained by LSM, then the minimum zone is optimized in accordance with tolerancing principles in ANSI Y14.5.1M. The results are verified to be the Minimum Zone Evaluation (MZE) for the inspected geometric features. The algorithm, together with its computational realization programs, are proved to be considerably reliable and robust for practical applications.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of the Scavenging Process in a Two-Stroke Engine

1994-10-01
941929
Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas exchange process in a crankcase-scavenged, two-stroke engine were used to study the scavenging characteristics of the engine over the whole operating range and to investigate the effects of various design changes. The simulations used time-dependent velocity and pressure boundary conditions in the transfer and exhaust ports, respectively, which were obtained from a one-dimensional gas exchange code. The bulk flow characteristics, scavenging and trapping efficiencies, computed from these simulations compared well with experimental data. Investigation of the highest load and speed case showed that moderate port angle variations only weakly influenced the scavenging efficiency and velocity field. On the other hand, modifying the exhaust pressure to simulate single cylinder operation had a more significant effect on the scavenging and showed a possible way to control the gas exchange process.
Technical Paper

Development of Lightweight Hanger Rods for Vehicle Exhaust Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1709
Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
Technical Paper

A Modular Designed Three-phase ~98%-Efficiency 5kW/L On-board Fast Charger for Electric Vehicles Using Paralleled E-mode GaN HEMTs

2017-03-28
2017-01-1697
Most of the present electric vehicle (EV) on-board chargers utilize a conventional design, i.e., a boost-type Power Factor Correction (PFC) controller followed by an isolated DC/DC converter. Such design usually yields a ~94% wall-to-battery efficiency and 2~3kW/L power density at most, which makes a high-power charger, e.g., 20kW module difficult to fit in the vehicle. As described in this paper, first, an E-mode GaN HEMT based 7.2kW single-phase charger was built. Connecting three such modules to the three-phase grid allows a three-phase >20kW charger to be built, which compared to the conventional three-phase charger, saves the bulky DC-bus capacitor by using the indirect matrix converter topology. To push the efficiency and power density to the limit, comprehensive optimization is processed to optimize the single-phase module through incorporating the GaN HEMT switching performance and securing its zero-voltage switching.
Technical Paper

Secure and Privacy-Preserving Data Collection Mechanisms for Connected Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1660
Nowadays, the automotive industry is experiencing the advent of unprecedented applications with connected devices, such as identifying safe users for insurance companies or assessing vehicle health. To enable such applications, driving behavior data are collected from vehicles and provided to third parties (e.g., insurance firms, car sharing businesses, healthcare providers). In the new wave of IoT (Internet of Things), driving statistics and users’ data generated from wearable devices can be exploited to better assess driving behaviors and construct driver models. We propose a framework for securely collecting data from multiple sources (e.g., vehicles and brought-in devices) and integrating them in the cloud to enable next-generation services with guaranteed user privacy protection.
Technical Paper

Energy Method for Torque Control of a Synchronous Traction Motor

2018-04-03
2018-01-0766
The problem of increasing the accuracy of determining the torque and the load angle of the permanent magnet synchronous motor of an electric traction drive to the predicted level (2.5...3)% of the full-scale error is solved by an indirect method. We considered the algorithms for calculating the generalized current and voltage of the electric motor, the total power, the instantaneous values of the power factor, and the sine of the phase angle between the first harmonics of voltages and currents. We determined the requirements for the accuracy of determining these values at the level of 1% of the full-scale error. We considered the algorithms for determining the total instantaneous power losses by the indirect method at the predicted level (15...20)% of the full-scale error with the efficiency of the motor (90...95)%.
Technical Paper

Simulating an Integrated Business Environment that Supports Systems Integration

2010-10-19
2010-01-2305
This paper describes the design and application of a business simulation to help train employees about the new business model and culture that for an automotive supplier company that designs connected vehicle and other advanced electronic products for the automotive industry. The simulation, called SIM-i-TRI, is a three to four day collaborative learning activity that simulates the executive, administrative, engineering, manufacturing, and marketing functions in three divisions of a manufacturer that supplies parts and systems to customers in industries similar to the automotive industry. It was originally designed to support the new employee orientation at the Tier 1 supplier and to provide the participants a safe environment to practice the lessons from the orientation. The simulation has been used several times a month in the US, England, and Germany for over four years.
Technical Paper

The Multiobjective Optimal Design Problems and their Pareto Optimal Fronts for Li-Ion Battery Cells

2016-04-05
2016-01-1199
This paper begins with a baseline multi-objective optimization problem for the lithium-ion battery cell. Maximizing the energy per unit separator area and minimizing the mass per unit separator area are considered as the objectives when the thickness and the porosity of the positive electrode are chosen as design variables in the baseline problem. By employing a reaction zone model of a Graphite/Iron Phosphate Lithium-ion Cell and the Genetic Algorithm, it is shown the shape of the Pareto optimal front for the formulated optimization takes a convex form. The identified shape of the Pareto optimal front is expected to guide Design of Experiments (DOE) and product design. Compared with the conventional studies whose optimizations are based on a single objective of maximizing the specific energy, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach offers more flexibility to the product designers when trade-off between conflicting objectives is required.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Two-Stage Turbocharger Configurations on the Perceived Vehicle Acceleration Using Numerical Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1029
Charge boosting strategy plays an essential role in improving the power density of diesel engines while meeting stringent emissions regulations. In downsized two-stage turbocharged engines, turbocharger matching is critical to achieve desired boost pressure while maintaining sufficiently fast transient response. A numerical simulation model is developed to evaluate the effect of two-stage turbocharger configurations on the perceived vehicle acceleration. The simulation model developed in GT-SUITE consists of engine, drivetrain, and vehicle dynamics sub-models. A model-based turbocharger control logic is developed in MATLAB using an analytical compressor model and a mean-value engine model. The components of the two-stage turbocharging system evaluated in this study include a variable geometry turbine in the high-pressure stage, a compressor bypass valve in the low-pressure stage and an electrically assisted turbocharger in the low-pressure stage.
Technical Paper

Warpage Prediction on Injection Molded Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0149
Warpage is the distortion induced by inhomogeneous shrinkage during injection molding of plastic parts. Uncontrolled warpage will result in dimensional instability and bring a lot of challenges to the mold design and part assembly. Current commercial simulation software for injection molding cannot provide consistently accurate warpage prediction, especially for semi-crystalline thermoplastics. In this study, the root cause of inconsistency in warpage prediction has been investigated by using injection molded polypropylene plaques with a wide range of process conditions. The warpage of injection molded plaques are measured and compared to the numerical predictions from Moldex3D. The study shows that with considering cooling rate effect on crystallization kinetics and using of the improved material model for residual stress calculations, good agreements are obtained between experiment and simulation results.
Technical Paper

Integrated Brake Squeal with Induced Thermal Stress Analysis

2017-06-05
2017-01-1900
Brake squeal is an instability issue with many parameters. This study attempts to assess the effect of thermal load on brake squeal behavior through finite element computation. The research can be divided into two parts. The first step is to analyze the thermal conditions of a brake assembly based on ANSYS Fluent. Modeling of transient temperature and thermal-structural analysis are then used in coupled thermal-mechanical analysis using complex eigenvalue methods in ANSYS Mechanical to determine the deformation and the stress established in both the disk and the pad. Thus, the influence of thermal load may be observed when using finite element methods for prediction of brake squeal propensity. A detailed finite element model of a commercial brake disc was developed and verified by experimental modal analysis and structure free-free modal analysis.
Technical Paper

Formability Analysis of Thermoplastic Lightweight Fiber-Metal Laminates

2006-04-03
2006-01-0118
This study investigates numerically and experimentally the formability of two Fiber-Metal Laminate systems based on a thermoplastic self-reinforced polypropylene and a glass fiber polypropylene composite materials. These hybrid systems consist of layered arrangements of aluminum 2024-T3 sheets and thermoplastic-based composite materials. Flat panels were manufactured using a fast one step cold press manufacturing procedure. Punch-stretch forming tests and numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the formability of the hybrid systems. Experimental and simulation results revealed that the self reinforced thermoplastic composite-based Fiber-Metal Laminate exhibit excellent forming properties similar to that of the monolithic aluminum alloy of comparable thickness.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Response of Composite Reinforced Aluminum Foam Sandwich Systems for Automotive Structures

2007-04-16
2007-01-1722
This paper presents the design and manufacture a sandwich structure bumper beam that could withstand at least the same load required to have plastic deformation in a 2002 Jeep Wrangler bumper beam at a lower weight. The dimensions from a bumper beam were scaled down in order to match the limiting length of the sandwich structure specimens. Theoretical optimization calculations were conducted in order to find the optimal dimensions and face thicknesses for the hybrid structures. Sandwich panels were based on Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene (Twintex) and an Aluminum foam core (Alporas). Three point bending tests were performed on the sandwich structures. The resulting failure modes were revealed and found to be in agreement with those offered by the analytical predictions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Cumulative Damage in a Bumper Due to Multiple Low Speed Impacts

2000-03-06
2000-01-0631
The paper presents a method of analysis based on the theory of damage mechanics to quantify the degree of damage in an engineering structure under load. The method is incorporated into a Ford in-house finite element program called FCRASH that is applied to analyze the cumulative damage in a bumper under multiple low speed impacts. The numerical results calculated at the peak value of the contact force are compared with the test results. The FEA results are used to identify the locations of the hotspot in the bumper system and the predicted location where a potential crack would initiate. The microscopic observations showed damage in the area predicted with the finite element program after the specified number of impacts.
Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-1277
A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Suspension Properties on Vehicle Roll Stability

2006-02-14
2006-01-1950
Vehicle roll dynamics is strongly influenced by suspension properties such as roll center height, roll steer and roll camber. In this paper, the effects of suspension properties on vehicle roll response has been investigated using a multi-body vehicle dynamics program. A full vehicle model equipped with front MacPherson and rear multilink suspensions has been used for the study. Roll dynamics of the vehicle were evaluated by performing fixed timing fishhook maneuver in the simulation. Variations of vehicle roll response due to changes in the suspension properties were assessed by quantitatively analyzing the vehicle response through simulation. Critical suspension design parameters for vehicle roll dynamics were identified and adjusted to improve roll stability of the vehicle model with passive suspension. Design of Experiments has been used for identifying critical hardpoints affecting the suspension parameters and optimization techniques were employed for parameter optimization.
Technical Paper

Development of Innovative Design Concepts for Automotive Center Consoles

2006-04-03
2006-01-1474
The objective of the paper is to present a unique design approach and its outputs: the design concepts for automotive center consoles for a near term SUV that can be produced in 2-3 years, and the second for, a more futuristic SUV, that could be produced in 10 or more years. In the first phase of this two phase project, we benchmarked center consoles from a number of existing and concept vehicles, analyzed available data (e.g. J.D. Power customer feedback surveys), and conducted studies (e.g. survey of items stored in the vehicles, item location preferences in the console area) to understand customer/user needs in designing the center consoles. In the second phase, we provided the information generated in the first phase to four groups of student teams who competed to create winning designs of the center consoles.
Technical Paper

Parametric Approach for Development of an Automotive Bucket Seat Frame

2006-04-03
2006-01-0366
This paper presents a design and development approach for automotive bucket seat frame using a parametric modeling and a finite element analysis methodology. This approach is expected to help build a lightweight seat structure quickly and efficiently. This approach is general, and it can be applied in designing and developing any mechanical structural component. The design process involves, first parametric modeling of the front bucket seat frame using Pro E. This CAD model was then optimized using optimization software called Optistruct, for two cases of load case and boundary condition. The optimized design was then tested for FMVSS seat requirements using LS-DYNA. The dynamic nature of the design approach helps in changing design parameters during different stages of the design process, until the seat structure satisfies the design criteria and the strength requirements. The construction and testing of this design and the design model are still under progress.
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