Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Bimodal Loading Test for Engine and General Purpose Air Cleaning Filters

1997-02-24
970674
The dust holding capacity of air cleaning filter depends on the size distribution of the particles. Traditional test dusts like Arizona road dust consist of a single mode of coarse particles. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dust holding capacities of air filters with a bi-modal test dust that simulates the dust in atmospheric environments. The fine mode of the test dust consists of submicron Alumina particles that represent the fine particles in atmosphere. The coarse mode consists of traditional AC fine dust. The fine and coarse dusts are mixed in different mass ratios to simulate different atmospheric conditions. The ratios are 100% fine, 50%/50%, 25%/75%, 10%/90%, and 100% coarse. An engine air filter and a HVAC filter were studied with the bi-modal test dusts. The filter pressure drops were measured as a function of the dust loading. The results show that the flow resistance rises significantly faster as the ratio of fine to coarse fraction increases.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurement of Clean Fractional Efficiency of Engine Air Cleaning Filters

1997-02-24
970675
The function of the engine air cleaning filter is to remove the particulate matter in the intake air to protect the engine and its components from wear and contamination. For a specific filter, the efficiency is a function of the size of the particles being collected and the air flow velocity through the filter. Traditional tests of engine air cleaners are based on the use of specific test dusts, such as the AC Coarse and AC Fine, to determine the mass collection efficiency. However, they do not provide information on the size dependent performance of the filters, and the variation in filter performance under different particle challenge conditions. The use of a fractional efficiency test method will help to provide this missing information. The purpose of this paper is to describe a fractional efficiency test system that has been designed to evaluate the fractional cleaning efficiency of engine air cleaning filters in the size range between 0.3 and 10 mm particle diameter.
Technical Paper

Dust Loading Behavior of Engine and General Purpose Air Cleaning Filters

1997-02-24
970676
The purpose of this study is to compare the dust loading behavior of ten filter media. The filters are used in engine air filtration, self-cleaning industrial air cleaners, building heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC), automotive cabin air filtration, air respirators, and general purpose air cleaning. Several types of filter media are tested. The filters include cellulose, synthetic (felt), glass, dual-layered glass/cellulose, mixed synthetic/glass, gradient packing glass, and electrically charged fibers. The initial pressure drops and fractional collection efficiencies as a function of particle size are reported. The filters were evaluated with two test dusts to investigate the size-dependent dust loading behavior. The two test dusts are SAE fine and submicron alumina powder (median diameter 0.25 μm). The results are analyzed and compared. It was found that the cellulose filters exhibited surface loading behavior and have the fastest growth of pressure drops.
Technical Paper

Fractional Efficiency and Particle Mass Loading Characteristics of Engine Air Filters

1997-02-24
970673
The performance of the air cleaning filter is important to the long-term performance and reliability of the engine and its components. In this study, the performances of cellulosic and foam filter media for engine air cleaning application are experimentally investigated. Phenolic and non-phenolic cellulose filters were studied. Both flat-sheet and pleated cellulose filters were included. The foams filters were reticulated polyurethane foam media from 20 to 110 pores-per-inch. We measured the initial air flow resistance, the collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and the behavior of dust loading. We also studied the effect of oil treatment on filter performance. The results show that the efficiencies and pressure drops of the cellulose filters increase rapidly with dust loading. Oil treated cellulose filter was found to exhibit slower increases in pressure drop and collection efficiency, resulting in higher dust holding capacity.
Technical Paper

Diesel Trap Performance: Particle Size Measurements and Trends

1998-10-19
982599
Particle concentrations and size distributions were measured in the exhaust of a turbocharged, aftercooled, direct-injection, Diesel engine equipped with a ceramic filter (trap). Measurements were performed both upstream and downstream of the filter using a two-stage, variable residence time, micro-dilution system, a condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer set up to count and size particles in the 7-320 nm diameter range. Engine operating conditions of the ISO 11 Mode test were used. The engine out (upstream of filter) size distribution has a bimodal, log normal structure, consisting of a nuclei mode with a geometric number mean diameter, DGN, in the 10-30 nm range and an accumulation mode with DGN in the 50-80 nm range. The modal structure of the size distribution is less distinct downstream of the filter. Nearly all the particle number emissions come from the nuclei mode, are nanoparticles (Dp < 50nm), and are volatile.
Technical Paper

Real Time Measurement of Volatile and Solid Exhaust Particles Using a Catalytic Stripper

1995-02-01
950236
A system has been developed that allows near real time measurements of total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in engine exhaust. It consists of a short section of heated catalyst, a cooling coil, and an electrical aerosol analyzer. The performance of this catalytic stripper system has been characterized with nonvolatile (NaCl), volatile sulfate ((NH4)2 SO4), and volatile hydrocarbon (engine oil) particles with diameters ranging from 0.05-0.5 μm. The operating temperature of 300°C gives essentially complete removal of volatile sulfate and hydrocarbon particles, but also leads to removal of 15-25% of solid particles. This system has been used to determine total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in the exhaust of a Diesel engine and a spark ignition engine. Volatile volume fractions measured in Diesel exhaust with the catalytic stripper system increased from 19-65% as the equivalence ratio (load) decreased from 0.64-0.13.
Technical Paper

Transient Particulate Emissions from Diesel Buses During the Central Business District Cycle

1996-02-01
960251
Particulate emissions from heavy-duty buses were measured in real time under conditions encountered during the standard Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses tested were equipped with 1994 Detroit Diesel Engine Corporation 6V92-TA engines, and some included after treatment devices on the exhaust. Instantaneous, time-resolved measurements of CO2 and amorphous carbon concentrations were obtained using an optical extinction technique and compared to simultaneous results obtained using conventional dilution tunnel sampling methods. Good agreement was obtained between the real-time extinction measurements and the diluted CO2 and cycle-integrated filter measurements. The instantaneous measurements revealed that acceleration transients accounted for roughly 80% of the particulate mass emitted during the cycle but only about 45% of the fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Automotive Cabin Filtration In-Vehicle Test Results

1994-03-01
940318
This paper quantifies typical United States in-vehicle cowl area particulate filter parameters such as temperature, humidity and environmental conditions. Secondly, United States and Germany particulate filter fleet results will be included to help quantify the effect of loading on electret nonwoven particulate filter fractional efficiency and demonstrate the amount and types of particulate matter captured. Finally the paper will address the low submicron fractional filter efficiency of a simulated production “wet and dry” plate-fin automotive evaporator core.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Soot and NO in a Direct-injection Diesel Engine

1995-02-01
950608
Results of comparisons of computed and measured soot and NO in a direct-injection Diesel engine are presented. The computations are carried out using a three-dimensional model for flows, sprays and combustion in Diesel engines. Autoignition of the Diesel spray is modeled using an equation for a progress variable which measures the local and instantaneous tendency of the fuel to autoignite. High temperature chemistry is modeled using a local chemical equilibrium model coupled to a combination of laminar kinetic and turbulent characteristic times. Soot formation is kinetically controlled and soot oxidation is represented by a model which has a combination of laminar kinetic and turbulent mixing times. Soot oxidation appears to be controlled near top-dead-center by mixing and by kinetics as the exhaust is approached. NO is modeled using the Zeldovich mechanism.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Exhaust Particulate Emissions from a Spark Ignition Engine

1998-02-23
980528
Exhaust particulate emissions from a 4-cylinder, 2.25 liter spark ignition engine were measured and characterized. A single-stage ejector-diluter system was used to dilute and cool the exhaust sample for measurement. The particulate measurement equipment included a condensation nucleus counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer. Exhaust measurements were made both upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter using three different fuels. Unlike particulate emissions in diesel engines, spark ignition exhaust particle emissions were found to be highly unstable. Typically, a stable “baseline” concentration on the order of 105 particles/cm3 is emitted. Occasionally, however, a “spike” in the exhaust particle concentration is observed. The exhaust particle concentrations observed during these spikes can increase by as much as two orders of magnitude over the baseline concentration.
Technical Paper

Influence of an Iron Fuel Additive on Diesel Combustion

1998-02-23
980536
This program used a 0.6 liter DI NA single cylinder diesel engine to study the influence of ferrocene as a fuel additive on particulate and NOx emissions and heat release rates. Previous Studies1,15 have shown efficiency and particulate emission benefits only after engine conditioning. Two engine configurations were tested: standard aluminum piston with normal engine deposits and a second test with the engine cleaned to “new engine condition”, but with the piston replaced with a thermal barrier coated piston. Particle concentration and size in roughly the 7.5 to 750 nm diameter range were measured with a condensation nucleus counter and an electrical aerosol analyzer. Heat release rates and IMEPs were calculated from in-cylinder pressure data. Particle number concentrations increased substantially when the 250 ppm dose was first started with both engine configuration, but decreased 30% to 50% with conditioning.
Technical Paper

Synchronous, Simultaneous Optimization of Ignition Timing and Air-Fuel Ratio in a Gas-Fueled Spark Ignition Engine

1994-03-01
940547
A two-dimensional optimization process which simultaneously adjusts the spark timing and air-fuel ratio of a lean-burn natural gas fueled engine has been demonstrated. This has been done by first mapping the thermal efficiency against spark timing and equivalence ratio at a single speed and load combination to obtain the 3-D surface of efficiency versus the other two variables. Then the ability of the control system to find and hold the combination of timing and air-fuel ratio which gives the highest thermal efficiency was explored. The control system described in SAE Paper No. 940546 was used to map the thermal efficiency versus equivalence ratio and ignition timing. NOx, CO, and HC maps were also obtained to determine the tradeoffs between efficiency and emissions. A load corresponding to a brake mean effective pressure of 0.467 MPa was maintained by a water brake dynamometer. A speed of 2000 rpm was maintained by a fuel-controlled governor.
Technical Paper

Injection Timing and Bowl Configuration Effects on In-Cylinder Particle Mass

1992-09-01
921646
The formation of particles in the combustion chamber of a direct injection diesel engine has been studied with the use of the Total Cylinder Sampling Method. With this method, nearly the entire contents of the cylinder of an operating diesel engine can be quickly removed at various times during the combustion process. The particle mass and size distributions present in the sample can then be analyzed. If quenching of the combustion process is quick and complete, the resulting samples are representative of the particle mass and size distributions present in the cylinder near the time sampling begins. This paper discusses the effect of injection timing and piston bowl shape on the particle formation and oxidation. Example size distribution measurements are also shown. The particle concentrations in the cylinder were measured for three different injection timings with the standard piston installed in the engine.
Technical Paper

Comparison and Optimization of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy for Speciating Unburned Hydrocarbons from Diesel Low Temperature Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0992
Partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines is a strategy for reducing soot and NOX formation, though it is accompanied by higher unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions compared to conventional mixing-controlled diesel combustion. In this work, two independent methods of quantifying light UHC species from a diesel engine operating in early LTC (ELTC) modes were compared: Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). A sampling system was designed to capture and transfer exhaust samples for off-line GC-MS analysis, while the FT-IR sampled and quantified engine exhaust in real time. Three different ELTC modes with varying levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were implemented on a modern light-duty diesel engine. GC-MS and FT-IR concentrations were within 10 % for C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and C2H4O. While C3H8 was identified and quantified by the FT-IR, it was not detected by the GCMS.
Technical Paper

Particle and Gaseous Emission Characteristics of a Formula SAE Race Car Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1400
The focus of this work was the physical characterization of exhaust aerosol from the University of Minnesota Formula SAE team's engine. This was done using two competition fuels, 100 octane race fuel and E85. Three engine conditions were evaluated: 6000 RPM 75% throttle, 8000 RPM 50% throttle, and 8000 RPM 100% throttle. Dilute emissions were characterized using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). E85 fuel produced more power and had lower particulate matter emissions at all test conditions, but more fuel was consumed.
Technical Paper

Efficacy of In-Cylinder Control of Particulate Emissions to Meet Current and Future Regulatory Standards

2014-04-01
2014-01-1597
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology has proven performance and reliability. However, the addition of a DPF adds significant cost and packaging constraints leading some manufacturers to design engines that reduce particulate matter in-cylinder. Such engines utilize high fuel injection pressure, moderate exhaust gas recirculation and modified injection timing to mitigate soot formation. This study examines such an engine designed to meet US EPA Interim Tier 4 standards for off-highway applications without a DPF. The engine was operated at four steady state modes and aerosol measurements were made using a two-stage, ejector dilution system with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) equipped with a catalytic stripper (CS) to differentiate semi-volatile versus solid components in the exhaust. Gaseous emissions were measured using an FTIR analyzer and particulate matter mass emissions were estimated using SMPS data and an assumed particle density function.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of Single-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Using Reformed Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0262
A key challenge for the practical introduction of dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion modes in diesel engines is the requirement to store two fuels on-board. This work demonstrates that partially reforming diesel fuel into less reactive products is a promising method to allow RCCI to be implemented with a single stored fuel. Experiments were conducted using a thermally integrated reforming reactor in a reformed exhaust gas recirculation (R-EGR) configuration to achieve RCCI combustion using a light-duty diesel engine. The engine was operated at a low engine load and two reformed fuel percentages over ranges of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and main diesel fuel injection timing. Results show that RCCI-like emissions of NOx and soot were achieved load using the R-EGR configuration. It was also shown that complete fuel conversion in the reforming reactor is not necessary to achieve sufficiently low fuel reactivity for RCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Dilution Conditions on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distribution Measurements

1999-03-01
1999-01-1142
Particle size distribution and number concentration measurements have been made in the diluted exhaust of a medium-duty, turbocharged, aftercooled, direct-injection Diesel engine using a unique variable residence time micro-dilution system that allows systematic variation of dilution and sampling conditions, and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The measurements show that the number concentrations in the nanoparticle (Dp < 50 nm) and the ultrafine (Dp < 100 nm) ranges are very sensitive to dilution conditions and fuel sulfur content. Changes in concentration of up to two orders of magnitude have been observed when conditions are varied over the range that might be encountered in typical laboratory dilution systems. For example, at a dilution ratio of 12, dilution temperature of 32 °C, and a residence time of 1000 ms, the number concentrations reach 6 × 108 part.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Particulate Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-1145
Experiments were performed to measure the average and time-resolved particle number emissions and number-weighted particle size distributions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Measurements were made on a late model vehicle equipped with a direct injection spark ignition engine. The vehicle was placed on a chassis dynamometer, which was used to load the engine to road load at five different vehicle speeds ranging from 13 - 90 km/hr. Particle number emissions were measured using a TSI 3020 condensation nucleus counter, and size distributions were measured using a TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer. Average polydisperse number concentration was found to increase from 1.1 × 108 particles/cm3 at 13 km/hr to 2.8 × 108 particles/cm3 at 70 km/hr. Under a closed-loop, stoichiometric homogeneous charge operating mode at 90 km/hr, number emissions fell to 9.3 × 107 particles/cm3 (at all other operating conditions, the engine was in a lean stratified charge operating mode).
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle Growth During Dilution and Cooling of Diesel Exhaust: Experimental Investigation and Theoretical Assessment

2000-03-06
2000-01-0515
Nanoparticle formation during exhaust sampling and dilution has been examined using a two-stage micro-dilution system to sample the exhaust from a modern, medium-duty diesel engine. Growth rates of nanoparticles at different exhaust dilution ratios and temperatures have been determined by monitoring the evolution of particle size distributions in the first stage of the dilution system. Two methods, graphical and analytical, are described to determine particle growth rate. Extrapolation of size distribution down to 1 nm in diameter has been demonstrated using the graphical method. The average growth rate of nanoparticles is calculated using the analytical method. The growth rate ranges from 6 nm/sec to 24 nm/sec, except at a dilution ratio of 40 and primary dilution temperature of 48 °C where the growth rate drops to 2 nm /sec. This condition seems to represent a threshold for growth. Observed nucleation and growth patterns are consistent with predictions of a simple physical model.
X