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Technical Paper

Benefits of GTL Fuel in Vehicles Equipped with Diesel Particulate Filters

2009-06-15
2009-01-1934
Synthetic fuels are expected to play an important role for future mobility, because they can be introduced seamlessly alongside conventional fuels without the need for new infrastructure. Thus, understanding the interaction of GTL fuels with modern engines, and aftertreatment systems, is important. The current study investigates potential benefits of GTL fuel in respect of diesel particulate filters (DPF). Experiments were conducted on a Euro 4 TDI engine, comparing the DPF response to two different fuels, normal diesel and GTL fuel. The investigation focused on the accumulation and regeneration behavior of the DPF. Results indicated that GTL fuel reduced particulate formation to such an extent that the regeneration cycle was significantly elongated, by ∼70% compared with conventional diesel. Thus, the engine could operate for this increased time before the DPF reached maximum load and regeneration was needed.
Technical Paper

NOx Formation in Diesel Engines for Various Fuels and Intake Gases

1995-02-01
950213
The NO formation is essentially determined by the flame temperature. In an engine the latter depends on the composition of the fuel and the intake gas. In this study the efficiency of various NO reducing measures is analysed by means of a comparison of measurements and computations for the Most frequent operation point of a 1.9 1 DI Diesel engine. The O2 concentration, which is shown to be the dominant source of influence on the flame temperature and NO formation, is varied using synthetic gas mixtures or by EGR. The molar heat capacity of CO2 and H2O in the recirculated exhaust gas, the intake temperature and the H/C ratio in the fuel are less important for the formation of NO. Measures which reduce the NO formation increase the ignition delay and thereby the fraction of the premixed combustion. The impact of EGR on the combustion process is illustrated by high speed filming.
Technical Paper

A PDF-Based Model for Full Cycle Simulation of Direct Injected Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1606
In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Composition on NMOG-Emissions and Ozone Forming Potential

1993-10-01
932676
VOLKSWAGEN has conducted a number of investigations on a Multi Fuel Vehicle (MFV), designed for variable fuel operation, to determine the influence of fuel composition and clean fuels on exhaust emissions, mainly on ozone forming potential. Results of the tests indicate a small advantage of Phase II Reformulated Gasoline and a greater one for for methanol fuel M85, compared to today's gasoline. For M85 there is an about 25 % lower ozone forming potential. The most critical components in the exhaust of methanol fueled vehicles (M85) are unburned methanol and formaldehyde, forming more than 60 % of the total ozone forming potential. Therefore improvement of cold start and warmup driving during the first two to three minutes is of great importance, because in this time about 90 % of the mentioned components are formed.
Technical Paper

European Diesel Research IDEA-Experimental Results from DI Diesel Engine Investigations

1994-10-01
941954
Within the European research programme IDEA (Integrated Diesel European Action), detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the fundamental phenomena of the Diesel engine like flow, injection, mixture formation, auto-ignition, combustion and pollutant formation were carried out to improve knowledge and to set up models for a simulation code. Because this basic research of the Diesel combustion process is very complex and cost intensive, it was carried out jointly by the JRC (Joint Research Committee), an association of European car manufacturers (Fiat, Peugeot SA, Renault, Volvo and Volkswagen). The activities were also subsidized by the Commission of the European Communities and the Swedish National Board of Technical Development. The results of the research work will support the design of even more efficient engines and the further reduction of soot and NOx emissions and will also enable the companies to reduce time and cost in developing new engines.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements and Analysis on Fundamental Cold Start and Warm-up Phenomena of SI Engines

1995-10-01
952394
A recently developed Laser Raman Scattering system was applied to measure the in-cylinder air-fuel ratio and the residual gas content (via the water content) of the charge simultaneously in a firing spark-ignition engine during cold start and warm-up. It is the main objective of this work to elucidate the origin of misfires and the necessity to over-fuel at cool ambient temperatures. It turns out that the overall air-fuel ratio and residual gas content (in particular the residual water content) of the charge appear to be the most important parameters for the occurrence of misfires (without appropriate fuel enrichment), i.e., the engine behaviour from cycle to cycle becomes rather predictable on the basis of these data. An alternative explanation for the necessity to over-fuel is given.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Analysis of Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine for Different EGR-Rates by an Extinction Method

1995-10-01
952517
The formation of soot during the first phase and the oxidation of soot during the later phase of the combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine have been investigated in detail by an extinction method. The experiments were performed in a 1.9 l near-production high-speed four-cylinder in-line direct-injection diesel engine for passenger cars for different rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and for different fuels. The measurements result in crank angle resolved and cycle-averaged soot mass concentrations in the piston bowl and the combustion chamber. The results show that with increasing EGR-rates the amount of soot formed is increased only slightly but the amount of soot oxidized during combustion decreases significantly. This is assumed to be the main reason for the increase of soot in the exhaust gas with increasing EGR-rates.
Technical Paper

Thixoforming of Aluminium-Based Metal Matrix Composite Systems

1994-03-01
940812
Possible materials' solutions to mass reduction in the transport industry are to be found within particulate-reinforced aluminium alloy matrix composites. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how thixoforming may solve material and manufacturing problems for metallic composites with silicon carbide or silicon particles. Silicon carbide reinforced alloy was thixoformed successfully, at several reinforcement levels, showing a well-maintained particle distribution. Hypereutectic aluminium - silicon material was produced with fine uniform microstructure giving a high Young's modulus and low coefficient of thermal expansion. The results provide alternative approaches for solving slightly differing design problems and applications.
Technical Paper

Interaction Between Gasoline Properties and Engine Management System and Effects on 3-Way Catalyst Efficiency

1997-10-01
972839
The EPEFE study (European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies), /1/ and other programmes have identified an increase in tailpipe NOx emissions with reduced gasoline aromatics content for modern 3-way controlled catalyst vehicles. This effect occurs with fully warmed-up catalyst under closed-loop operation. In order to understand the reasons for this effect VW and Shell have mechanistically investigated the effects of fuel properties on EMS (engine management system) and catalyst performance. Fuels with independent variation of oxygen, aromatics and mid-range volatility were tested in different VW engines. λ was monitored using sensors located both pre and post catalyst. The results confirmed that reducing gasoline aromatics content reduced engine-out emissions but increased tailpipe NOx emissions. It could be shown that differences in H/C ratio led to differences in the hydrogen content of engine-out emissions which affected the reading of the λ sensor.
Technical Paper

Vapor/Liquid Visualization with Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence in an SI-Engine for Different Fuel Injection Timings

1996-05-01
961122
Laser-induced exciplex fluorescence has been applied to the mixture formation process in the combustion chamber of an optically-accessible four-cylinder in-line spark-ignition engine in order to distinguish between liquid and vapor fuel distribution during the intake and compression stroke for different injection timings. The naphthalene/N,N,N′N′-tetramethyl p-phenylene diamine (TMPD) exciplex system excited at 308nm with a broadband XeCl excimer laser is used to obtain spectrally-separated, single-shot fluorescence images of the liquid or vapor phase of the fuel. For different timings of the fuel injector this technique is applied to obtain crank-angle-resolved images of the resulting mixture in the combustion chamber. The fluorescence light is detected with an intensified slow-scan CCD-camera equipped with appropriate filters.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Thermochemical Conditions in the Exhaust Manifold Using Secondary Air in a 2.0 L Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1676
The California LEV1 II program will be introduced in the year 2003 and requires a further reduction of the exhaust emissions of passenger cars. The cold start emissions represent the main part of the total emissions of the FTP2-Cycle. Cold start emissions can be efficiently reduced by injecting secondary air (SA) in the exhaust port making compliance with the most stringent standards possible. The thermochemical conditions (mixing rate and temperature of secondary air and exhaust gas, exhaust gas composition, etc) prevailing in the exhaust system are described in this paper. This provides knowledge of the conditions for auto ignition of the mixture within the exhaust manifold. The thus established exothermal reaction (exhaust gas post-combustion) results in a shorter time to light-off temperature of the catalyst. The mechanisms of this combustion are studied at different engine idle conditions.
Technical Paper

Quantitative In-Cylinder NO LIF Measurements with a KrF Excimer Laser Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine Fueled with Isooctane and Regular Gasoline

1997-02-24
970824
Quantitative 1-D spatially-resolved NO LIF measurements in the combustion chamber of a mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using a tunable KrF excimer laser are presented. One of the main advantages of this approach is that KrF laser radiation at 248 nm is only slightly absorbed by the in-cylinder gases during engine combustion and therefore it allows measurements at all crank angles. Multispecies detection turned out to be crucial for this approach since it is possible to calculate the in-cylinder temperature from the detected Rayleigh scattering and the simultaneously acquired pressure traces. Additionally, it allows the monitoring of interfering emissions and spectroscopic effects like fluorescence trapping which turned out to take place. Excitation with 248 nm yields LIF emissions at shorter wavelengths than the laser wavelength (at 237 and 226 nm).
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixture Formation Analysis with Spontaneous Raman Scattering Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine

1997-02-24
970827
Mixture formation analysis in the combustion chamber of a slightly modified mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using nonintrusive laser measurement techniques is presented. Laser Raman scattering and planar laser-induced tracer fluorescence are employed to measure air-fuel ratio and residual gas content of the charge with and without spatial resolution. Single-cycle measurements as well as cycle-averaged measurements are performed. Engine operation parameters like load, speed, injection timing, spark timing, coolant temperature, and mean air-fuel ratio are changed to study whether the effects on mixture formation and engine performance can be resolved by the applied laser spectroscopic techniques. Mixture formation is also analyzed by measurement of the charge composition as a function of crank angle. Clear correlations of the charge composition data and engine operating conditions are seen.
Technical Paper

Virtual Investigation of Real Fuels by Means of 3D-CFD Engine Simulations

2019-09-09
2019-24-0090
The reduction of both harmful emissions (CO, HC, NOx, etc.) and gases responsible for greenhouse effects (especially CO2) are mandatory aspects to be considered in the development process of any kind of propulsion concept. Focusing on ICEs, the main development topics are today not only the reduction of harmful emissions, increase of thermodynamic efficiency, etc. but also the decarbonization of fuels which offers the highest potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Accordingly, the development of future ICEs will be closely linked to the development of CO2 neutral fuels (e.g. biofuels and e-fuels) as they will be part of a common development process. This implies an increase in development complexity, which needs the support of engine simulations. In this work, the virtual modeling of real fuel behavior is addressed to improve current simulation capabilities in studying how a specific composition can affect the engine performance.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1537
The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Journal Article

Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

2016-04-05
2016-01-0885
Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the veracity of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr.
Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Ultrasonic Viscometer for Real Time and In-Situ Applications in Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0679
A novel ultrasonic viscometer for in-situ applications in engine components is presented. The viscosity measurement is performed by shearing the solid-oil contact interface by means of shear ultrasonic waves. Previous approaches to ultrasonically measure the viscosity suffer from poor accuracy owing to the acoustic miss-match between metal component and lubricant [1]. The method described overcomes this limitation by placing an intermediate matching layer between the metal and lubricant. Results are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained with the conventional viscometers when testing Newtonian fluids. This study also highlights that when complex mixtures are tested the viscosity measurement is frequency dependent. At high ultrasonic frequencies, e.g. 10 MHz, it is possible to isolate the viscosity of the base, while to obtain the viscosity of the mixture it is necessary to choose a lower operative frequency, e.g. 100 kHz, to match the fluid particle relaxation time.
Technical Paper

Combining DLC, Shot Blasting, Chemical Dip and Nano Fullerene Surface Treatments to Reduce Wear and Friction when Used with Bio-Lubricants in Automotive Contacts

2017-03-28
2017-01-0878
The interaction of three bio-lubricant base oil candidates with seventeen combinations of surface treatment was studied, comparing wear scar volumes and coefficient of friction results. Substrates were initially ground, then a combination of superfinished, Dymon-iC™ DLC, an impact technique of ultra-fine shot blasting method doped with Tin and Molybdenum Disulfide, a calcium based chemical dip containing calcium sulfate and nano fullerene, were used. DLC is well reported to reduce friction. Some reports suggest wear in coated contacts is independent of the type of lubricant used, whilst others report that bio-lubricants offer reduced friction and wear in combination with DLC. Shot blasting can also reduce wear and friction, due to the surface dimples acting as lubricant reservoirs, making hydrodynamic lubrication more likely.
Journal Article

Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of the Mixing Process in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Using Scale-Resolving Simulations

2016-11-16
2016-01-9048
Since the mechanisms leading to cyclic combustion variabilities in direct injection gasoline engines are still poorly understood, advanced computational studies are necessary to be able to predict, analyze and optimize the complete engine process from aerodynamics to mixing, ignition, combustion and heat transfer. In this work the Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) turbulence model is used in combination with a parameterized lagrangian spray model for the purpose of predicting transient in-cylinder cold flow, injection and mixture formation in a gasoline engine. An existing CFD model based on FLUENT v15.0 [1] has been extended with a spray description using the FLUENT Discrete Phase Model (DPM). This article will first discuss the validation of the in-cylinder cold flow model using experimental data measured within an optically accessible engine by High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV).
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Stresses in an Automotive Chain Drive Component

2006-04-03
2006-01-0766
A photoelastic stress analysis technique has been used to determine the contact stresses in an automotive chain drive tensioner. The tensioner in normal operation is subject to high magnitude, short duration impact stresses. These stresses are known to cause surface damage, wear, and surface pitting. In order to adequately design the drive system layout, a means for stress quantification is needed. A replica tensioner was made from epoxy resin and tested in a variety of configurations. A simple model has been created to relate the chain link load to the resulting tensioner sub-surface stress field. This model has been used to correlate the observed and predicted location of isochromatic fringes, and hence to evaluate the chain link load from the photoelastic fringe pattern. A series of static load tests were performed to calibrate the apparatus. The tensioner specimen was then assembled in a chain drive test facility.
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