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Technical Paper

Pulsating Blankholder Force

In sheet metal stamping some industrial applications have shown that it is possible to achieve larger drawn depth by using a pulsating blankholder force. In deep drawing, areas with and without tangential stresses have to be distinguished. Areas without tangential stresses can be described by the strip drawing test. Areas with tangential stresses are described by using a deep drawing die for the production of cups which are axisymmetric. With the strip drawing test it could be shown that it is possible to reduce the increase of the friction force, caused by adhesion. Another effect is the reduction of the peak of the transition of static to dynamic friction. It was shown by experimental research, that the wrinkle height of parts, produced with pulsating blankholder force is in the range of the wrinkle height of parts produced with a constant blankholder force which is equal to the maximum force of the pulsation.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Inventories - New Experiences to Save Environmental Loads and Costs

The Institute for Polymer Testing and Polymer Science (IKP) is an independent institute of the University of Stuttgart. For approximately 8 years work is done on the field of Life Cycle Engineering. The first couple of years knowledge about the production of materials was collected within plenty industrial cooperation. Parallel to this a methodology for the Life Cycle Engineering approach and a software system (GaBi 1.0-2.0) were developed. Based on these information, projects for balancing single parts like bumpers, fender, air intake manifolds and oil filters followed by projects handling more complex parts or processes like several body in white, headlights, fuel tanks, green tire or coating processes were done to establish the methodology of Life Cycle Engineering as a tool for decision makers and weak point analysis. Parallel to this a methodology for an Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) for the system automobile was developed in cooperation with the Volkswagen AG in 1993.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Engineering a Powerful Tool for Product Improvement

The Institute for Polymer Testing and Polymer Science of the University of Stuttgart has been investigating automotive parts, structures and cars during their life cycle in plenty cooperation with the European automobile producers and their suppliers for the last 9 years. Therefore a holistic approach has been developed to combine tasks from technique, economic and environment in a methodology called Life Cycle Engineering (LCE). The goal is to find a way to support designer and engineers as well as police makers and public with this three-dimensional interrelated information to have the possibility to manufacture future products in a more sustainable way without loosing contact two the traditional parameters technique and costs.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Description of Sheet Metal Surfaces

During sheet metal forming processes, the friction conditions have a decisive influence on forming limits, the robustness of the production process and the quality of the parts produced, with significant forces required to overcome friction between the sheet and the tools. If lot-to-lot reproducibility is to be guaranteed, an appropriate method of characterizing the sheet surface topography is needed to monitor the sheet metal fabrication process. Newly developed optical measurement techniques and computer workstation technology are presented which enable the topography of sheet surfaces to be described in three dimensions.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Research and Draw Die Concepts for Deep Drawing of Tailored Blanks

According to the present state of knowledge, the use of “Tailored Blanks” with different sheet thicknesses and/or grades represents an interesting manufacturing alternative in the design and development of sheet metal parts in the automotive industry. In order to assess the forming behavior, fundamental research was conducted on laser and mash seam welded blanks. Based on this experimental findings, a segmented draw die was designed and built to determine the limits of the metal forming process by deep drawing of car body parts. The results with this draw die showed that a uniform blankholder pressure must be guaranteed during the forming process in the flange region of the part. This necessitated definite slots in the region of the weld line for the mash seam welded blanks. Furthermore, a die concept was presented to enable an equalization of both sheet thickness steps and sheet thickness fluctuations, without requiring replacement of the respective draw die components.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Binder Force System

When drawing non-axissymmetric sheet metal parts it is necessary to control the flow of material between the lower and upper binder in such a manner that prevents the occurrence of both tears and wrinkles in the drawn part. One possibility for the control of the material flow is through the deliberate adjustment of the normal forces. If one can measure the flow-in of the material into the die cavity as a function of punch stroke with a special sensor, and if this information can be used to produce an empirical flow-in curve over the stroke for good parts, then it is possible to construct a closed- loop BHF control system. Building such control system is feasible by implementation of special dies with hydraulically supported segmented binders. This system allows an automatic response to a change in the friction conditions.
Technical Paper

Combination of Hydraulic Multipoint Cushion System and Segment-Elastic Blankholders

The costs for development and production of draw dies for car outer panels are extremely high and should be reduced. Furthermore it is necessary to reduce the time for developing, designing and producing the dies for the production of parts. This paper discusses new press techniques, die designs and an adjustment program for press operators. The trend goes to single action presses with CNC-controlled multipoint cushion systems in the press table and to special designed dies. These systems lead to a more robust and reproducible forming process with improved product quality. This paper deals with: Cushion Systems, New Binder Designs for Draw Dies for Sheet Metal Automotive Parts, New Computer Program to Adjust the Blankholder Forces of Modern Hydraulic Cushion Systems of Single Action Presses and Pressure Measurement for Detecting the Pressure between the Blank and the Binders of Draw Dies for Sheet Metal Automotive Parts.
Technical Paper

Pulsating Blankholder Technology

In this paper the effects of pulsating blankholder forces in deep draw processes for sheet metal parts are discussed. Areas with and without tangential compressive stresses in the flanges, which are located between the binders, are discussed separately. Areas without tangential compressive stresses can be simulated by a special friction strip-draw test using a pulsating normal force ( representing the blankholder force ). Investigations using this equipment show that by pulsating blankholder forces it is possible to avoid galling and to reduce the friction force. Areas with tangential compressive stresses can be simulated by deep drawing axissymmetric cups using a pulsating blankholder force. Investigations with this equipment show that without increasing the danger of wrinkling the friction forces can be reduced by pulsating blankholder forces, when a certain frequency limit is reached.
Journal Article

Inverter Dead-Time Compensation up to the Field Weakening Region with Respect to Low Sampling Rates

This report presents a new compensation method for distortions related to dead time, caused by B6-inverters with pulse-width-modulated output voltages. In spite of low sampling rates, the new method of compensation is effective at all ranges of rotation speed up to the field weakening region. No additional hardware is required for its implementation. The effectiveness of the new method has been shown experimentally. A description of the relevant distortions is given first to provide a basis for the development. This considers the field weakening region, and offers an illustrative method of quantifying the distortions. It is also shown that the use of compensation methods that do not take the sampling time into account leads to additional distortions. It is even possible that they exceed the distortions in an equivalent system without compensation.
Technical Paper

Valve Flow Coefficients under Engine Operation Conditions: Pressure Ratios, Pressure and Temperature Levels

Engine valve flow coefficients are not only used to characterize the performance of valve/port designs, but also for modelling gas exchange in 0D/1D engine simulation. Flow coefficients are usually estimated with small pressure ratios and at ambient air conditions. In contrast, the ranges for pressure ratio, pressure and temperature level during engine operation are much more extensive. In this work the influences of these three parameters on SI engine poppet valve flow coefficients are investigated using 3D CFD and measurements for validation. While former investigations already showed some pressure ratio dependencies by measurement, here the use of 3D CFD allows a more comprehensive analysis and a deeper understanding of the relevant effects. At first, typical ranges for the three mentioned parameters during engine operation are presented.
Technical Paper

Valve Flow Coefficients under Engine Operation Conditions: Piston Influence and Flow Pulsation

Engine valve flow coefficients are used to describe the flow throughput performance of engine valve/port designs, and to model gas exchange in 0D/1D engine simulation. Valve flow coefficients are normally estimated at a stationary flow test bench, separately for intake and exhaust side, in the absence of the piston. However, engine operation differs from this setup; i. a. the piston might interact with valve flow around scavenging top dead center, and instead of steady boundary conditions, valve flow is nearly always subjected to pressure pulsations, due to pressure wave reflections within the gas exchange ports. In this work the influences of piston position and pressure pulsation on valve flow coefficients are investigated for different SI engine geometries by means of 3D CFD and measurements at an enhanced flow test bench.
Technical Paper

Friction Reduction by Optimization of Local Oil Temperatures

The reduction of engine-out emissions and increase of the total efficiency is a fundamental approach to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles driven by combustion engines. Conventional passenger cars are operated mainly in lower partial loads most of their lifetime. Under these conditions, oil temperatures which are far below the maximum temperatures allowed, dominate inside the journal bearings. Therefore, the objective of this research project was to investigate possible potentials of friction reduction by optimization of the thermal management of the oil circuit of a combustion engine. Within the engine investigations, it was shown that especially the friction of the main and connecting rod bearings can be reduced with an increase of the oil supply temperature.