Fuel Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions Variability from a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine
Particulate matter emissions from gasoline direct injection engines are a concern due to the health effects associated with ultrafine particles. This experimental study investigated sources of particulate matter emissions variability observed in previous tests and also examined the effect of ethanol content in gasoline on particle number (PN) concentrations and particle mass (PM) emissions. FTIR measurements of gas phase hydrocarbon emissions provided evidence that changes in fuel composition were responsible for the variability. Exhaust emissions of toluene and ethanol correlated positively with emitted PN concentrations, while emissions of isobutylene correlated negatively. Exhaust emissions of toluene and isobutylene were interpreted as markers of gasoline aromatic content and gasoline volatility respectively.