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Technical Paper

Poly (butyl acrylate)-Modified Cellulose Fibres for Toughening WPC

2007-04-16
2007-01-0574
One of the key challenges of the wood polymer composites (WPC) is the inadequate toughness partly due to the incompatibility of the natural fibres and PP matrix. In this work, we performed the surface modification of the natural fibre by either in-situ grafting polymerization of butyl acrylate (PBA) or adsorbing matrix-compatible cationic PBA latex on the fibre surfaces. The results indicated that the mechanical properties of the polypropylene (PP) composites containing the modified fibres, unnotched Izod impact strength in particular, have been improved significantly. The influencing factors and the mechanism of toughening process have also been preliminarily investigated.
Technical Paper

Foaming Visualization of Thermoplastic Polyolefin (TPO) Blends with N2

2007-04-16
2007-01-0572
Polymers are often blended to create compounds with new or enhanced properties in order to compensate for an individual polymer's weakness or lack of inherent properties. In the field of polymer foaming, polymer blends are also used to generate fine-cell structures via heterogeneous nucleation. Recently, an interest in physical blowing agents, such CO2 and N2, has increased because of their low impact on the environment. It has thus become additionally important to pursue research on the foaming of polymer blends employing these particular physical blowing agents in an effort to keep up with the demand for environmentally friendly products. In this study, thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) blends were prepared with polypropylene (PP) and a metallocene-based polyolefin elastomer (POE) using twin-screw extruders and a batch mixer.
Technical Paper

Eutectic Segregation and Cracking in AZ91 Friction Stir Spot Welds

2007-04-16
2007-01-1700
Friction stir spot welding of Mg-alloy AZ91 is investigated. The temperature cycles within the stir zone and in the TMAZ region are examined using thermocouples, which are located within the tool itself and also by locating thermocouples in drilled holes at specific locations relative to the bottom of the tool shoulder and the periphery of the rotating pin. The measured temperatures in the stir zone range from 437°C to 460°C (0.98Ts, where Ts is the solidus temperature in degrees Kelvin) in AZ91 spot welds produced using plunge rates from 2.5 and 25 mm/s. The thermal cycle within the stir zone formed during AZ91 spot welding could not be measured by locating thermocouples within the workpiece in drilled holes adjacent to the periphery of the rotating pin.
Technical Paper

Microcellular Ceramic Foams: Manufacturing and Study of Acoustical Properties

2007-05-15
2007-01-2187
A novel processing method for fabricating high porosity microcellular ceramic foams for sound absorption applications has been developed. The strategy for fabricating the ceramic foams involves: (i) forming some shapes using a mixture of preceramic polymer and expandable microspheres by a conventional ceramic forming method, (ii) foaming the compact by heating, (iii) cross-linking the foamed body, and (iv) transforming the foamed body into ceramic foams by pyrolysis. By controlling the microsphere content and that of the base elastomer, it was possible to adjust the porosity with a very high open-cell content (ranging between 43 - 95%), high microcellular cell densities (9 × 108 - 1.6 × 109 cells/cm3) and desired expansion ratios (3 - 6 folds). Sound absorption testing has been performed using ASTM C-384 standard test. The preliminary results show that ceramic foams are candidate sound absorption materials.
Technical Paper

Improving Flow Uniformity in a Diesel Particulate Filter System

2001-05-07
2001-01-1944
In this study, a simulation-based flow optimization of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) system is performed. The geometry and the swirl component of the inlet flow is optimized to improve flow uniformity upstream of the filter and to decrease overall pressure drop. The flow through the system is simulated with Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software from Fluent Inc. The wall-flow filter is modeled with an equivalent porous material. This study only investigates the clean flow. The DPF system is composed of three parts: the inlet diffuser, the filter and the outlet nozzle. In the original system a linear cone joins the inlet and outlet pipes to the cylindrical filter. Due to the large opening angle of this cone, flow separates and creates a recirculation zone between the inlet and the filter. The flow pattern reveals that a large area of the filter is not used: More than 88% of the air flow passes through less that 53% of the area.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measurement of Flow Quality in CCOT Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0508
Systematic design of mobile air-conditioning system components in R134a systems has been hampered by inaccurate knowledge of the flow quality, especially the amount of liquid returned to the compressor. The thermodynamic quality is typically used, but it is somewhat unreliable due to the large percentage of miscible compressor oil circulating with the refrigerant. A technique for measuring the flow quality in the refrigeration loop based on phase segregation and recombination has been developed and verified. The refrigerant quality has been deduced with the aid of standard sampling methods for measuring the percentage of oil in circulation. Hence, the relative contributions of all three components of the flow have been measured. The method is suitable for relative evaluation of component performance on a test stand. The method has been applied to measuring evaporator discharge quality at standard conditions and to quantifying accumulator liquid carryover.
Technical Paper

Wood Microfibres - Effective Reinforcing Agents for Composites

2006-04-03
2006-01-0106
This work is based on a process to develop novel cellulose microfibre reinforced composite materials, and to understand fundamental mechanical properties of these composites. Cellulose microfibres having diameters <1 μm were generated from bleached kraft pulp by a combination of high shear refining and subsequent cryocrushing under liquid nitrogen, followed by filtration through a 60 mesh screen. Through film casting in polyvinyl alcohol, theoretical stiffness of the microfibres was calculated as 69 GPa. Subsequently, these microfibres were successfully dispersed in the bioplastics thermoplastic starch and polylactic acid (PLA), using conventional processing equipments. The high aspect ratio of these microfibres coupled with their high tensile properties imparted superior mechanical strength and stiffness to the composites. These indicated that by suitably choosing the polymer, excellent reinforcement can be achieved for high end applications like automotive parts.
Technical Paper

The Influence of the Bauschinger Effect on Springback Prediction for Dual Phase Steel

2006-04-03
2006-01-0145
Springback is one of the main concerns in sheet metal forming with the increased use of advanced high strength steels, among which dual phase steels are gaining popularity. Although finite element analysis (FEA) has been successfully used in simulating complicated forming processes, it is difficult to accurately predict springback due to certain complex material behaviors such as the non-linear recovery behavior. In this study, the tension-unloading-reloading (TUR) test and XRD analysis have been employed to investigate non-linear recovery through Bauschinger Effect (BE) measurement at different pre-strain levels. The results demonstrated that dual phase steels exhibited the strong BE. The FEA simulation of springback prediction in the deep-draw bending test showed that the simulation accuracy was significantly improved by incorporating the Bauschinger effect.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fungal Modification on Fiber-Matrix Adhesion in Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

2006-04-03
2006-01-0006
Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites are beginning to find their way into the commercial automotive market. But, inadequate adhesion between hydrophilic natural fibers and hydrophobic matrix materials affects the performance of the resulting composites. In this study the effect of an environmental friendly fungal treatment on the adhesion characteristics of natural fibers is investigated. Firstly, changes in acid-base characteristics of the modified hemp fibers were studied using Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC). Afterwards, composites were prepared using Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process and the effect of modification on performance and durability of the composites was investigated.
Technical Paper

Performance of Injection Molded Natural Fiber - Hybrid Thermoplastic Composites for Automotive Structural Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0004
Use of natural fiber and / or hybrid thermoplastic composites in the automotive industry can provide the advantages of weight reduction, cost reduction and recyclability, in addition to eco-efficiency and renewability compared to synthetic conventional materials. Besides the mechanical performance of the composites, thermal properties, durability, and recyclability of the natural fiber or hybrid composites are also to be investigated to demonstrate their potential candidacy as structural members in automotive applications. The main objective of this research work was to evaluate thermal properties, creep properties, and recyclability of the natural fiber and natural fiber hybrid composites in comparison with 30-40wt% long glass fiber filled thermoplastic composites. Composites were prepared by melt blending the thermoplastic, fiber and compatibilizer followed by granulation and injection molding of the compound into test specimens.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fiber Surface Treatment on the Performance of Hemp Fiber/Acrylic Composites for Automotive Structural Parts

2006-04-03
2006-01-0005
The use of natural fibers for polymer composite materials has increased tremendously in the last few years. This type of reinforcements offers many advantages such as low density, low cost, high specific strength and low environmental impacts. The performance of the natural fiber composites are affected by the fiber loading, the individual mechanical properties of each component (fiber and matrix), and the fiber and matrix adhesion. Concerning the interfacial interaction, natural fibers present a major drawback because of poor compatibility of fibers with most hydrophobic thermoplastic and thermoset matrix. Hemp fiber/acrylic composites were manufactured with sheet molding technique recently. Although mechanical tests give promising results, they exhibit low tensile strength resulting from a poor fiber/matrix adhesion. The moisture resistance property of the sheet molded composites also needs further improvement.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Surface Modification on the Mechanical Properties of Hemp Fiber/Polyester Composites

2004-03-08
2004-01-0728
In this work hemp fibers were chemically treated in order to improve the fiber/matrix interaction in hemp fiber/unsaturated polyester composites prepared by a Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process. Chemicals used for paper sizing (AKD, ASA, Rosin Acid and SMA) as well as a silane compound and sodium hydroxide were used to modify the fibers' surface. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of the resulting materials were measured. A slight improvement in mechanical properties was observed for the SMA, silane and alkali treated specimens. However close analysis of these tests and of the fracture surface of the samples showed that there was no amelioration of the fiber/matrix adhesion. It was found that predicted tensile strengths using the rule of mixture were very close to the experimental values obtained in this work. Finally the properties of an hybrid glass fiber/hemp fiber composite were found to be very promising
Technical Paper

Model Identification and Analysis of a High Performance Hydrostatic Actuation System

2000-09-11
2000-01-2619
A hydrostatic actuation system referred to as the Electro Hydraulic Actuator (EHA) has been designed and prototyped. In this paper, a mathematical model of the EHA is reviewed and analyzed. This theoretical analysis is supported by open-loop experimental results that indicate the presence of nonlinearities but at a degree that is considerably less than that of conventional hydraulic systems with servo-valves. The behavior of the system can be approximated as piece-wise linear with the damping ratio and natural frequency changing according to a piece-wise operating region. The EHA model is used in conjunction with experimentation and numerical optimization for quantifying the influence of unknown parameters in this system. A parametric model for the EHA is subsequently proposed and validated.
Technical Paper

Injection Molded Hybrid Natural Fibre - Thermoplastic Composites for Automotive Interior Parts

2004-03-08
2004-01-0014
Eco-efficient and cost effective natural fibre - thermoplastic composites have gained attention to a great extent in the automotive industry. Most of the OEM specifications for automotive interior parts, for example, instrument panels, recommend the composite should have a minimum flexural modulus of 1900 MPa, a notched Impact strength greater than 150 J/m at room temperature and a melt flow index of 5 g/10min and above [1, 2 and 3]. The objective of this work was to develop a high performance hybrid composite by injection molding process of the composites made from natural fibre in combination with glass fibre or calcium carbonate in a thermoplastic matrix to meet the specifications required for automotive interior parts applications. Mechanical properties, such as tensile and flexural strengths and moduli of the composites prepared, were found to be highly promising.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Quantitative Laser-Induced Incandescence and SMPS Measurements of EGR Effects on Particulate Emissions from a TDI Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2715
A comparison of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements of diesel particulate matter (PM) was performed. The results reveal the significance of the aggregate nature of diesel PM on interpretation of size and volume fraction measurements obtained with an SMPS, and the accuracy of primary particle size measurements by LII. Volume fraction calculations based on the mobility diameter measured by the SMPS substantially over-predict the space-filling volume fraction of the PM. Correction algorithms for the SMPS measurements, to account for the fractal nature of the aggregate morphology, result in a substantial reduction in the reported volume. The behavior of the particulate volume fraction, mean and standard deviation of the mobility diameter, and primary particle size are studied as a function of the EGR for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads for a turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Swelling for PP/Gas Mixtures

2005-04-11
2005-01-1672
Foaming of thermoplastic polyolefins (TPO) and thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) is gaining interest because of the lightweight and high performance to weight ratio of foamed automotive parts. Since foaming will occur mainly in the PP matrix in these PP-based automotive materials, understanding of the thermophysical properties of PP/gas mixtures is critically important. This paper will present a proposed methodology for measuring the swelling of polymer/gas mixtures. The preliminary experimental measurement of PP/N2 swelling at elevated temperatures and pressures will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Gas Solubility for PP/Blowing-Agent Mixtures

2005-04-11
2005-01-1671
Determination of the solubility of a blowing agent, i.e. supercritical CO2 or N2, in polypropylene (PP) is crucial for achieving high-quality PP and thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) foams. A magnetic suspension balance (MSB) was employed in the experiments to measure the apparent solubility, while the swollen volume predicted by the Sanchez-Lacombe (SL) equation of state (EOS) and Simha-Somcynsky (SS) EOS was used to account for the buoyancy effect. The gas solubilities for both linear and branched PP were calculated and the effects of branching on the swollen volume and gas solubility were discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Nano-clay on Extrusion Microcellular Foaming of Nylon

2005-04-11
2005-01-1670
This paper demonstrates the effects of nano-clay on the microcellular foam processing of nylon. First, Nylon 6 nanocomposites with 1 wt% clay were prepared by a twin screw extruder. The nanocomposite structures were characterized by XRD and TEM. Nylon and its nanocomposites were foamed in extrusion using CO2. The cell morphologies of nylon and its nanocomposite foams were investigated. It appeared that the nano-clay not only enhanced cell nucleation, but also suppressed cell deterioration in the microcellular foaming of nylon.
Technical Paper

Effect of CO2 Content on Foaming Behavior of Recyclable High-Melt-Strength PP

2006-04-03
2006-01-0336
This paper presents an experimental study on the foaming behavior of recyclable high-melt-strength (HMS) branched polypropylene (PP) with CO2 as a blowing agent. The foamability of branched HMS PP has been evaluated using a tandem foaming extruder system. The effects of CO2 and nucleating agent contents on the final foam morphology have been thoroughly investigated. The low density (i.e., 12~14 fold), fine-celled (i.e., 107–109 cells/cm3) PP foams were successfully produced using a small amount of talc (i.e., 0.8 wt%) and 5 wt% CO2.
Technical Paper

Measurement of N2 Solubility in Polypropylene and Ethene/Octene Copolymer

2006-04-03
2006-01-0504
Determination of the solubility of a blowing agent, i.e. supercritical N2, in polypropylene (PP) and elastomer material is crucial for achieving high-quality thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) foams in automotive industry. A magnetic suspension balance (MSB) was employed in the experiments to measure the apparent solubility, while the swollen volume predicted by the Sanchez-Lacombe (SL) equation of state (EOS) was used to account for the buoyancy effect. The volume swelling of the polymer/gas mixture and the gas solubilities for both PP and polyolefin elastomer were discussed.
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