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Technical Paper

Operating Parameter Effects on the Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Natural Gas Fueled Engine

The effects of engine operating parameters on the speciated engine-out hydrocarbon emissions from a natural gas fueled spark ignition 16 valve four-cylinder engine were examined. Total hydrocarbon emissions were dominated by methane, the main component of natural gas. The non-methane hydrocarbons consisted primarily of ethane, ethene, and acetylene. Except for changes in the fuel-air equivalence ratio rich of the stoichiometric condition, emissions of unsaturated species were found to be less sensitive to engine operating parameters than were the fuel components. A single species, ethene, dominated the engine-out hydrocarbon reactivity, accounting for over 80% of the NMHC reactivity.
Technical Paper

Examination of Charge Dilution with EGR to Reduce NOx Emissions from a Natural Gas-Fuelled 16 Valve DOHC Four-Cylinder Engine

Charge dilution is commonly used to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from internal combustion engine exhaust gas. The question of whether to use air or exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a charge diluent for the natural gas-fuelled test engine is addressed first. The decision to use EGR is based on the potentially lower NOx and unburned hydrocarbon emissions that could be achieved if a three-way catalyst were applied to the engine. The effect of EGR on the spark advance for maximum brake torque (MBT), NOx, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions is then examined in detail. The effect on fuel efficiency is discussed briefly.
Technical Paper

Effect of Increasing Compression Ratio in a Light-Duty Natural Gas-Fueled Engine on Efficiency and Emissions

As a result of CAFE (corporate average fuel economy) requirements, the trend in passenger car engine design is to smaller displacement engines of higher specific output which provide reductions in vehicle driving cycle fuel consumption without an accompanying decrease in maximum power output. Design features such as four valves per cylinder and compact combustion chambers give these engines significantly different combustion characteristics than traditional pushrod OHV (overhead valve) engines. In general, their combustion chambers are fast burning, enabling the use of higher compression ratios without knock on unleaded gasoline. Since fuel consumption decreases with increasing compression ratio, and since natural gas has a substantially higher octane rating than the best unleaded gasoline, it would appear to be desirable to operate with even higher compression ratios in a dedicated natural gas engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Closed Loop Fuel Control System Characteristics on Emissions from a Natural Gas-Fueled Engine

Some current aftermarket natural gas closed loop carburetion systems use an integral control strategy to maintain a fuel-air equivalence ratio centered in the peak conversion window of a three-way catalytic converter. Fuel control system performance under steady-state engine operating conditions can be characterized by the time-averaged value of the fuel-air equivalence ratio, the rich and lean excursion limits, and a skewness parameter that represents the non-symmetry of the time varying fuel-air equivalence ratio about the control value (ϕaverage). Using a representative aftermarket feedback control system, the effect of these parameters on the exhaust emissions of a natural-gas fueled four-cylinder engine has been investigated. In addition, the effect of EGO sensor characteristics on control system performance has been examined.
Technical Paper

Spark Spectroscopy for Spark Ignition Engine Diagnostics

The light emissions from a spark discharge were observed by inserting a fibre optic cable through the centre electrode of a spark plug, to investigate the possibility of determining the fuel-air ratio in the spark gap at ignition with spectroscopy. The total broadband light emission from the spark and the light emission centred at 385 nm from the cyanogen radical (chemical formula CN), were observed for varied ϕ and residual gas concentrations. Additionally, the spark breakdown voltage, Vs, was monitored for the experiments. All light emissions were observed to be dependent on Vs, which is influenced by mixture composition, temperature and pressure. With a spark gap size of 0.7 mm, the CN emission shows promise for evaluation of the cyclical variation of ϕ for 0.9 < ϕ <1.1.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement of Temperature and Soot Concentration Using the Two-Color Method

Optical fiber probes were used to measure the soot temperature and estimate the soot concentration inside the cylinder of a DI diesel engine. The probes were mounted at various locations on the head of the test engine, and the measurements were performed under different load levels. Using the two-color method, the variations in temperature and soot mass concentration during the combustion process were examined with temporal and spatial resolution. It was observed that soot formation is rapid and is associated with heterogeneity in the early stage of combustion. Moreover, the soot formation mechanism seems to be independent of the engine load. In contrast, soot oxidation is relatively slow. Data obtained at several different load levels are presented, and the effects of various error sources on the accuracy of the measurement technique are also investigated.
Technical Paper

Impact of Powertrain Type on Potential Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from a Real World Lightweight Glider

This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
Technical Paper

Injection Molded Hybrid Natural Fibre - Thermoplastic Composites for Automotive Interior Parts

Eco-efficient and cost effective natural fibre - thermoplastic composites have gained attention to a great extent in the automotive industry. Most of the OEM specifications for automotive interior parts, for example, instrument panels, recommend the composite should have a minimum flexural modulus of 1900 MPa, a notched Impact strength greater than 150 J/m at room temperature and a melt flow index of 5 g/10min and above [1, 2 and 3]. The objective of this work was to develop a high performance hybrid composite by injection molding process of the composites made from natural fibre in combination with glass fibre or calcium carbonate in a thermoplastic matrix to meet the specifications required for automotive interior parts applications. Mechanical properties, such as tensile and flexural strengths and moduli of the composites prepared, were found to be highly promising.
Technical Paper

Effect of CO2 Content on Foaming Behavior of Recyclable High-Melt-Strength PP

This paper presents an experimental study on the foaming behavior of recyclable high-melt-strength (HMS) branched polypropylene (PP) with CO2 as a blowing agent. The foamability of branched HMS PP has been evaluated using a tandem foaming extruder system. The effects of CO2 and nucleating agent contents on the final foam morphology have been thoroughly investigated. The low density (i.e., 12~14 fold), fine-celled (i.e., 107–109 cells/cm3) PP foams were successfully produced using a small amount of talc (i.e., 0.8 wt%) and 5 wt% CO2.
Technical Paper

Bluff-Body Stabilized Glow Plug Ignition of a Methanol-Fueled IDI Diesel Engine

Methanol, in common with other alternative fuels including natural gas and LPG, has autoignition characteristics which are poorly suited for use in compression ignition engines. Some sort of ignition assist has proven to be necessary. Considerable work has been carried out with hot surface (glow plug) ignition. The geometric relationship between the fuel injection nozzle and the glow plug is critical to achieving high efficiency and low emissions. Moreover, it is difficult to establish a single geometry which provides reliable ignition and stable operation over the entire range of engine speeds and loads. The work described in this paper investigated extending the range of operation of a particular glow plug/fuel injection nozzle geometry by placing the glow plug in the wake of a bluff body. Bluff-body flame stabilization is a well-known technique in continuous combustors. Experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder CFR cetane rating engine fueled with methanol.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of a Natural Gas-Fueled 16 Valve DOHC Four-Cylinder Engine

The increasing use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel has generated considerable research activity to characterize the performance and emissions of engines utilizing this fuel. However, virtually all of the results reported have been for pushrod OHV spark ignition engines or SI conversions of heavy-duty diesel engines. Because of the pressure to improve fuel economy imposed by CAFE requirements, passenger cars are increasingly tending toward high specific output, small displacement engines. These engines employ such features as four valves per cylinder and centrally located spark plugs which give them a different dependence on operating variables than traditional pushrod OHV engines. In this study, experiments were carried out with a two-liter four-cylinder Nissan SR20DE engine representative of modern design practice. The engine was operated on gasoline and natural gas at six different loads and three different speeds. Some tests were also done with isooctane.
Technical Paper

Improving Flow Uniformity in a Diesel Particulate Filter System

In this study, a simulation-based flow optimization of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) system is performed. The geometry and the swirl component of the inlet flow is optimized to improve flow uniformity upstream of the filter and to decrease overall pressure drop. The flow through the system is simulated with Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software from Fluent Inc. The wall-flow filter is modeled with an equivalent porous material. This study only investigates the clean flow. The DPF system is composed of three parts: the inlet diffuser, the filter and the outlet nozzle. In the original system a linear cone joins the inlet and outlet pipes to the cylindrical filter. Due to the large opening angle of this cone, flow separates and creates a recirculation zone between the inlet and the filter. The flow pattern reveals that a large area of the filter is not used: More than 88% of the air flow passes through less that 53% of the area.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Quantitative Laser-Induced Incandescence and SMPS Measurements of EGR Effects on Particulate Emissions from a TDI Diesel Engine

A comparison of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements of diesel particulate matter (PM) was performed. The results reveal the significance of the aggregate nature of diesel PM on interpretation of size and volume fraction measurements obtained with an SMPS, and the accuracy of primary particle size measurements by LII. Volume fraction calculations based on the mobility diameter measured by the SMPS substantially over-predict the space-filling volume fraction of the PM. Correction algorithms for the SMPS measurements, to account for the fractal nature of the aggregate morphology, result in a substantial reduction in the reported volume. The behavior of the particulate volume fraction, mean and standard deviation of the mobility diameter, and primary particle size are studied as a function of the EGR for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads for a turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Nano-clay on Extrusion Microcellular Foaming of Nylon

This paper demonstrates the effects of nano-clay on the microcellular foam processing of nylon. First, Nylon 6 nanocomposites with 1 wt% clay were prepared by a twin screw extruder. The nanocomposite structures were characterized by XRD and TEM. Nylon and its nanocomposites were foamed in extrusion using CO2. The cell morphologies of nylon and its nanocomposite foams were investigated. It appeared that the nano-clay not only enhanced cell nucleation, but also suppressed cell deterioration in the microcellular foaming of nylon.
Technical Paper

Application of Nonlinear Transformations to A/F Ratio and Speed Control in an IC Engine

This paper presents the first application of the global feedback linearization method to an internal combustion (IC) engine. Through the application of this nonlinear control technique, the nonlinear coupled dynamics of the IC engine are globally linearized and decoupled. This represents a significant advance over previously published control approaches which rely on locally linearized dynamic models. With the IC engine dynamics globally linearized and decoupled, outer-loop controllers can be readily designed using simple linear tracking controller design methods, leading to very good dynamic response of three key IC engine outputs, air/fuel ratio, engine speed and manifold air pressure. In this paper, a standard IC engine model from the literature is first transformed to a controllable canonical form, required for the application of the global feedback linearization methods.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different Natural Gas Fueling Strategies During Throttle Transients

Throttle tip-in and tip-out tests on a 2.0 litre passenger car engine were performed using four different natural gas fuelling systems an air-valve or variable restriction type mixer, a venturi type mixer, central fuel injection, and port fuel injection. The in-cylinder fuel-air equivalence ratio, ϕ, was measured using a fast response flame ionization detector sampling about 7 mm from the spark plug gap. The data reveal characteristics of each fuel system's in-cylinder fuel-air ratio response and torque response.
Technical Paper

A Mechatronics Approach for the Design of a New High Performance ElectroHydraulic Actuator

This paper describes the design strategy adopted for developing a new high performance actuation system referred to as the ElectroHydraulic Actuator (EHA). The design approach can be divided into fives phases that include: pre-conceptual analysis, conceptual design, preliminary design, detailed design and, integration and test. An important aspect of the design process is the use of modeling and simulation for the analysis, sizing and selection of off-the-shelf parts, and for the detailed design of new custom made components. EHA is based on hydrostatic transmission. It is a unique device with its own characteristics and requires hydraulic components that are specifically tailored to its needs. A prototype of EHA has been produced and has demonstrated an extremely high level of performance. The performance of this prototype complies with design requirements and validates the chosen design approach.
Technical Paper

Engine Operating Parameter Effects on the Speciated Aldehyde and Ketone Emissions from a Natural Gas Fuelled Engine

Measurements were taken of the speciated aldehyde and ketone exhaust emissions from a modern four-cylinder engine fuelled with natural gas. The effect on these emissions of varying the engine operating parameters spark timing, exhaust gas recirculation rate, engine speed, and fuel/air equivalence ratio was examined. The influence of these operating parameters on the complete reactivity-weighted emissions with natural gas fuelling is predicted. With stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures, both the total hydrocarbons and formaldehyde emissions declined with increasing exhaust gas temperature and increasing in-cylinder residence time, suggesting that formaldehyde burn-up in the exhaust process largely controls its emissions levels. Closer examination of the aldehyde emissions shows they follow trends more like those of the non-fuel, intermediate hydrocarbon species ethane and acetylene, than like the trends of the fuel components methane and ethane.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission and Energy Consumption Effects from Hydrogen Supplementation of Natural Gas

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and emissions of an engine fuelled with a mixture of natural gas and approximately 15% hydrogen by volume. This mixture, called Hythane™, was compared with natural gas fuel using engine efficiency and engine-out emissions at various engine operating conditions as the basis of comparison. Throughout most of the experiment, fuel mixtures were slightly rich of stoichiometry. It was found that at low engine loads, using the same spark timing, engine efficiency increased under HythaneTM fuelling but at higher engine loads, natural gas and Hythane™ had the same efficiency. At low engine speed and load conditions with the same spark timing, engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions were lower for Hythane™ fuelling. When compared on a carbon specific basis, however, natural gas hydrocarbon emissions were lower. At some test conditions, engine-out carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were lower under Hythane™.
Technical Paper

Behaviour of a Closed Loop Controlled Air Valve Type Mixer on a Natural Gas Fuelled Engine Under Transient Operation

Many current aftermarket natural gas conversions of gasoline fuelled spark ignited engines use an air-valve type mixer with closed loop control of the gas pressure. This control is often provided by an electronic integral controller that uses the output from an exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor to control the duty cycle of a solenoid valve. By varying the duty cycle of this fuel control valve (FCV), the average pressure in the low pressure regulator (LPR) reference chamber and thus the gas pressure can be varied. The transient behaviour of these fuel systems is affected mainly by the mechanical response of the gas mixer and the LPR. The electronic controller can provide compensation only after the EGO sensor has detected an air-fuel ratio excursion. The main weaknesses of this type of fuel system seems to be associated with the finite response of the mixer and the LPR and by the use of an airflow dependent vacuum signal strength for control.