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Technical Paper

Error Analysis of Curvature-Based Contour Measurement Devices

Curvature-based contour measurement devices with discrete curvature measurement gauges are widely used for the measurement of dynamic thoracic contours in both dummy and cadaveric automobile sled testing. Such devices include the chestband used to determine local thoracic contours at several rib levels for evaluation of injury parameters in dummy and cadaveric subjects. The use of these devices involves integration of local curvatures to obtain position data, and often incorporates several approximations, including a quasi-continuous approximation of discrete measured curvatures. By comparing a reference and a calculated position profile, this study analyzes the error in local positions induced from several sources. The first source of error is the measurement of curvatures at discrete locations, typically with 2.5 - 5.0 cm curvature gauge spacing.
Technical Paper

Reducing the Risk of Driver Injury from Common Steering Control Devices in Frontal Collisions

Steering control devices are used by people who have difficulty gripping the steering wheel. These devices have projections that may extend up to 14 cm toward the occupant. Testing indicated that contact with certain larger steering control devices with tall rigid projections could severely injure a driver in a frontal collision. In order to reduce this injury risk, an alternative, less injurious design was developed and tested. This design, which included replacing unyielding aluminum projections with compliant plastic ones, produced significantly lower peak contact pressure and less damage to the chest of a cadaver test subject, while maintaining the strength necessary to be useful.
Technical Paper

Deployment of Air Bags into the Thorax of an Out-of-Position Dummy

The air bag has proven effective in reducing fatalities in frontal crashes with estimated decreases ranging from 11% to 30% depending on the size of the vehicle [IIHS-1995, Kahane-1996]. At the same time, some air bag designs have caused fatalities when front-seat passengers have been in close proximity to the deploying air bag [Kleinberger-1997]. The objective of this study was to develop an accurate and repeatable out-of-position test fixture to study the deployment of air bags into out-of-position occupants. Tests were performed with a 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummy and studied air bag loading on the thorax using draft ISO-2 out-of-position (OOP) occupant positioning. Two different interpretations of the ISO-2 positioning were used in this study. The first, termed Nominal ISO-2, placed the chin on the steering wheel with the spine parallel to the steering wheel.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Selection of Materials for Brake Linings

Friction materials used in the brake linings of automobiles, trucks, buses and other vehicles are required to satisfy a number of performance demands: they must provide a dependable, consistent level of friction, excellent resistance to wear, adequate heat dissipation, structural integrity, low cost and, if possible, light weight. No single material can meet all of these often conflicting performance criteria, and as a consequence, multiphase composites have been developed, consisting typically of a dozen or more different materials. The choice of materials is crucial in determining the performance attained, yet to date, braking material compositions have been developed largely on the basis of empirical observations.
Technical Paper

Displacement Measurements in the Hybrid III Chest

This paper presents an analysis of the displacement measurement of the Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy chest in quasistatic and dynamic loading environments. In this dummy, the sternal chest deformation is typically characterized using a sliding chest potentiometer, originally designed to measure inward deflection in the central axis of the dummy chest. Loading environments that include other modes of deformation, such as lateral translations or rotations, can create a displacement vector that is not aligned with this sensitive axis. To demonstrate this, the dummy chest was loaded quasistatically and dynamically in a series of tests. A string potentiometer array, with the capability to monitor additional deflection modes, was used to supplement the measurement of the chest slider.
Technical Paper

Load Distribution-Specific Viscoelastic Characterization of the Hybrid III Chest

This paper presents a load distribution-specific viscoelastic structural characterization of the Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test dummy thorax. The dummy is positioned supine on a high-speed material testing machine and ramp-and-hold tests are performed using a distributed load, a hub load, and a diagonal belt load applied to the anterior thorax of the dummy. The force-deflection response is shown to be linear viscoelastic for all loading conditions when the internal dummy instrumentation is used to measure chest deflection. When an externally measured displacement (i.e., a measurement that includes the superficial skin material) is used for the characterization, a quasilinear viscoelastic characterization is necessary. Linear and quasilinear viscoelastic model coefficients are presented for all three loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Measuring Tibial and Fibular Loads in a Cadaver

Crash test dummies rely on biomechanical data from cadaver studies to biofidelically reproduce loading and predict injury. Unfortunately, it is difficult to obtain equivalent measurements of leg loading in a dummy and a cadaver, particularly for bending moments. A methodology is presented here to implant load cells in the tibia and fibula while minimally altering the functional anatomy of the two bones. The location and orientation of the load cells can be measured in all six degrees of freedom from post-test radiographs. Equations are given to transform tibial and fibular load cell measurements from a cadaver or dummy to a common leg coordinate frame so that test data can be meaningfully compared.
Technical Paper

The Flow Field Inside an Automotive Torque Converter: Laser Velocimeter Measurements

The 3-D flow field inside an automotive torque converter was measured using laser velocimetry. For the tests, a torque converter completely machined from Plexiglas was operated at the 0.065 and 0.800 turbine/pump speed ratio, and detailed velocities were measured in 13 planes throughout the torque converter. Digital shaft encoder information was used to correlate measured velocities with the pump/turbine angular positions to generate blade-to-blade profiles, 3-D vector plots, and contour through flow plots. Results showed large flow separation regions, jet/wake flows, circulatory secondary flows, and significant flow unsteadiness in all three torque converter elements (pump, turbine, and stator). From the measured velocities, torque converter performance parameters such as mass flows, input/output torque, element incidence angles, slip factors, and vorticities were determined.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Padding and Shoes on the Dynamic Response of Dummy Lower Extremities

This work studies the effect of padding on the force levels in impulsively loaded dummy lower extremities. Tests include the effect of padding incorporated into the soles of shoes and an examination of the potential of shoe padding for mitigating impact loading on the lower extremities. Three different shoes and three paddings were studied using a pendulum impactor; two different padding levels were studied in an impact sled test with simulated translational structural intrusion. The tests indicate a greater than 20% variation in peak axial force imparted to the lower tibia between shoes, and a greater than 50% variation in peak axial force across the paddings tested. From sled tests with simulated structural intruaion, we see a decrease of approximately 15% in peak axial load and a decrease of over 20% in peak anterior/posterior moment.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response and Physical Properties of the Leg, Foot, and Ankle

The anatomical dimensions, inertial properties, and mechanical responses of cadaver leg, foot, and ankle specimens were evaluated relative to those of human volunteers and current anthropometric test devices. Dummy designs tested included the Hybrid III, Hybrid III with soft joint stops, ALEX I, and the GM/FTSS lower limbs. Static and dynamic tests of the leg, foot, and ankle were conducted at the laboratories of the Renault Biomedical Research Department and the University of Virginia. The inertial and geometric properties of the dummy lower limbs were measured and compared with cadaver properties and published volunteer values. Compression tests of the leg were performed using static and dynamic loading to determine compliance of the foot and ankle. Quasi-static rotational properties for dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion motion were obtained for the dummy, cadaver, and volunteer joints of the hindfoot.
Technical Paper

A Pneumatic Airbag Deployment System for Experimental Testing

This paper examines an originally designed airbag deployment system for use in static experimental testing. It consists of a pressure vessel and valve arrangement with pneumatic and electric controls. A piston functions like a valve when operated and is activated pneumatically to release the air in the tank. Once released, the air fills the attached airbag. The leading edge velocity can be controlled by the initial pressure in the tank, which can range up to 960 kPa. Three different test configurations were studied, which resulted in leading edge deployment speeds of approximately 20 m/s, 40 m/s, and 60 m/s. In experiments using this system, seven types of airbags were tested that differed in their material, coating, and presence of a tether. Data for each series of tests is provided. High speed video and film were used to record the deployments, and a pressure transducer measured the airbag's internal pressure.
Technical Paper

Effects of Humidity Fluctuations on Adsorption Columns Used for Air Purification in Closed Environments

Effects of a cabin-level humidity upset on an activated carbon column used for adsorption of trace compounds from air are examined through a series of experiments and computer simulations. Breakthrough curves measured for dichloromethane in the presence of water indicate that a rapid increase in relative humidity can displace large quantities of dichloromethane from the adsorbed phase resulting in effluent streams containing more than 20 times the feed concentration. Additionally, the breakthrough time for organic compounds is reduced significantly at high relative humidity. Numerical simulation results show favorable qualitative agreement with measured breakthrough curves, yet do not consistently predict accurate water or dichloromethane loadings at all experimental conditions.
Technical Paper

Open-Loop Chestbands for Dynamic Deformation Measurements

Originally designed for measuring closed-loop contours such as those around a human thorax, the External Peripheral Instrument for Deformation Measurement (EPIDM), or chestband, was developed to improve the measurement of dummy and cadaver thoracic response during impact. In the closed-loop configuration, the chestband wraps around on itself forming a closed contour. This study investigates the use of the chestband for dynamic deformation measurements in an open-loop configuration. In the open-loop configuration, the chestband does not generally form a closed contour. This work includes enhanced procedures and algorithms for the calculation of chestband deformation contours including the determination of static and dynamic chestband contours under several boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of 5th Percentile Female Hybrid III Thoracic Biofidelity during Out-of-Position Tests with a Driver Air Bag

This paper evaluates the biofidelity of the Hybrid III 5th percentile female dummy relative to seven small female cadavers tested as out-of-position drivers in static air bag deployment tests. In the out-of-position tests, the chest was positioned against the air bag module in an effort to recreate a worst-case loading environment for the thorax. Two pre-depowered production air bags and a prototype dual-stage air bag were evaluated. Thoracic accelerometers and chestbands were used to compare chest compression, velocity, acceleration, and Viscous Criteria. A statistical comparison of dummy and cadaver results indicate acceptable biofidelity of the Hybrid III dummy with significant differences observed only in the Viscous Criteria.
Technical Paper

Wear Mechanism in Cummins M-11 High Soot Diesel Test Engines

The Cummins M-11 high soot diesel engine test is a key tool in evaluating lubricants for the new PC-7 (CH-4) performance category. M-11 rocker arms and crossheads from tests with a wide range of lubricant performance were studied by surface analytical techniques. Abrasive wear by primary soot particles is supported by the predominant appearance of parallel grooves on the worn parts with their widths matching closely the primary soot particle sizes. Soot abrasive action appears to be responsible for removing the protective antiwear film and, thus, abrades against metal parts as well. Subsequent to the removal of the antiwear film, carbide particles, graphite nodules, and other wear debris are abraded, either by soot particles or sliding metal-metal contact, from the crosshead and rocker arm metal surfaces. These particles further accelerate abrasive wear. In addition to abrasive wear, fatigue wear was evident on the engine parts.
Technical Paper

Experimental Devices to Simulate Toepan and Floorpan Intrusion

Two sled systems capable of producing structural intrusion in the footwell region of an automobile have been developed. The first, System A, provides translational toepan intrusion using actuator pistons to drive the footwell structure of the test buck. These actuator pistons are coupled to the hydraulic decelerator of the test sled and are powered by hydraulic energy from the impact event. Resulting footwell intrusion is characterized using a toepan pulse analogous to the acceleration pulse used to characterize sled and vehicle decelerations. Sled tests with System A indicate that it is capable of accurately and repeatably simulating toepan/floorpan intrusion into the occupant footwell. Test results, including a comparison of lower extremity response between intrusion sled tests and no intrusion sled tests, indicate that this system is capable of repeatable, controlled structural intrusion during a sled test impact.
Technical Paper

Measurement Techniques for Angular Velocity and Acceleration in an impact Environment

The University of Virginia is investigating the use of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) angular rate sensor to measure head angular acceleration in impact testing. Output from the sensor, which measures angular velocity, must be differentiated to produce angular acceleration. As a precursor to their use in actual testing, a torsional pendulum was developed to analyze an MHD sensor's effectiveness in operating under impact conditions. Differentiated and digitally filtered sensor data provided a good match with the vibratory response of the pendulum for various magnitudes of angular acceleration. Subsequent head drop tests verified that MHD sensors are suitable for measuring head angular acceleration in impact testing.
Technical Paper

A Madymo Model of the Foot and Leg for Local Impacts

It has been reported that lower extremity injuries represent a measurable portion of all moderate-to-severe automobile crash- related injuries. Thus, a simple tool to assist with the design of leg and foot injury countermeasures is desirable. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model which can predict load propagation and kinematics of the foot and leg in frontal automotive impacts. A multi-body model developed at the University of Virginia and validated for blunt impact to the whole foot has been used as basis for the current work. This model includes representations of the tibia, fibula, talus, hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot bones. Additionally, the model provides a means for tensioning the Achilles tendon. In the current study, the simulations conducted correspond to tests performed by the Transport Research Laboratory and the University of Nottingham on knee-amputated cadaver specimens.
Technical Paper

The Interaction of Air Bags with Upper Extremities

Recently there has been a greater awareness of the increased risk of certain injuries associated with air bag deployment, especially the risks to small occupants, often women. These injuries include serious eye and upper extremity injuries and even fatalities. This study investigates the interaction of a deploying air bag with cadaveric upper extremities in a typical driving posture; testing concentrates on female occupants. The goals of this investigation are to determine the risk of upper extremity injury caused by primary contact with a deploying air bag and to elucidate the mechanisms of these upper extremity injuries. Five air bags were used that are representative of a wide range of air bag ‘aggressivities’ in the current automobile fleet. This air bag ‘aggressivity’ was quantified using the response of a dummy forearm under air bag deployment.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of an Occupant Lower Limb Finite Element Model

More than half of occupant lower extremity (LEX) injuries due to automotive frontal crashes are in the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex. To design the injury countermeasures for the occupant LEX, first the biomechanical and injury responses of the occupant LEX components during automotive frontal crashes should be known. The objective of this study is to develop a detailed biofidelic occupant LEX Finite Element (FE) model based on the component surfaces reconstructed from the medical image data of a 50th percentile male volunteer in a sitting posture. Both volumetric (unstructured) and structural mesh methods were used to generate the solid elements (mostly hexahedral type) to enhance the model simulation accuracy. The FE model includes the femur, tibia, fibula, patella, cartilage, ligaments, menisci, patella tendon, flesh, muscle, and skin. The constitutive material models and their corresponding parameters were defined based on literature data.