Wear Mechanism in Cummins M-11 High Soot Diesel Test Engines
The Cummins M-11 high soot diesel engine test is a key tool in evaluating lubricants for the new PC-7 (CH-4) performance category. M-11 rocker arms and crossheads from tests with a wide range of lubricant performance were studied by surface analytical techniques. Abrasive wear by primary soot particles is supported by the predominant appearance of parallel grooves on the worn parts with their widths matching closely the primary soot particle sizes. Soot abrasive action appears to be responsible for removing the protective antiwear film and, thus, abrades against metal parts as well. Subsequent to the removal of the antiwear film, carbide particles, graphite nodules, and other wear debris are abraded, either by soot particles or sliding metal-metal contact, from the crosshead and rocker arm metal surfaces. These particles further accelerate abrasive wear. In addition to abrasive wear, fatigue wear was evident on the engine parts.