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Technical Paper

Whole-Body Response to Pure Lateral Impact

The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband.
Journal Article

Thermal Modeling of Power Steering System Performance

Power steering systems provide significant design challenges. They are detrimental to fuel economy since most require the continuous operation of a hydraulic pump. This generates heat that must be dissipated by fluid lines and heat exchangers. This paper presents a simple one-dimensional transient model for power steering components. The model accounts for the pump power, heat dissipation from fluid lines, the power steering cooler, and the influence of radiation heat from exhaust system components. The paper also shows how to use a transient thermal model of the entire system to simulate the temperatures during cyclic operation of the system. The implications to design, drive cycle simulation, and selection of components are highlighted.
Journal Article

Computer Simulation of Automotive Air Conditioning - Components, System, and Vehicle: Part 2

In 1972, the first SAE paper describing the use of computer simulation as a design tool for automotive air conditioning was written by these authors. Since then, many such simulations have been used and new tools such as CFD have been applied to this problem. This paper reviews the work over that past 35 years and presents several of the improvements in the basic component and system models that have occurred. The areas where “empirical” information is required for model support and the value of CFD cabin and external air flow modeling are also discussed.