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Technical Paper

The Tolerance of the Femoral Shaft in Combined Axial Compression and Bending Loading

The likelihood of a front seat occupant sustaining a femoral shaft fracture in a frontal crash has traditionally been assessed by an injury criterion relying solely on the axial force in the femur. However, recently published analyses of real-world data indicate that femoral shaft fracture occurs at axial loads levels below those found experimentally. One hypothesis attempting to explain this discrepancy suggests that femoral shaft fracture tends to occur as a result of combined axial compression and applied bending. The current study aims to evaluate this hypothesis by investigating how these two loading components interact. Femoral shafts harvested from human cadavers were loaded to failure in axial compression, sagittal plane bending, and combined axial compression and sagittal plane bending.
Technical Paper

Robust Compressor Model for AC System Simulation

Simple component models are advantageous when simulating vehicle AC systems so that overall model complexity and computation time can be minimized. These models must be robust enough to avoid instability in the iteration method used for determining the AC system operating or “balance” point. Simplicity and stability are especially important when the AC system model is coupled with a vehicle interior model for studies of transient performance because these are more computationally intensive. This paper presents a semi-empirical modeling method for compressors based on dimensionless parameters. Application to some sample compressor data is illustrated. The model equations are simple to employ and will not introduce significant stability problems when used as part of a system simulation.
Journal Article

Thermal Modeling of Power Steering System Performance

Power steering systems provide significant design challenges. They are detrimental to fuel economy since most require the continuous operation of a hydraulic pump. This generates heat that must be dissipated by fluid lines and heat exchangers. This paper presents a simple one-dimensional transient model for power steering components. The model accounts for the pump power, heat dissipation from fluid lines, the power steering cooler, and the influence of radiation heat from exhaust system components. The paper also shows how to use a transient thermal model of the entire system to simulate the temperatures during cyclic operation of the system. The implications to design, drive cycle simulation, and selection of components are highlighted.