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Technical Paper

A Simulation-Based Calibration and Sensitivity Analysis of a Finite Element Model of THOR Head-Neck Complex

The THOR-NT dummy has been developed and continuously improved by NHTSA to provide automotive manufacturers an advanced tool that can be used to assess the injury risk of vehicle occupants in crash tests. With the recent improvements of finite element (FE) technology and the increase of computational power, a validated FE model of THOR may provide an efficient tool for the design optimization of vehicles and their restraint systems. The main goal of this study was to improve biofidelity of a head-neck FE model of THOR-NT dummy. A three-dimensional FE model of the head and neck was developed in LS-Dyna based on the drawings of the THOR dummy. The material properties of deformable parts and the joints properties between rigid parts were assigned initially based on data found in the literature, and then calibrated using optimization techniques.
Technical Paper

Brake Dynamometer Test Variability - Analysis of Root Causes

Modern project management including brake testing includes the exchange of reliable results from different sources and different locations. The ISO TC22/SWG2-Brake Lining Committee established a task force led by Ford Motor Co. to determine and analyze root causes for variability during dynamometer brake performance testing. The overall goal was to provide guidelines on how to reduce variability and how to improve correlation between dynamometer and vehicle test results. This collaborative accuracy study used the ISO 26867 Friction behavior assessment for automotive brake systems. Future efforts of the ISO task force will address NVH and vehicle-level tests. This paper corresponds to the first two phases of the project regarding performance brake dynamometer testing and presents results, findings and conclusions regarding repeatability (within-lab) and reproducibility (between-labs) from different laboratories and different brake dynamometers.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analysis of Hard and Soft Tissue Contributions to Thoracic Response: Sensitivity Analysis of Fluctuations in Boundary Conditions

Thoracic trauma is the principle causative factor in 30% of road traffic deaths. Researchers have developed force-deflection corridors of the thorax for various loading conditions in order to elucidate injury mechanisms and to validate the mechanical response of ATDs and numerical human models. A corridor, rather than a single response characteristic, results from the variability inherent in biological experimentation. This response variability is caused by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The intrinsic factors are associated with individual differences among human subjects, e.g., the differences in material properties and in body geometry. The extrinsic sources of variability include fluctuations in the loading and supporting conditions in experimental tests.
Technical Paper

Method for Extracting Full Spectrum of Friction Materials Performance (Fingerprinting) using the SAE J2681

This paper reports the progress that has been made to date on a research program that has as its focus extracting the full spectrum of friction material performance. In contrast to existing friction test specifications, the new program considers the rise of coefficient of friction at each application by using a statistical evaluation. The statistical evaluation allows also a batch to batch control by monitoring statistical values.
Journal Article

A Tool for Ensuring Consistent Occurrence Ranking in FMEAs

In the automotive industry, FMEA occurrence ranking is made to a standard such as SAE J1739. The SAE J1739 standard, as does other comparative standards, provides numerical probability criteria to aid ranking. Problems arise when the part or system under analysis is new, and there is no field data to estimate the probability of failure occurrence. Attempts to use qualitative verbal criteria or to go by the “feel” often result in inconsistency or large variability across and within FMEA projects. This paper presents a case study in which this problem was solved by the development of a tool that enables consistent - and efficient - FMEA occurrence rankings. The tool takes input from the user in the form of multiple-choice answers and calculates the final solution.
Technical Paper

System Reliability Allocation based on FMEA Criticality

A new system reliability allocation methodology was applied on a steering product. The methodology makes use of design failure modes and effects analysis (DFMEA) and allows the allocation percentages to reflect differences in the criticality levels of the subsystems or components. The methodology was applied in conjunction with system reliability target setting. The paper first explores existing reliability allocation methods. It then introduces the new methodology. Finally, a real-life case is presented to show how the methodology was adopted and how and why it was modified. The approach presented here is one more way to make full use of the analytical efforts that have gone into the DFMEA.