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Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

2001-03-05
2001-01-1201
In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

Flow Noise Reduction upon Quick Opening the Throttle

2001-04-30
2001-01-1429
With the advance in modularization of engine parts in recent years, there is increased use of plastic-made products in air intake systems. Plastic-made intake manifolds (Fig. 1) provide many advantages including reduced weight, reduced cost, and lower intake air temperatures. However, these manifolds have one disadvantage when compared with conventional aluminum-made intake manifolds, in that they transmit more noise because of their lower material density. For example, plastic intake manifolds of early development often generate flow noise when the throttle is opened quickly. With conventional aluminum intake manifolds, this flow noise had generated, but was not heard. This flow noise is presumed to be generated because of high-speed airflow generated when the throttle is opened quickly, but the mechanism of this noise generation has not been clarified.
Technical Paper

Constitutive Modeling of Polymers Subjected to High Strain Rates

2001-03-05
2001-01-0472
A biaxial test procedure is used to assess the constitutive properties of polymers in tension. The constitutive constants are derived for high strain rate applications such as those associated with crashworthiness studies. The test procedure is used in conjunction with a time- and strain-dependent quasi-linear viscoelastic constitutive law consisting of a Mooney-Rivlin formulation combined with Maxwell elements. The procedure is demonstrated by describing the stress vs. strain relationship of a rubber specimen subjected to a step-relaxation input. The constitutive equation is transformed from a nonlinear convolution integral to a set of first order differential equations. These equations, with the appropriate boundary conditions, are solved numerically to obtain transient stresses in two principal directions. Material constants for use in the explicit LS-Dyna non-linear finite element code are provided.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Numerical Analysis of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts - On the Two Effects of Rich-Spike Duration

2001-03-05
2001-01-1297
Two effects of rich-spike duration on NOx-storing have been analyzed. The first one, that NOx-storing speed decreases as rich-spike duration increases, is explained as the influence of NOx diffusion in wash-coat layer, which is quantified by a simple mathematical expression for NOx-storing rate. The second one, a peculiar behavior of NOx-storing in appearance of the outlet NOx concentration, is clarified: Heat produced directly or indirectly (via oxygen storage in ceria) by rich-spike warms up the downstream part, which releases excess NOx at the raised temperature. Contributions of the oxygen storage and the carbonate of NOx-storage material are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Rain Sensor for Automatic Wiper System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0612
One of the key elements of vehicle safety requires a constantly uninterrupted visible view especially during unexpected weather conditions. Our present development of a light reflection type rain sensor is a key device of our automatic windshield wiper system. The design concept of the sensor is based on the quantification on both detected rainfalls and wiping modes in order to match the wiping mode in an operator's mind by optimizing the optical sensing system and establishing an algorithm for controlling wiping. In addition, auto-initialization of the system has been achieved first in the world.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Black-face Cluster with Transparent Electroluminescent (EL) Display

2001-03-05
2001-01-0839
We have developed a New Black-face Cluster with Transparent EL Display, positioned on the speedometer, to display driver support information within the cluster; mass production of this DUAL VISION CLUSTER commenced in September 1999. The following were two requirements for implementing this cluster. 1) Selection of display device 2) Positioning of cluster in front of speedometer, using Transparent EL Display In this session, we will explain how we resolved the issues involved in development of this new Black-face Cluster. We will also describe the structure of the cluster.
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota's New “Super CVT”

2001-03-05
2001-01-0872
Toyota has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) named “Super CVT”. The Super CVT has a wide ratio coverage and adopts a newly developed integrated control system with a direct injection gasoline engine (D-4) equipped with electronically controlled throttle. The combined package has achieved good fuel economy and a high overall level of performance. This paper shows the major features and performance of the Super CVT.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Mixture Formation and Combustion Processes in a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine with Fan-Shaped Spray

2001-03-05
2001-01-0738
Numerical 3-D simulations are performed for the improvement of the new direct injection gasoline engine. A solution based local grid refinement method has been developed in order to reduce the CPU time. This method has been incorporated into the CFD program (STAR-CD) with in-house spray and combustion models. Calculation results were compared with the experimental data taken by the LIF technique, and good agreement was obtained for the mixture formation and combustion processes. Some calculations were carried out for the fuel-air mixture formation process during late injection stratified combustion and the following results were obtained. The unburnt fuel has a tendency to remain in the side of the piston cavity at the latter part of the combustion period. To reduce the amount of unburnt fuel, it was shown that the combination of a thin thickness fan spray and compact cavity forms a spherical mixture, suitable for combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of Stratified Charge Combustion Characteristics in New Concept Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0734
A new stratified charge system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle and a shell-shaped piston cavity. This system, basically classified into the wall-guided mixture preparation concept that leads air/fuel mixture to the spark plug periphery by means of spray penetration and piston cavity configuration without an extra intake air flow controlling system, obtained wide engine operating area with stratified combustion and high output performance. This report presents the characteristics of stratified mixture formation and combustion, especially the important factor for achieving stable stratified combustion in the high-speed region, which have been clarified through analytical studies.
Technical Paper

Displacement Measurements in the Hybrid III Chest

2001-03-05
2001-01-0118
This paper presents an analysis of the displacement measurement of the Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy chest in quasistatic and dynamic loading environments. In this dummy, the sternal chest deformation is typically characterized using a sliding chest potentiometer, originally designed to measure inward deflection in the central axis of the dummy chest. Loading environments that include other modes of deformation, such as lateral translations or rotations, can create a displacement vector that is not aligned with this sensitive axis. To demonstrate this, the dummy chest was loaded quasistatically and dynamically in a series of tests. A string potentiometer array, with the capability to monitor additional deflection modes, was used to supplement the measurement of the chest slider.
Technical Paper

Piston Temperature Measuring Technology Using Electromagnetic Induction

2001-05-07
2001-01-2027
Authors have developed an apparatus which measures the piston temperature using electromagnetic induction. The characteristics of this apparatus are as follows; 1 Applicable to 6 points per cylinder and all cylinders 2 Capable of measuring while the engine is running from start to 6000r/min full-load operation 3 Wide measuring range; from -30 to 400 °C 4 High accuracy; ±2.5 °C 5 Quick and easy setup 6 High durability This technology contributes to realizing the best balance of piston reliability and matching of combustion conditions. In this report, authors analyzed its influences upon piston temperature when the ignition timing,the oil/water temperature or the oil flow from piston jet were changed, respectively.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hybrid Vehicle and Its Future Expectation

2000-11-01
2000-01-C042
Following its introduction into the Japanese market, the Prius, Toyota Motor Corporation's hybrid vehicle, was released onto the American and European markets in Mid-2000. This lecture will take the form of an explanation of the new technology used to meet the demands of the western market, including improved driving performance, lower emissions, down-sizing of the system and lower costs. The lecture will also look briefly at the new Toyota hybrid system, the THS-C, which is currently being developed. The talk will include a look at the future of the hybrid vehicle.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

2000-06-12
2000-05-0067
The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Technical Paper

Development of the Automotive Exhaust Hydrocarbon Adsorbent

2001-03-05
2001-01-0660
The hydrocarbon adsorption volume character of zeolite was studied. Specifically, the relationship between aluminum content and zeolite hydrocarbon adsorption was investigated, as a potential hydrocarbon adsorbent for exhaust gas. The study also analyzed the relationship between hole diameter and zeolite hydrocarbon adsorption. It was found that hydrocarbon adsorption increased with decreasing aluminum content. Zeolite with a pore size approximately 0.1nm greater than the diameter of hydrocarbon molecules showed the best performance. Zeolites with two different pore sizes were mixed, and succeeded in adsorbing hydrocarbons of carbon number 3 and above. Silver (Ag) ion exchanged zeolite was also used to increase the adsorption of exhaust gas hydrocarbons, including those of carbon number 2.
Technical Paper

Development of the Chemical Recycling Technology of Glass Fiber Reinforced PA6 Parts

2001-03-05
2001-01-0694
Recently, the plastic material is positively introducing for automotive parts due to the Needs of vehicle weight reduction and cost saving. On the other hand, the countermeasure for scrapped car is a big subject to need to consider as a car maker. Therefore, the development of recycling technology for plastic parts has been necessary. In this study, we tried to develop recycling technology for glass fiber reinforced Polyamide6(PA6) which is applied to various automotive parts like an air intake manifold. As a recycling technique, we focused on the chemical recycling which can reclaim raw material of PA6(ε- caprolactams) from the post-consumer automotive parts. The chemical recycling we selected can be put on a higher priority because it has possibility to utilize the limited resource repeatedly. As a result, we could retain high purity of ε- caprolactams using our following two techniques which make possible to recycle Polyamide 6 materials. One is to separate PA6 from glass fiber.
Technical Paper

Development of Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0729
In succession to the world-first introduction of a mass production gasoline hybrid passenger car into the Japanese market in 1997, Toyota also has introduced an enhanced version of the above to the US and European markets in 2000. Upon introduction of Toyota Hybrid System (THS) into the US market, a drastic reduction of gasoline vapor evaporation from the fuel tank was necessary, in order to meet the most stringent exhaust emission (SULEV) and evaporative emission standards in the world. In order to meet this requirement, a fuel tank system named “Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System” was developed. This is the first commercial application in the world to use a variable tank volume to drastically reduce gasoline vapor generation.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Fuel Behavior During the Cold Start Period of a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0969
An experimental study was carried out in order to reduce engine-out HC emissions from a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine during the cold start period. The objectives of this study were to investigate the fuel behavior quantified with an analytic method and to propose some practical techniques to reduce the cylinder-wetting fuel volume and engine-out HC emissions. Compared to the MPI (Multi Port Fuel Injection) engine, required fuel volume for DISI engine was reduced during the cold start because intake port wall-wetting was not generated. On the other hand, a large volume of cylinder wetting fuel resulted in engine-out HC emissions. Injection timing, atomization and vaporization of injected fuel affected the cylinder-wetting fuel volume. Above all, Injection of the heated fuel provided good results. In summary, engine-out HC emissions from DISI engine was reduced compared to that of MPI engine during the cold-start period.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Ignition Control in HCCI Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1817
The UNIBUS (Uniform Bulky Combustion System) based on the HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) concept uses an early injection quantity, timing, boost pressure, EGR, etc. for ignition control [1]. To further expand the operation range from the present level, the effects of the atmospheric conditions on ignition and combustion were calculated using CHEMKIN in the present study. When controlling the start timing of the high temperature reaction to suppress the early ignition, it is more effective to apply EGR than boost pressure. If fuel quantity is increased to expand load, it is possible to suppress a sharp cylinder pressure rising rate by increasing the boost pressure. Furthermore, it has become apparent that the cause of this is an increase in heat capacity.
Technical Paper

Development of Optical Space- Vision Instrumentation

1996-02-01
960922
High visibility electronic analog instruments with the blackface lens, lighting up pointers, and back lit dials are used in increasing number for automotive instrumentation. Now, we have developed a new instrument called Optical Space-Vision Instrumentation incorporating the above electronic analog instrument with virtual image by double reflection mechanism. The purpose of this development is to reduce reading time through far-focus and to improve visibility through high contrast. As part of this instrumentation, we also developed a new pointer that uses fluorescent material without a light-emitting element. This paper describes the construction and the engineering technology associated with this instrumentation. According to our test results, this instrument has realized a shorter reading time and higher contrast.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Padding and Shoes on the Dynamic Response of Dummy Lower Extremities

1996-02-01
961042
This work studies the effect of padding on the force levels in impulsively loaded dummy lower extremities. Tests include the effect of padding incorporated into the soles of shoes and an examination of the potential of shoe padding for mitigating impact loading on the lower extremities. Three different shoes and three paddings were studied using a pendulum impactor; two different padding levels were studied in an impact sled test with simulated translational structural intrusion. The tests indicate a greater than 20% variation in peak axial force imparted to the lower tibia between shoes, and a greater than 50% variation in peak axial force across the paddings tested. From sled tests with simulated structural intruaion, we see a decrease of approximately 15% in peak axial load and a decrease of over 20% in peak anterior/posterior moment.
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