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Technical Paper

Internal vs. External Chest Deformation Response to Shoulder Belt Loading, Part 1: Table-Top Tests

2009-04-20
2009-01-0393
This study presents a detailed comparison of internally and externally measured chest deflections resulting from eight tests conducted on three male post mortem human subjects. A hydraulically driven shoulder belt loaded the anterior thorax under a fixed spine condition while displacement data were obtained via a high-speed 16-camera motion capture system (VICON MX™). Comparison of belt displacement and sternal displacement measured at the bone surface provided a method for quantifying effective change in superficial soft tissue depth at the mid sternum under belt loading. The relationship between the external displacement and the decrease in the effective superficial tissue depth was found to be monotonic and nonlinear. At 65 mm of mid-sternal posterior displacement measured externally, the effective thickness of the superficial tissues and air gap between the belt and the skin had decreased by 14 mm relative to the unloaded state.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response of the Pediatric Abdomen, Part 2: Injuries and Their Correlation with Engineering Parameters

2008-11-03
2008-22-0006
This paper describes the injuries generated during dynamic belt loading to a porcine model of the 6-year-old human abdomen, and correlates injury outcomes with measurable parameters. The test fixture produced transverse, dynamic belt loading on the abdomen of 47 immediately post-mortem juvenile swine at two locations (upper/lower), with penetration magnitudes ranging from 23% – 65% of the undeformed abdominal depth, with and without muscle tensing, and over a belt penetration rate range of 2.9 m/s – 7.8 m/s. All thoracoabdominal injuries were documented in detail and then coded according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Observed injuries ranged from AIS 1 to AIS 4. The injury distribution matched well the pattern of injuries observed in a large sample of children exposed to seatbelt loading in the field, with most of the injuries in the lower abdomen.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of the Pedestrian Injury Risk Predicted by Mechanical Impactors and Post Mortem Human Surrogates

2008-11-03
2008-22-0020
The objective of this study is to compare the risk of injury to pedestrians involved in vehicle-pedestrian impacts as predicted by two different types of risk assessment tools: the pedestrian subsystem impactors recommended by the European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee (EEVC) and post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Seven replicate full-scale vehicle-pedestrian impact tests were performed with PMHS and a mid-sized sedan travelling at 40 km/h. The PMHS were instrumented with six-degree-of-freedom sensor cubes and sensor data were transformed and translated to predict impact kinematics at the head center of gravity, proximal tibiae, and knee joints. Single EEVC WG 17/EuroNCAP adult headform, upper legform and lower legform impactor tests of the same vehicle were selected for comparison based on the proximity of their impact locations to that of the PMHS.
Technical Paper

Kinematic Analysis of Head/Neck Motion in Pedestrian-Vehicle Collisions Using 6-Degree-of-Freedom Instrumentation Cubes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0681
Given the quantity and severity of head injuries to pedestrians in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions, human pedestrian finite element models and pedestrian dummies must possess a biofidelic head/neck response to accurately reproduce head-strike kinematics and kinetics. Full-scale pedestrian impact experiments were performed on post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS) using a mid-sized sport utility vehicle and a small sedan. Kinematics of the head and torso were obtained with a six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) cube, which contained three orthogonally mounted linear accelerometers and three angular rate sensors. The goal of the current study was to present a methodology for analyzing the data obtained from the sensors on each cube, and to use the kinematics data to calculate spatial trajectories, as well as linear velocities and angular accelerations of the head and T1 vertebra.
Technical Paper

Response of the Knee Joint to the Pedestrian Impact Loading Environment

2004-03-08
2004-01-1608
Isolated knee joints from Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) were tested in dynamic lateral-medial valgus loading that replicated a vehicle-pedestrian impact at 40 km/h. Eight specimens were tested in 4-point bending (pure bending) and eight specimens were tested in 3-point bending in configurations chosen to apply varying proportions of moment and shear at the knee joint. The medial collateral ligament (MCL) was the only major load bearing knee structure that was injured in the experiments. Applied loads (bending moment and shear force) and knee response (bending angle and shear displacement) are reported in order to provide information for determination of injury thresholds and for the validation of computational models and mechanical legform impactors.
Technical Paper

Lateral Injury Criteria for the 6-year-old Pedestrian - Part I: Criteria for the Head, Neck, Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis

2004-03-08
2004-01-0323
Pediatric pedestrians are frequently involved in Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Collisions (PMVCs). While in recent years, the automotive industry has worked towards making cars less aggressive to pedestrians, the efforts have mainly focused on adult pedestrian safety. When they have included considerations for children, only head injuries have been evaluated. The development of automotive counter-measures that provide protection for both adult and pediatric pedestrians requires access to injury criteria for the entire body that specifically account for both the age-dependent tissue properties and the pedestrian's size. The objective of the present study is to derive lateral injury criteria for the head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis that can be used in finite element and multi-body simulations of PMVCs involving the 6-year-old pedestrian (corresponding injury criteria for the upper and lower extremities are derived in part II of this study).
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Thor and Hybrid III Crash Dummies: Steering Wheel Rim Impacts to the Upper Abdomen

2004-03-08
2004-01-0310
This investigation explored THOR's force-deflection response to upper abdomen/lower ribcage steering wheel rim impacts in comparison to the Hybrid III and cadaver test subjects. The stationary subjects were impacted by a ballasted surrogate wheel propelled at 4 m/s, a test condition designed to approximate the upper abdomen impacting a steering wheel rim in a frontal crash. Both the standard THOR and the Hybrid III crash dummies were substantially stiffer than the cadavers. Removing THOR's torso skin and foam from the upper abdomen and replacing the standard Hybrid III abdomen with a prototype gel-filled unit produced force-deflection results that were more similar to the cadavers. THOR offers advantages over the Hybrid III because of its ability to measure abdominal deflection. THOR, with modification, would be a useful instrument with which to assess the crashworthiness of steering assemblies and restraint systems in frontal crashes.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Response Corridors of the Human Thigh and Leg in Non-Midpoint Three-Point Bending

2005-04-11
2005-01-0305
Current standards and test devices for pedestrian safety are developed using results from impact tests where inertial considerations have dominated and the vehicle pedestrian loading environment has not been properly replicated. When controlled tests have been conducted to evaluate the biofidelity of anthropometric test devices, current designs have faired poorly. The objective of the current study was to develop dynamic force-deflection and moment-deflection response corridors for the 50th percentile adult male thigh and leg subjected to non-midpoint 3-point bending at rates characteristic of the vehicle-pedestrian loading environment. Six thigh and eight leg specimens were harvested from eight adult male human cadavers and ramped to failure in dynamic 3-point bending in the latero-medial direction.
Technical Paper

Lateral Injury Criteria for the 6-year-old Pedestrian - Part II: Criteria for the Upper and Lower Extremities

2004-03-08
2004-01-1755
Pediatric pedestrians are frequently involved in Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Collisions (PMVCs). While in recent years, the automotive industry has worked towards making cars less aggressive to pedestrians, the efforts have mainly focused on adult pedestrian safety. When they have included considerations for children, only head injuries have been evaluated. The development of automotive countermeasures that provide protection for both adult and pediatric pedestrians requires access to injury criteria for the entire body that specifically account for both the age-dependent tissue properties and the pedestrian's size. The objective of the present study is to derive lateral injury criteria for the upper and lower extremities that can be used in finite element and multi-body simulations of PMVCs involving the 6-year-old pedestrian (corresponding injury criteria for the head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis are derived in part I of this study).
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Response of the Human Lower Limb to the Pedestrian Impact Loading Environment

2005-04-11
2005-01-1877
Three limbs were taken from post mortem human subjects and impacted on the lateral aspect by a free-flying (30 km/h) impactor below the knee joint. Tri-axial MHDs and tri-axial accelerometers were used to determine the kinematics of the limb; strain gages were used to measure surface strain on the tibia and femur; and acoustic sensors were used to identify the onset and timing of injury. This data set was analyzed to compute the response of the knee joint to a bumper impact. Post-test necropsy results showed that the primary injury mechanism in each case was complete avulsion of the Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) and the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL).
Technical Paper

Experiments for Establishing Pedestrian-Impact Lower Limb Injury Criteria

2003-03-03
2003-01-0895
Previous lateral knee bending and shear tests have reported knee joint failure moments close to failure bending moments for the tibia and femur. Eight tibias, eight femurs and three knee joints were tested in lateral bending and two knee joints were tested in lateral shear. Seven previous studies on femur bending, five previous studies on tibia bending, two previous studies on knee joint bending, and one on shear were reviewed and compared with the current tests. All knee joint failures in the current study were either epiphysis fractures of the femur or soft tissue failures. The current study reports an average lateral failure bending moment for the knee joint (134 Nm SD 7) that is dramatically lower than that reported in the literature (284-351 Nm), that reported in the current study for the tibia (291 Nm SD 69) and for femur (382 Nm SD 103).
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Three-Point Restraint System with a Pre-tensioned Lap Belt and an Inflatable, Force-Limited Shoulder Belt

2011-11-07
2011-22-0007
This study investigates the performance of a 3-point restraint system incorporating an inflatable shoulder belt with a nominal 2.5-kN load limiter and a non-inflatable lap belt with a pretensioner (the “Airbelt”). Frontal impacts with PMHS in a rear seat environment are presented and the Airbelt system is contrasted with an earlier 3-point system with inflatable lap and shoulder belts but no load-limiter or pretensioners, which was evaluated with human volunteers in the 1970s but not fully reported in the open literature (the “Inflataband”). Key differences between the systems include downward pelvic motion and torso recline with the Inflataband, while the pelvis moved almost horizontally and the torso pitched forward with the Airbelt. One result of these kinematic differences was an overall more biomechanically favorable restraint loading but greater maximum forward head excursion with the Airbelt.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Biofidelity Relative to Sub-Injurious PMHS Response in Simulated Under-body Blast Events

2016-11-07
2016-22-0009
Three laboratory simulated sub-injurious under-body blast (UBB) test conditions were conducted with whole-body Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) and the Warrior Assessment Injury Manikin (WIAMan) Technology Demonstrator (TD) to establish and assess UBB biofidelity of the WIAMan TD. Test conditions included a rigid floor and rigid seat with independently varied pulses. On the floor, peak velocities of 4 m/s and 6 m/s were applied with a 5 ms time to peak (TTP). The seat peak velocity was 4 m/s with varied TTP of 5 and 10 ms. Tests were conducted with and without personal protective equipment (PPE). PMHS response data was compiled into preliminary biofidelity response corridors (BRCs), which served as evaluation metrics for the WIAMan TD. Each WIAMan TD response was evaluated against the PMHS preliminary BRC for the loading and unloading phase of the signal time history using Correlation Analysis (CORA) software to assign a numerical score between 0 and 1.
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