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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Automobile Fluid Ignition on Hot Surfaces

2007-04-16
2007-01-1394
Automobile fires are a serious concern to manufacturers and consumers. However, understanding how the fires begin, in the confines of the engine compartment, is a difficult task. One known cause of fires is hot surface ignition (HSI) arising when engine fluids contact hot surfaces in the engine compartment or the exhaust train. In this study, the ignition of automotive gasoline on four hot surfaces: stainless and carbon steels from the heat shields, stainless steel from the exhaust manifold and cast iron cut from an intake manifold, was examined in a well-controlled, model study. Infra-red thermography and thermocouples were used to monitor surface temperatures prior to, during and after the fluid impacted the surface. This allowed evaluation and comparison of temperature evolution during fluid impact and the ignition event, resulting in an improved mechanistic understanding of the fluid/hot surface interaction.
Journal Article

Derivation of Effective Strain-Life Data, Crack Closure Parameters and Effective Crack Growth Data from Smooth Specimen Fatigue Tests

2013-04-08
2013-01-1779
Small crack growth from notches under variable amplitude loading requires that crack opening stress be followed on a cycle by cycle basis and taken into account in making fatigue life predictions. The use of constant amplitude fatigue life data that ignores changes in crack opening stress due to high stress overloads in variable amplitude fatigue leads to non-conservative fatigue life predictions. Similarly fatigue life predictions based on small crack growth calculations for cracks growing from flaws in notches are non-conservative when constant amplitude crack growth data are used. These non-conservative predictions have, in both cases, been shown to be due to severe reductions in fatigue crack closure arising from large (overload or underload) cycles in a typical service load history.
Journal Article

Predicting Failure during Sheared Edge Stretching Using a Damage-Based Model for the Shear-Affected Zone

2013-04-08
2013-01-1166
Hole expansion of a dual phase steel, DP600, was numerically investigated using a damage-based constitutive law to predict failure. The parameters governing void nucleation and coalescence were identified from an extensive review of the x-ray micro-tomography data available in the literature to ensure physically-sound predictions of damage evolution. A recently proposed technique to experimentally quantify work-hardening and damage in the shear-affected zone is incorporated into the damage model to enable fracture predictions of holes with sheared edges. Finite-element simulations of a hole expansion test with a conical punch were performed for both a punched and milled hole edge condition and the predicted hole expansion ratios are in very good agreement with the experiment values reported by several researchers.
Technical Paper

Extended Range Electric Vehicle Powertrain Simulation, and Comparison with Consideration of Fuel Cell and Metal-Air Battery

2017-03-28
2017-01-1258
The automobile industry has been undergoing a transition from fossil fuels to a low emission platform due to stricter environmental policies and energy security considerations. Electric vehicles, powered by lithium-ion batteries, have started to attain a noticeable market share recently due to their stable performance and maturity as a technology. However, electric vehicles continue to suffer from two disadvantages that have limited widespread adoption: charging time and energy density. To mitigate these challenges, vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have developed different vehicle architectures to extend the vehicle range. This work seeks to compare various powertrains, including: combined power battery electric vehicles (BEV) (zinc-air and lithium-ion battery), zero emission fuel cell vehicles (FCV)), conventional gasoline powered vehicles (baseline internal combustion vehicle), and ICE engine extended range hybrid electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

2018-04-03
2018-01-0819
In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Driver Braking Intention with Vehicle Data Using Unsupervised Learning Methods

2017-03-28
2017-01-0433
Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, two types unsupervised clustering methods are used to build a driver braking intention predictor. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. The proposed unsupervised learning algorithms can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different algorithms which are K-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) will be compared.
Technical Paper

Notch Plasticity and Fatigue Modelling of AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

2019-04-02
2019-01-0530
Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy notched specimens under uniaxial load are measured via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite element analysis using Abaqus and LS-DYNA material types 124 and 233 are then compared against the experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loading. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root. Finally, employing Smith-Watson-Topper model together with MAT_233 results, fatigue lives of the notched specimens are estimated and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Crack Initiation and Propagation Fatigue Life Prediction for an A36 Steel Welded Plate Specimen

2019-04-02
2019-01-0538
Fatigue crack initiation and propagation models predict the fatigue life of welded "T" specimens tested by the Fatigue Design and Evaluation (FDE) Committee of SAE under constant and variable amplitude load histories. The crack propagation equations stipulated by British Standard BS-7910 have been incorporated in a material memory model for cyclic deformation. The simulations begin with the crack initiation model and show how it is used to account for cyclic mean stress relaxation and the effects of periodic overloads. After the cracks initiate the BS-7910 model is applied to predict the crack advance due to either constant or variable amplitude histories. Simulation results correspond to the experimental results with good accuracy.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of 5xxx Aluminum Alloy Stretch Flange Forming

2004-03-08
2004-01-1051
Stretch flange features are commonly found in the corner regions of commercial parts, such as window cutouts, where large strains can induce localization and necking. In this study, laboratory-scale stretch flange forming experiments on AA5182 and AA5754 were conducted to address the formability of these aluminum alloys under undergoing this specific deformation process. Two distinct cracking modes were found in the stretch flange samples. One is radial cracking at the inner edge of flange (cutout edge) while the other is circumferential cracking away from the inner edge at the punch profile radius. Numerical simulation of the stretch flange forming operations was conducted with an explicit finite element code-LS-DYNA. A coalescence-suppressed Gurson-based material model is used in the finite element model. Void coalescence and final failure in stretch flange is simulated through measured second-phase particle fields with a so-called damage percolation model.
Technical Paper

Weldability Improvement Using Coated Electrodes for RSW of HDG Steel

2006-04-03
2006-01-0092
The increased use of zinc coatings on steels has led to a decrease in their weldability. Weld current and time need to be increased in order to achieve sound welds on these materials compared to uncoated steels, and electrode tip life suffers greatly due to rapid alloying and degradation. In this work, typical uncoated Class II electrodes were tested along with a TiC metal matrix composite (MMC) coated electrode. Tests were conducted to study the weldability and process of nugget formation for both electrodes on HDG (hot dipped galvanized) HSLA (high strength low alloys) steels. Current and time ranges were constructed for both types of electrodes by varying either the weld current or weld time while holding all other parameters constant. Analysis of weld microstructures was conducted on cross-sectioned welds using SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Using the coated electrodes reduced weld current and times needed to form MWS (minimum weld size) on the coated steels.
Technical Paper

Coatings on Resistance Welding Electrodes to Extend Life

2006-04-03
2006-01-0093
TiCP/Ni coating has been deposited onto the electrodes by electro-spark deposition to improve electrode life during resistance welding of Zn-coated steels. However, welding results revealed that molten Zn penetrates into coating through the cracks and then reacts with substrate copper alloy to form brasses. In the present work, laser treatment was performed on the TiCP/Ni coated electrodes to eliminate cracks formed in the as-deposited TiCP/Ni coating. In addition, a multi-electro-spark deposition of Ni, TiCP/Ni and Ni has also been carried out to improve coating quality. On the other hand, a TiB2 coating was also investigated. those coatings were characterized by electro-microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and micro-hardness tests. The results showed that cracks within the as-deposited TiCP/Ni coating could be eliminated with the use of laser treatment or a multi-layer deposition process.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Hybrid Powertrain Design Approach for a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox

2006-04-03
2006-01-0744
A fuel cell-battery hybrid powertrain SUV vehicle is designed using an optimized model-based design process. Powertrain and fuel storage components selected include a 65 kW Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) power module, two 67 kW electric traction motors, a 35 MPa compressed hydrogen storage tank, a 70 kW nickel metal hydride battery pack, and a University of Waterloo in-house DC/DC converter design. Hardware control uses two controllers, a main supervisory controller and a subsystem controller in addition to any embedded component control modules. Two key innovations of this work include the hybrid control strategy and the DC/DC converter. The final powertrain characteristics are expected to meet a set of Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS).
Technical Paper

Effect of End-feed in Hydroforming of Straight and Pre-bent High Strength and Advanced High Strength Steel Tubes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0544
One of the major concerns preventing wider utilization of high strength steels (HSS) and advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in hydroforming is their inherent lower formability, compared to conventional mild steels. The application of the axial forces on the tube ends during a hydroforming operation is often referred to as end-feed, and can facilitate deformation of the tube by postponing failure. This research examines the effect of end-feed on the formability of HSS and AHSS tubes during hydroforming. Through simulation, straight and pre-bent tubes are hydroformed at different levels of end-feed for three materials: DDQ, HSLA350 and DP600.
Technical Paper

Effects of Bead Surface Preparation on Friction in the Drawbead Test

1991-02-01
910511
The effects of bead surface roughness on friction, die pickup, and sheet surface damage in the drawbead test were investigated. Beads of HRC 58 hardness were prepared from centerless-ground rod by circumferential honing to 0.05 μm roughness, followed by finishing with 100, 400, or 600 grit SiC paper in the axial direction. Paraffinic base oils with viscosities of 4.5, 30, and 285 mm2/s were used neat and in conjunction with stearic acid. The effects of bead roughness depended on the nature of metal transfer, especially its distribution and firmness of attachment. The presence of a boundary additive increased, decreased, or had no effect on friction depending on the particular coating and bead finish.
Technical Paper

Transient Tribological Phenomena in Drawbead Simulation

1992-02-01
920634
Details of the development of metal transfer and friction were studied by drawing cold-rolled bare, galvannealed, electrogalvanized, and hot-dip galvanized strips with a mineral-oil lubricant of 30 cSt viscosity at 40 C, over a total distance of 2500 mm by three methods. An initial high friction peak was associated with metal transfer to the beads and was largest with pure zinc and smallest with Fe-Zn coatings. Insertion of a new strip disturbed the coating and led to the development of secondary peaks. Long-term trends were governed by the stability of the coating. Stearic acid added to mineral oil delayed stabilization of the coating and increased contact area and thus friction with pure zinc surfaces. The usual practice of reporting average friction values can hide valuable information on lubrication mechanisms and metal transfer.
Technical Paper

Effect of Bead Finish Orientation on Friction and Galling in the Drawbead Test

1992-02-01
920632
This study was undertaken to examine the role of tool finish orientation on the drawing of zinc-coated steel sheets. Beads of average roughnesses of 0.1 μm and 0.2 μm, finished parallel to and perpendicular to sliding, were used in the drawbead test. Lubrication was provided by unblended base oils of 4.5, 30, and 285 mm2/s @ 40°C, used neat and with a boundary additive, 1% stearic acid. Three types of coated sheet (galvannealed, electrogalvanized, and hot-dip galvanized) were compared to bare AKDQ steel sheet. Results show that lubricant viscosity had the greatest effect on friction, while bead finish orientation and coating type influenced the nature of metal transfer and the galling of the strip. Mixed-film lubrication dominated with the medium and heavy lubricants, here contact area and friction were reduced with increasing lubricant viscosity.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Evaluation of a Nodular Cast Iron Component

1992-02-01
920669
A ferritic-pearlitic nodular iron automobile suspension knuckle was fatigue tested in the laboratory using a constant amplitude load level that simulated a severe service condition. It was found that cracks always initiated from surface casting defects and that the fatigue life could be extended significantly by machining away the as-cast surface in the fatigue sensitive locations. Both local strain and fracture mechanics approaches were used successfully to predict the fatigue life of the component.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Nitrogen on the Mechanical Properties of an SAE 1045 Steel

1992-02-01
920667
A cold worked and induction hardened SAE1045 steel component exhibited excessive distortion after cold working and straightening, as well as cracking during straightening after induction hardening. Since the problems occurred only in certain heats of electric furnace (EF) steel, in which nitrogen content can vary widely and in some cases be quite high, and never occurred for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel for which nitrogen contents are uniformly low it was suspected that the source of the problem was low temperature nitrogen strain aging in heats of EF steel with a high nitrogen content. The measured distortion and mechanical properties at various stages in the fabrication process showed that while nitrogen content had no significant effect on the hot rolled steel the component distortion and strength after cold working and after induction hardening increased with increasing nitrogen content.
Technical Paper

Tribological Factors Affecting the LDH Test

1992-02-01
920434
The present work is aimed at investigating the tribological factors influencing the LDH test. The material used was AKDQ cold-rolled bare steel, 0.82mm thick. The investigated factors included: test speed (0.833, 4.167, 6.667, and 8.333 mm/s), lubricant viscosity (4.5, 7.0, and 12.5 mm2/s), punch roughness (0.033 and 0.144 μm Ra), and test temperature (25 and 50 °C). Test speed and lubricant viscosity form a variation of the numerator of the Stribeck curve's x-axis (ηV). With ηV increasing from 4 to 120 mm3/s2 friction decreased, resulting in a 0.5 mm higher LDH. Increasing the punch roughness decreased friction producing an increase of 0.25 mm in the LDH. There appears to be an optimum roughness -- at which the roughness features act as lubricant reservoirs but the asperities do not break through the lubricant film -- resulting in minimum friction, therefore, maximum LDH.
Technical Paper

Application of Damage Models in Bending and Hydroforming of Aluminum Alloy Tube

2004-03-08
2004-01-0835
This paper examines the application of damage models in tube bending and subsequent hydroforming of AlMg3.5Mn aluminum alloy tubes. An in-house Gurson-based damage model, incorporated within LS-DYNA, has been used for the simulations. The applied damage model contains several void nucleation and growth parameters that must be determined for each material. A simpler straight tube hydroforming process was considered first to check the damage parameters and predicted ductility. Then the model was applied to a sequence of bending and hydroforming. The damage history from pre-bending was mapped to the hydroforming stage, to allow prediction of the overall ductility. The applied forming parameters in the simulation were based on data extracted during the experimental tests. Finally, the numerical results were compared to the experimental data.
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