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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Advanced Compressor Technologies to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations

The response to increasingly stringent light duty diesel emission regulation is a nearly unanimous increase in heavy Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) application to reduce feedgas NOx emissions. Little attention has been paid to the fact that heavy EGR usage is likely to push the engine operating conditions towards less efficient or even unstable regions of conventional centrifugal compressor operating maps. Moreover, the low oxygen content at part load operation also poses transient response challenges. Therefore, improving turbocharger efficiency at part load and extending the stable operating range is becoming critical for viable future low emission diesel engines. In this study of a turbocharger compression system, encompassing the airflow geometry from compressor impeller inlet to volute exit, a dual volute compressor concept was introduced, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate its effects on the overall expected performance level and range.
Technical Paper

Extended Range Electric Vehicle Powertrain Simulation, and Comparison with Consideration of Fuel Cell and Metal-Air Battery

The automobile industry has been undergoing a transition from fossil fuels to a low emission platform due to stricter environmental policies and energy security considerations. Electric vehicles, powered by lithium-ion batteries, have started to attain a noticeable market share recently due to their stable performance and maturity as a technology. However, electric vehicles continue to suffer from two disadvantages that have limited widespread adoption: charging time and energy density. To mitigate these challenges, vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have developed different vehicle architectures to extend the vehicle range. This work seeks to compare various powertrains, including: combined power battery electric vehicles (BEV) (zinc-air and lithium-ion battery), zero emission fuel cell vehicles (FCV)), conventional gasoline powered vehicles (baseline internal combustion vehicle), and ICE engine extended range hybrid electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Driver Braking Intention with Vehicle Data Using Unsupervised Learning Methods

Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, two types unsupervised clustering methods are used to build a driver braking intention predictor. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. The proposed unsupervised learning algorithms can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different algorithms which are K-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) will be compared.
Technical Paper

Notch Plasticity and Fatigue Modelling of AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy notched specimens under uniaxial load are measured via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite element analysis using Abaqus and LS-DYNA material types 124 and 233 are then compared against the experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loading. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root. Finally, employing Smith-Watson-Topper model together with MAT_233 results, fatigue lives of the notched specimens are estimated and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of 5xxx Aluminum Alloy Stretch Flange Forming

Stretch flange features are commonly found in the corner regions of commercial parts, such as window cutouts, where large strains can induce localization and necking. In this study, laboratory-scale stretch flange forming experiments on AA5182 and AA5754 were conducted to address the formability of these aluminum alloys under undergoing this specific deformation process. Two distinct cracking modes were found in the stretch flange samples. One is radial cracking at the inner edge of flange (cutout edge) while the other is circumferential cracking away from the inner edge at the punch profile radius. Numerical simulation of the stretch flange forming operations was conducted with an explicit finite element code-LS-DYNA. A coalescence-suppressed Gurson-based material model is used in the finite element model. Void coalescence and final failure in stretch flange is simulated through measured second-phase particle fields with a so-called damage percolation model.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Hybrid Powertrain Design Approach for a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox

A fuel cell-battery hybrid powertrain SUV vehicle is designed using an optimized model-based design process. Powertrain and fuel storage components selected include a 65 kW Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) power module, two 67 kW electric traction motors, a 35 MPa compressed hydrogen storage tank, a 70 kW nickel metal hydride battery pack, and a University of Waterloo in-house DC/DC converter design. Hardware control uses two controllers, a main supervisory controller and a subsystem controller in addition to any embedded component control modules. Two key innovations of this work include the hybrid control strategy and the DC/DC converter. The final powertrain characteristics are expected to meet a set of Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS).
Technical Paper

Damage Characterization and Damage Percolation Modelling in Aluminum Alloy Sheet

Tessellation methods have been applied to characterize second phase particle fields and the degree of clustering present in AA 5754 and 5182 automotive sheet alloys. A model of damage development within these materials has been developed using a damage percolation approach based on measured particle distributions. The model accepts tessellated particle fields in order to capture the spatial distributions of particles, as well as nearest neighbour and cluster parameter data. The model demonstrates how damage initiates and percolates within particle clusters in a stable fashion for the majority of the deformation history. Macro-cracking leading to final failure occurs as a chain reaction with catastrophic void linkage triggered once linkage beyond three or more clusters of voids takes place.
Technical Paper

Air-to-fuel Ratio Modulation Experiments over a Pd/Rh Three-way Catalyst

The benefits of deliberately modulating air-to-fuel ratio over a three-way catalyst are disputed. In this work, engine test cell experiments were carried out to assess the performance of a warmed-up Pd/Rh three-way catalyst. The objectives were threefold: first, to determine the best mode of operation; second, to determine if air-to-fuel ratio modulation enhances robustness to transient air-to-fuel ratio disturbances; third, to determine if the conversion efficiency can be manipulated by controlling the shape of the air-to-fuel ratio oscillation. It was observed that the highest conversion efficiency is obtained using a steady air-to-fuel ratio just rich of stoichiometric; however, this mode of operation lacks robustness with respect to transient disturbances and UEGO sensor errors. Robustness can be improved using an oscillating air-to-fuel ratio, but with a sacrifice in peak conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Fidelity Series-Hybrid Electric Vehicle Model using a Mathematics-Based Approach

The recent increase in oil prices and environmental concerns have attracted various research efforts on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) which provide promising alternatives to conventional engine-powered vehicles with better fuel economy and fewer emissions. To speed up the design and prototyping processes of new HEVs, a method that automatically generates mathematics equations governing the vehicle system response in an optimized symbolic form is desirable. To achieve this goal, we employed MapleSimTM, a new physical modeling tool developed by Maplesoft Inc., to develop the multi-domain model of a series-HEV, utilizing the symbolic computing algorithms of Maple software package to generate an optimized set of governing equations. The HEV model consists of a mean-value internal combustion engine (ICE), a chemistry-based Ni-MH battery pack, and a multibody vehicle model. Simulations are then used to demonstrate the performance of the developed HEV system.
Journal Article

Integrated Stability Control System for Electric Vehicles with In-wheel Motors using Soft Computing Techniques

An electric vehicle model has been developed with four direct-drive in-wheel motors. A high-level vehicle stability controller is proposed, which uses the principles of fuzzy logic to determine the corrective yaw moment required to minimize the vehicle sideslip and yaw rate errors. A genetic algorithm has been used to optimize the parameters of the fuzzy controller. The performance of the controller is evaluated as the vehicle is driven through a double-lane-change maneuver. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed control system has the ability to improve the performance of the vehicle considerably.
Journal Article

Design of an Advanced Traction Controller for an Electric Vehicle Equipped with Four Direct Driven In-Wheel Motors

The vision for the future automotive chassis is to interconnect the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical dynamics by separately controlling driving, braking, steering, and damping of each individual wheel. A major advantage of all wheel drive electric vehicles with four in-wheel motors is the possibility to control the torque and speed at each wheel independently. This paper proposes a traction controller for such a vehicle. It estimates the road's adhesion potential at each wheel and adjusts each motor voltage, such that the longitudinal slip is kept in an optimal range. For development and validation, a full vehicle model is designed in ADAMS/View software, in co-simulation with motor and control elements, modeled in MATLAB/Simulink.
Journal Article

Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Thermal Deactivation Studied with FTIR Spatial Resolution

The performance of a commercial Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst after differing degrees of hydrothermal aging (aged for 72 hours at 500, 700 and 800°C with 10% moisture balanced with air) was studied by spatially resolving different key reactions using gas-phase FTIR measurements. Gases were sampled along a channel at different positions and analyzed using FTIR, which overcomes the interference of water and nitrogen on ammonia concentration detection encountered in standard mass spectrometer-based spatial resolution measurements. The NO:NO₂ concentration ratio was changed so that the standard (NO:NO₂ = 1:0), fast (NO:NO₂ = 1:1) and NO₂ (NO:NO₂ = 0:1) SCR reactions could be investigated as a function of the catalyst's hydrothermal aging extent. In addition, the effects of hydrothermal aging on the activity of NH₃ and NO oxidation were also investigated. Hydrothermal aging had little effect on NO oxidation activity.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Hybrid Control Strategy Development

Supervisory control strategies for a hybrid fuel cell powertrain are developed and simulated using Simulink models and the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The control strategy selects the power splitting ratio between a 65kW Hydrogenics fuel cell power module and a 70kW Cobasys Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery pack. Simple control algorithms targeting a battery pack State of Charge (SOC), or maximizing the instantaneous powertrain efficiency are initially considered and analyzed. A comprehensive control strategy optimizing powertrain efficiency, vehicle performance, emissions, and long-term reliability is then developed and simulated. The simulated vehicle using the comprehensive control strategy with reliability considerations exhibits a 21% mileage improvement as compared to a simple rule-based control algorithm.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Thermal Degradation on the Performance of a NOX Storage/Reduction Catalyst

The performance characteristics of a commercial lean-NOX trap catalyst were evaluated between 200 and 500°C, using H2, CO, and a mixture of both H2 and CO as reductants before and after different high-temperature aging steps, from 600 to 750°C. Tests included NOX reduction efficiency during cycling, NOX storage capacity (NSC), oxygen storage capacity (OSC), and water-gas-shift (WGS) and NO oxidation reaction extents. The WGS reaction extent at 200 and 300°C was negatively affected by thermal degradation, but at 400 and 500°C no significant change was observed. Changes in the extent of NO oxidation did not show a consistent trend as a function of thermal degradation. The total NSC was tested at 200, 350 and 500°C. Little change was observed at 500°C with thermal degradation but a steady decrease was observed at 350°C as the thermal degradation temperature was increased.
Technical Paper

A New Air Hybrid Engine Using Throttle Control

In this work, a new air hybrid engine is introduced in which two throttles are used to manage the engine load in three modes of operation i.e. braking, air motor, and conventional mode. The concept includes an air tank to store pressurized air during braking and rather than a fully variable valve timing (VVT) system, two throttles are utilized. Use of throttles can significantly reduce the complexity of air hybrid engines. The valves need three fixed timing schedules for the three modes of operation. To study this concept, for each mode, the results of engine simulations using GT-Power software are used to generate the operating maps. These maps show the maximum braking torque as well as maximum air motor torque in terms of air tank pressure and engine speed. Moreover, the resulting maps indicate the operating conditions under which each mode is more effective. Based on these maps, a power management strategy is developed to achieve improved fuel economy.
Technical Paper

1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge Design Strategy -University of Waterloo

The conversion design strategy, and emissions and performance results for a dedicated propane, vapour injected, 1995 Dodge Dakota truck are reported. Data is obtained from the University of Waterloo entry in the 1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge. A key feature of the design strategy is its focus on testing and emissions while preserving low engine speed power for drivability. Major changes to the Dakota truck included the following: installation of a custom shaped fuel tank, inclusion of a fuel temperature control module, addition of a vaporizer and a fuel delivery metering unit, installation of a custom vapour distribution manifold, addition of an equivalence ratio electronic controller, inclusion of a wide range oxygen sensor, addition of an exhaust gas recirculation cooler and installation of thermal insulation on the exhaust system. A competition provided natural gas catalyst was used.
Technical Paper

Volumetric Tire Models for Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Simulations

Dynamic modelling of the contact between the tires of automobiles and the road surface is crucial for accurate and effective vehicle dynamic simulation and the development of various driving controllers. Furthermore, an accurate prediction of the rolling resistance is needed for powertrain controllers and controllers designed to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Existing models of tires include physics-based analytical models, finite element based models, black box models, and data driven empirical models. The main issue with these approaches is that none of these models offer the balance between accuracy of simulation and computational cost that is required for the model-based development cycle. To address this issue, we present a volumetric approach to model the forces/moments between the tire and the road for vehicle dynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Multi-Scale FE/Damage Percolation Modeling of Ductile Damage Evolution in Aluminum Sheet Forming

A so-called damage percolation model is coupled with Gurson-based finite element (FE) approach in order to accommodate the high strain gradients and localized ductile damage. In doing so, void coalescence and final failure are suppressed in Gurson-based FE modeling while a measured second phase particle field is mapped onto the most damaged mesh area so that percolation modeling can be performed to capture ductile fracture in real sheet forming operations. It is revealed that void nucleation within particle clusters dominates ductile fracture in aluminum alloy sheet forming. Coalescence among several particle clusters triggered final failure of materials. A stretch flange forming is simulated with the coupled modeling.
Technical Paper

A Review Study of Methods for Lithium-ion Battery Health Monitoring and Remaining Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Due to the high power and energy density and also relative safety, lithium ion batteries are receiving increasing acceptability in industrial applications especially in transportation systems with electric traction such as electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. In this regard, to ensure performance reliability, accurate modeling of calendar life of such batteries is a necessity. In fact, potential failure of Li-ion battery packs remains a barrier to commercialization. Battery pack life is a critical feature to warranty and maintenance planning for hybrid vehicles, and will require adaptive control systems to account for the loss in vehicle range, and loss in battery charge and discharge efficiency. Failure not only results in large replacement costs, but also potential safety concerns such as overheating or short circuiting which may lead to fires.