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Technical Paper

Multi-Scale FE/Damage Percolation Modeling of Ductile Damage Evolution in Aluminum Sheet Forming

2004-03-08
2004-01-0742
A so-called damage percolation model is coupled with Gurson-based finite element (FE) approach in order to accommodate the high strain gradients and localized ductile damage. In doing so, void coalescence and final failure are suppressed in Gurson-based FE modeling while a measured second phase particle field is mapped onto the most damaged mesh area so that percolation modeling can be performed to capture ductile fracture in real sheet forming operations. It is revealed that void nucleation within particle clusters dominates ductile fracture in aluminum alloy sheet forming. Coalescence among several particle clusters triggered final failure of materials. A stretch flange forming is simulated with the coupled modeling.
Technical Paper

Damage and Formability of AKDQ and High Strength DP600 Steel Tubes

2005-04-11
2005-01-0092
Using standard tensile testing methods, the material properties of AKDQ and DP600 steels tubes along the axial direction were determined. A novel in-situ optical strain mapping system ARAMIS® was utilized to evaluate the strain distribution during tensile testing along the axial direction. Microstructural and damage characterization was carried out using microscopy and image analysis techniques to compare the damage evolution and formability of both materials. Failure in both steels was observed to occur via a ductile failure mode. AKDQ was found to be the more formable material as it can achieve higher strains, total elongations and thinning prior to failure than the higher strength DP600.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation into the Effects of Bending Boost and Hydroforming End-Feed on the Hydroformability of DP600 Tube

2005-04-11
2005-01-0094
The work presented in this paper utilizes advanced FE models of the pre-bending and hydroforming process to investigate the effect of bending boost and hydroforming end-feed on the hydroformability of a tube. A model of a rotary-draw tube bender was used to simulate pre-bending of DP600 tube after which models of hydroforming of the pre-bent tube were run with various levels of end-feed. By varying bending boost from low (LB), medium (MB) and high (HB), consistent trends in the strain and thickness distribution within the pre-bent tubes were observed. Three end-feed levels were simulated and showed that an increase in end-feed improved formability during hydroforming. The sensitivity of the models to bending boost was shown.
Technical Paper

Humidity Sensing Based on Ordered Porous Silicon for the Application on Fuel Cell

2008-04-14
2008-01-0687
Porous silicon as gas/chemical sensing material has been widely investigated in recent years. In this paper, the humidity sensing property of n-type porous silicon with ordered structure is studied for the first time. The ordered porous silicon used in this experiment has uniform pore size, pore shape and distribution. Both the membrane and closed bottom samples were studied. The resistance change of the porous silicon was measured. A 22-28% decrease of resistance was observed when relative humidity was changed from 1% to 100%. Both the response time and the recovery time were within 10 minutes, and 90% of the response can be reached in 6 minutes for the PS membrane sample. The possible sensing mechanism and future work are also discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Effect of End-feed in Hydroforming of Straight and Pre-bent High Strength and Advanced High Strength Steel Tubes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0544
One of the major concerns preventing wider utilization of high strength steels (HSS) and advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in hydroforming is their inherent lower formability, compared to conventional mild steels. The application of the axial forces on the tube ends during a hydroforming operation is often referred to as end-feed, and can facilitate deformation of the tube by postponing failure. This research examines the effect of end-feed on the formability of HSS and AHSS tubes during hydroforming. Through simulation, straight and pre-bent tubes are hydroformed at different levels of end-feed for three materials: DDQ, HSLA350 and DP600.
Technical Paper

A Review Study of Methods for Lithium-ion Battery Health Monitoring and Remaining Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0125
Due to the high power and energy density and also relative safety, lithium ion batteries are receiving increasing acceptability in industrial applications especially in transportation systems with electric traction such as electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. In this regard, to ensure performance reliability, accurate modeling of calendar life of such batteries is a necessity. In fact, potential failure of Li-ion battery packs remains a barrier to commercialization. Battery pack life is a critical feature to warranty and maintenance planning for hybrid vehicles, and will require adaptive control systems to account for the loss in vehicle range, and loss in battery charge and discharge efficiency. Failure not only results in large replacement costs, but also potential safety concerns such as overheating or short circuiting which may lead to fires.
Technical Paper

Application of Monte Carlo Analysis to Life Cycle Assessment

1999-03-01
1999-01-0011
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is commonly used to measure the environmental and economic impacts of engineering projects and/or products. However, there is some uncertainty associated with any LCA study. The LCA inventory analysis generally relies on imperfect data in addition to further uncertainties created by the assessment process itself. It is necessary to measure the effects that data and process uncertainty have on the LCA result and to communicate the level of uncertainty to those making decisions based on the LCA. To accomplish this, a systematic and rigorous means to assess the overall uncertainty in LCA results is required. This paper demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo Analysis to track and measure the propagation of uncertainty in LCA studies. The Monte Carlo technique basically consists of running repeated assessments using random input values chosen from a specified probable range.
Technical Paper

Extended Range Electric Vehicle Powertrain Simulation, and Comparison with Consideration of Fuel Cell and Metal-Air Battery

2017-03-28
2017-01-1258
The automobile industry has been undergoing a transition from fossil fuels to a low emission platform due to stricter environmental policies and energy security considerations. Electric vehicles, powered by lithium-ion batteries, have started to attain a noticeable market share recently due to their stable performance and maturity as a technology. However, electric vehicles continue to suffer from two disadvantages that have limited widespread adoption: charging time and energy density. To mitigate these challenges, vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have developed different vehicle architectures to extend the vehicle range. This work seeks to compare various powertrains, including: combined power battery electric vehicles (BEV) (zinc-air and lithium-ion battery), zero emission fuel cell vehicles (FCV)), conventional gasoline powered vehicles (baseline internal combustion vehicle), and ICE engine extended range hybrid electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Efficient Electro-Thermal Model for Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries

2018-04-03
2018-01-0432
The development of a comprehensive battery simulator is essential for future improvements in the durability, performance and service life of lithium-ion batteries. Although simulations can never replace actual experimental data, they can still be used to provide valuable insights into the performance of the battery, especially under different operating conditions. In addition, a single-cell model can be easily extended to the pack level and can be used in the optimization of a battery pack. The first step in building a simulator is to create a model that can effectively capture both the voltage response and thermal behavior of the battery. Since these effects are coupled together, creating a robust simulator requires modeling both components. This paper will develop a battery simulator, where the entire battery model will be composed of four smaller submodels: a heat generation model, a thermal model, a battery parameter model and a voltage response model.
Technical Paper

Damage Characterization and Damage Percolation Modelling in Aluminum Alloy Sheet

2000-03-06
2000-01-0773
Tessellation methods have been applied to characterize second phase particle fields and the degree of clustering present in AA 5754 and 5182 automotive sheet alloys. A model of damage development within these materials has been developed using a damage percolation approach based on measured particle distributions. The model accepts tessellated particle fields in order to capture the spatial distributions of particles, as well as nearest neighbour and cluster parameter data. The model demonstrates how damage initiates and percolates within particle clusters in a stable fashion for the majority of the deformation history. Macro-cracking leading to final failure occurs as a chain reaction with catastrophic void linkage triggered once linkage beyond three or more clusters of voids takes place.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Robust Lane Marking Detection and Tracking for Degraded Lane Markings

2017-03-28
2017-01-0043
Robust lane marking detection remains a challenge, particularly in temperate climates where markings degrade rapidly due to winter conditions and snow removal efforts. In previous work, dynamic Bayesian networks with heuristic features were used with the feature distributions trained using semi-supervised expectation maximization, which greatly reduced sensitivity to initialization. This work has been extended in three important respects. First, the tracking formulation used in previous work has been corrected to prevent false positives in situations where only poor RANSAC hypotheses were generated. Second, the null hypothesis is reformulated to guarantee that detected hypotheses satisfy a minimum likelihood. Third, the computational requirements have been greatly reduced by computing an upper bound on the marginal likelihood of all part hypotheses upon generation and rejecting parts with an upper bound less likely than the null hypothesis.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Driver Braking Intention with Vehicle Data Using Unsupervised Learning Methods

2017-03-28
2017-01-0433
Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, two types unsupervised clustering methods are used to build a driver braking intention predictor. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. The proposed unsupervised learning algorithms can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different algorithms which are K-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) will be compared.
Technical Paper

Application of Damage Models in Bending and Hydroforming of Aluminum Alloy Tube

2004-03-08
2004-01-0835
This paper examines the application of damage models in tube bending and subsequent hydroforming of AlMg3.5Mn aluminum alloy tubes. An in-house Gurson-based damage model, incorporated within LS-DYNA, has been used for the simulations. The applied damage model contains several void nucleation and growth parameters that must be determined for each material. A simpler straight tube hydroforming process was considered first to check the damage parameters and predicted ductility. Then the model was applied to a sequence of bending and hydroforming. The damage history from pre-bending was mapped to the hydroforming stage, to allow prediction of the overall ductility. The applied forming parameters in the simulation were based on data extracted during the experimental tests. Finally, the numerical results were compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Effect of Endfeed on the Strains and Thickness During Bending and on the Subsequent Hydroformability of Steel Tubes

2003-10-27
2003-01-2837
This research examines the effect of endfeed on the thickness and strains during bending of steel tubes. The tubes were bent using an instrumented rotary draw tube bender and subsequently hydroformed into a diamond-profile outside corner fill die. DQAK tubes with an OD of 76.2 mm and a thickness of 1.55 mm were investigated. Endfeed during bending was found to have a significant effect on the thickness and strains within the tube after bending, and numerical models that were generated showed good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown how slight changes in thickness can cause localized failure during hydroforming, and how excessive die clearances can cause large strains in undesired areas.
Technical Paper

Volumetric Tire Models for Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-1565
Dynamic modelling of the contact between the tires of automobiles and the road surface is crucial for accurate and effective vehicle dynamic simulation and the development of various driving controllers. Furthermore, an accurate prediction of the rolling resistance is needed for powertrain controllers and controllers designed to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Existing models of tires include physics-based analytical models, finite element based models, black box models, and data driven empirical models. The main issue with these approaches is that none of these models offer the balance between accuracy of simulation and computational cost that is required for the model-based development cycle. To address this issue, we present a volumetric approach to model the forces/moments between the tire and the road for vehicle dynamic simulations.
Journal Article

Impact Testing of a Hot-Formed B-Pillar with Tailored Properties - Experiments and Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-0608
This paper presents the numerical validation of the impact response of a hot formed B-pillar component with tailored properties. A laboratory-scale B-pillar tool is considered with integral heating and cooling sections in an effort to locally control the cooling rate of an austenitized blank, thereby producing a part with tailored microstructures to potentially improve the impact response of these components. An instrumented falling-weight drop tower was used to impact the lab-scale B-pillars in a modified 3-point bend configuration to assess the difference between a component in the fully hardened (martensitic) state and a component with a tailored region (consisting of bainite and ferrite). Numerical models were developed using LS-DYNA to simulate the forming and thermal history of the part to estimate the final thickness and strain distributions as well as the predicted microstructures.
Journal Article

Derivation of Effective Strain-Life Data, Crack Closure Parameters and Effective Crack Growth Data from Smooth Specimen Fatigue Tests

2013-04-08
2013-01-1779
Small crack growth from notches under variable amplitude loading requires that crack opening stress be followed on a cycle by cycle basis and taken into account in making fatigue life predictions. The use of constant amplitude fatigue life data that ignores changes in crack opening stress due to high stress overloads in variable amplitude fatigue leads to non-conservative fatigue life predictions. Similarly fatigue life predictions based on small crack growth calculations for cracks growing from flaws in notches are non-conservative when constant amplitude crack growth data are used. These non-conservative predictions have, in both cases, been shown to be due to severe reductions in fatigue crack closure arising from large (overload or underload) cycles in a typical service load history.
Journal Article

Predicting Failure during Sheared Edge Stretching Using a Damage-Based Model for the Shear-Affected Zone

2013-04-08
2013-01-1166
Hole expansion of a dual phase steel, DP600, was numerically investigated using a damage-based constitutive law to predict failure. The parameters governing void nucleation and coalescence were identified from an extensive review of the x-ray micro-tomography data available in the literature to ensure physically-sound predictions of damage evolution. A recently proposed technique to experimentally quantify work-hardening and damage in the shear-affected zone is incorporated into the damage model to enable fracture predictions of holes with sheared edges. Finite-element simulations of a hole expansion test with a conical punch were performed for both a punched and milled hole edge condition and the predicted hole expansion ratios are in very good agreement with the experiment values reported by several researchers.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Method for Damage Detection in Hydraulic Components

1995-09-01
952089
The detection and tracking of the damage process between surfaces in contact, together with an estimation of the remaining service life, are significant contributions to the efficient operation of hydraulic components. The commonly used approach of analyzing vibration signals in terms of spectral distributions, while being very effective, has some shortcomings. For example, the results are sensitive to both load and speed variations. The approach presented in this paper is based on the fact that the asperity distribution of surfaces in good condition have a near normal probability distribution. Deviation from this can be tracked using statistical moments. The Beta probability distribution provides a number of shapes, including normal, under the control of two positive numbers, α and β. Unlike the normal distribution, which indicates defects by kurtosis values higher than 3.0, the Beta distribution provides more flexibility.
Technical Paper

Effects of Bead Surface Preparation on Friction in the Drawbead Test

1991-02-01
910511
The effects of bead surface roughness on friction, die pickup, and sheet surface damage in the drawbead test were investigated. Beads of HRC 58 hardness were prepared from centerless-ground rod by circumferential honing to 0.05 μm roughness, followed by finishing with 100, 400, or 600 grit SiC paper in the axial direction. Paraffinic base oils with viscosities of 4.5, 30, and 285 mm2/s were used neat and in conjunction with stearic acid. The effects of bead roughness depended on the nature of metal transfer, especially its distribution and firmness of attachment. The presence of a boundary additive increased, decreased, or had no effect on friction depending on the particular coating and bead finish.
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