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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Advanced Compressor Technologies to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations

The response to increasingly stringent light duty diesel emission regulation is a nearly unanimous increase in heavy Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) application to reduce feedgas NOx emissions. Little attention has been paid to the fact that heavy EGR usage is likely to push the engine operating conditions towards less efficient or even unstable regions of conventional centrifugal compressor operating maps. Moreover, the low oxygen content at part load operation also poses transient response challenges. Therefore, improving turbocharger efficiency at part load and extending the stable operating range is becoming critical for viable future low emission diesel engines. In this study of a turbocharger compression system, encompassing the airflow geometry from compressor impeller inlet to volute exit, a dual volute compressor concept was introduced, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate its effects on the overall expected performance level and range.
Journal Article

Impact Testing of a Hot-Formed B-Pillar with Tailored Properties - Experiments and Simulation

This paper presents the numerical validation of the impact response of a hot formed B-pillar component with tailored properties. A laboratory-scale B-pillar tool is considered with integral heating and cooling sections in an effort to locally control the cooling rate of an austenitized blank, thereby producing a part with tailored microstructures to potentially improve the impact response of these components. An instrumented falling-weight drop tower was used to impact the lab-scale B-pillars in a modified 3-point bend configuration to assess the difference between a component in the fully hardened (martensitic) state and a component with a tailored region (consisting of bainite and ferrite). Numerical models were developed using LS-DYNA to simulate the forming and thermal history of the part to estimate the final thickness and strain distributions as well as the predicted microstructures.
Journal Article

Symbolic Formulation of Multibody Dynamic Equations for Wheeled Vehicle Systems on Three-Dimensional Roads

A method to improve the computational efficiency of analyzing wheeled vehicle systems on three-dimensional (3-D) roads has been developed. This was accomplished by creating a technique to incorporate the tire on a 3-D road in a multibody dynamics model of the vehicle with an approach that formulates the governing equations using symbolic formulation. For general handling analysis performed on the vehicle, the tire forces and moments are determined using a tire model that represents the tire as a set of mathematical expressions. Since these expressions need numerical values to determine the forces and moments, a symbolic solution does not exist. Therefore, the evaluation of the tire forces and moments needs to be done during simulation. However, symbolic operations can be used when the governing equations are formulated to develop an efficient method to evaluate these forces.
Journal Article

Cooperative Least Square Parameter Identification by Consensus within the Network of Autonomous Vehicles

In this paper, a consensus framework for cooperative parameter estimation within the vehicular network is presented. It is assumed that each vehicle is equipped with a dedicated short range communication (DSRC) device and connected to other vehicles. The improvement achieved by the consensus for parameter estimation in presence of sensor’s noise is studied, and the effects of network nodes and edges on the consensus performance is discussed. Finally, the simulation results of the introduced cooperative estimation algorithm for estimation of the unknown parameter of road condition is presented. It is shown that due to the faster dynamic of network communication, single agents’ estimation converges to the least square approximation of the unknown parameter properly.
Technical Paper

A 1D Real-Time Engine Manifold Gas Dynamics Model Using Orthogonal Collocation Coupled with the Method of Characteristics

In this paper, a new solution method is presented to study the effect of wave propagation in engine manifolds, which includes solving one-dimensional models for compressible flow of air. Velocity, pressure, and density profiles are found by solving a system of non-linear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in space and time derived from Euler’s equations. The 1D model includes frictional losses, area change, and heat transfer. The solution is traditionally found by utilizing the Method of Characteristics and applying finite difference solutions to the resulting system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) over a discretized grid. In this work, orthogonal collocation is used to solve the system of ODEs that is defined along the characteristic curves. Orthogonal polynomials are utilized to approximate velocity, pressure, sound speed, and the characteristic curves along which the system of PDEs reduce to a system of ODEs.
Technical Paper

Extended Range Electric Vehicle Powertrain Simulation, and Comparison with Consideration of Fuel Cell and Metal-Air Battery

The automobile industry has been undergoing a transition from fossil fuels to a low emission platform due to stricter environmental policies and energy security considerations. Electric vehicles, powered by lithium-ion batteries, have started to attain a noticeable market share recently due to their stable performance and maturity as a technology. However, electric vehicles continue to suffer from two disadvantages that have limited widespread adoption: charging time and energy density. To mitigate these challenges, vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have developed different vehicle architectures to extend the vehicle range. This work seeks to compare various powertrains, including: combined power battery electric vehicles (BEV) (zinc-air and lithium-ion battery), zero emission fuel cell vehicles (FCV)), conventional gasoline powered vehicles (baseline internal combustion vehicle), and ICE engine extended range hybrid electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Driver Braking Intention with Vehicle Data Using Unsupervised Learning Methods

Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, two types unsupervised clustering methods are used to build a driver braking intention predictor. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. The proposed unsupervised learning algorithms can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different algorithms which are K-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) will be compared.
Technical Paper

Notch Plasticity and Fatigue Modelling of AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy notched specimens under uniaxial load are measured via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite element analysis using Abaqus and LS-DYNA material types 124 and 233 are then compared against the experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loading. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root. Finally, employing Smith-Watson-Topper model together with MAT_233 results, fatigue lives of the notched specimens are estimated and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Crack Initiation and Propagation Fatigue Life Prediction for an A36 Steel Welded Plate Specimen

Fatigue crack initiation and propagation models predict the fatigue life of welded "T" specimens tested by the Fatigue Design and Evaluation (FDE) Committee of SAE under constant and variable amplitude load histories. The crack propagation equations stipulated by British Standard BS-7910 have been incorporated in a material memory model for cyclic deformation. The simulations begin with the crack initiation model and show how it is used to account for cyclic mean stress relaxation and the effects of periodic overloads. After the cracks initiate the BS-7910 model is applied to predict the crack advance due to either constant or variable amplitude histories. Simulation results correspond to the experimental results with good accuracy.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of 5xxx Aluminum Alloy Stretch Flange Forming

Stretch flange features are commonly found in the corner regions of commercial parts, such as window cutouts, where large strains can induce localization and necking. In this study, laboratory-scale stretch flange forming experiments on AA5182 and AA5754 were conducted to address the formability of these aluminum alloys under undergoing this specific deformation process. Two distinct cracking modes were found in the stretch flange samples. One is radial cracking at the inner edge of flange (cutout edge) while the other is circumferential cracking away from the inner edge at the punch profile radius. Numerical simulation of the stretch flange forming operations was conducted with an explicit finite element code-LS-DYNA. A coalescence-suppressed Gurson-based material model is used in the finite element model. Void coalescence and final failure in stretch flange is simulated through measured second-phase particle fields with a so-called damage percolation model.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Hybrid Powertrain Design Approach for a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox

A fuel cell-battery hybrid powertrain SUV vehicle is designed using an optimized model-based design process. Powertrain and fuel storage components selected include a 65 kW Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) power module, two 67 kW electric traction motors, a 35 MPa compressed hydrogen storage tank, a 70 kW nickel metal hydride battery pack, and a University of Waterloo in-house DC/DC converter design. Hardware control uses two controllers, a main supervisory controller and a subsystem controller in addition to any embedded component control modules. Two key innovations of this work include the hybrid control strategy and the DC/DC converter. The final powertrain characteristics are expected to meet a set of Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS).
Technical Paper

The Application of Model-Based Design Techniques in Academic Design Projects

The objective of this paper is to help students optimize project component selection or design by detailing, through two specific examples, the University of Waterloo's Alternative Fuels Team's (UWAFT's) successful design process. UWAFT successfully designed a fuel cell powered vehicle for the ChallengeX student engineering competition. The use of a formal, structured design process enabled this team to achieve great confidence in both the feasibility of their design and their ability to manifest the design. This design process is model-based whereby a parameterized software model is created. This paper hopefully assists students to overcome a common reluctance to implementing a model-based design process. After a component is constructed and tested, students can update their software model, which can help them assess the strength of their design.
Technical Paper

Effect of End-feed in Hydroforming of Straight and Pre-bent High Strength and Advanced High Strength Steel Tubes

One of the major concerns preventing wider utilization of high strength steels (HSS) and advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in hydroforming is their inherent lower formability, compared to conventional mild steels. The application of the axial forces on the tube ends during a hydroforming operation is often referred to as end-feed, and can facilitate deformation of the tube by postponing failure. This research examines the effect of end-feed on the formability of HSS and AHSS tubes during hydroforming. Through simulation, straight and pre-bent tubes are hydroformed at different levels of end-feed for three materials: DDQ, HSLA350 and DP600.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross Flow on Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

A serpentine flow channel is one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a PEM fuel cell since it ensures the removal of water produced in a cell. While the reactant flows along the flow channel, it can also leak or cross to neighboring channels via the porous gas diffusion layer due to a high pressure gradient. Such a cross flow leads to effective water removal in a gas diffusion layer thus enlarging the active area for reaction although this cross flow has largely been ignored in previous studies. In this study, neutron radiography is applied to investigate the liquid water accumulation and its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. Liquid water tends to accumulate in the gas diffusion layer adjacent to the flow channel area while the liquid water formed in the gas diffusion layer next to the channel land area seems to be effectively removed by the cross leakage flow between the adjacent flow channels.
Technical Paper

Transient Tribological Phenomena in Drawbead Simulation

Details of the development of metal transfer and friction were studied by drawing cold-rolled bare, galvannealed, electrogalvanized, and hot-dip galvanized strips with a mineral-oil lubricant of 30 cSt viscosity at 40 C, over a total distance of 2500 mm by three methods. An initial high friction peak was associated with metal transfer to the beads and was largest with pure zinc and smallest with Fe-Zn coatings. Insertion of a new strip disturbed the coating and led to the development of secondary peaks. Long-term trends were governed by the stability of the coating. Stearic acid added to mineral oil delayed stabilization of the coating and increased contact area and thus friction with pure zinc surfaces. The usual practice of reporting average friction values can hide valuable information on lubrication mechanisms and metal transfer.
Technical Paper

Application of Damage Models in Bending and Hydroforming of Aluminum Alloy Tube

This paper examines the application of damage models in tube bending and subsequent hydroforming of AlMg3.5Mn aluminum alloy tubes. An in-house Gurson-based damage model, incorporated within LS-DYNA, has been used for the simulations. The applied damage model contains several void nucleation and growth parameters that must be determined for each material. A simpler straight tube hydroforming process was considered first to check the damage parameters and predicted ductility. Then the model was applied to a sequence of bending and hydroforming. The damage history from pre-bending was mapped to the hydroforming stage, to allow prediction of the overall ductility. The applied forming parameters in the simulation were based on data extracted during the experimental tests. Finally, the numerical results were compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of the Autoignition Delay in a Diesel-Like Environment by the Conditional Moment Closure Model

The autoignition delay of a turbulent methane jet in a Diesel-like environment is calculated by the conditional moment closure(CMC) model. Methane is injected into hot air in a constant volume chamber under various temperatures and pressures. Detailed chemical reaction mechanisms are implemented with turbulence-chemistry interaction treated by the first order CMC. The CMC model solves the conditional mean species mass fraction and temperature equations with the source term given in terms of the conditional mean quantities. The flow and mixing field are calculated by the transient SIMPLE algorithm with the k -ε model and the assumed beta function pdf. The CMC equations are solved by the fractional step method which sequentially treats the transport and chemical reaction terms in each time step. The predictions in quiescent homogeneous mixture are presented to evaluate the effects of turbulence in jet ignition.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Method for Damage Detection in Hydraulic Components

The detection and tracking of the damage process between surfaces in contact, together with an estimation of the remaining service life, are significant contributions to the efficient operation of hydraulic components. The commonly used approach of analyzing vibration signals in terms of spectral distributions, while being very effective, has some shortcomings. For example, the results are sensitive to both load and speed variations. The approach presented in this paper is based on the fact that the asperity distribution of surfaces in good condition have a near normal probability distribution. Deviation from this can be tracked using statistical moments. The Beta probability distribution provides a number of shapes, including normal, under the control of two positive numbers, α and β. Unlike the normal distribution, which indicates defects by kurtosis values higher than 3.0, the Beta distribution provides more flexibility.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Fidelity Series-Hybrid Electric Vehicle Model using a Mathematics-Based Approach

The recent increase in oil prices and environmental concerns have attracted various research efforts on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) which provide promising alternatives to conventional engine-powered vehicles with better fuel economy and fewer emissions. To speed up the design and prototyping processes of new HEVs, a method that automatically generates mathematics equations governing the vehicle system response in an optimized symbolic form is desirable. To achieve this goal, we employed MapleSimTM, a new physical modeling tool developed by Maplesoft Inc., to develop the multi-domain model of a series-HEV, utilizing the symbolic computing algorithms of Maple software package to generate an optimized set of governing equations. The HEV model consists of a mean-value internal combustion engine (ICE), a chemistry-based Ni-MH battery pack, and a multibody vehicle model. Simulations are then used to demonstrate the performance of the developed HEV system.