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Technical Paper

The University of Windsor - St. Clair College E85 Silverado

2001-03-05
2001-01-0680
The fuel called E-85 can be burned effectively in engines similar to the engines currently mass-produced for use with gasoline. Since the ethanol component of this fuel is produced from crops such as corn and sugar cane, the fuel is almost fully renewable. The different physical and chemical properties of E-85, however, do require certain modifications to the common gasoline engine. The Windsor - St. Clair team has focused their attention to modifications that will improve fuel efficiency and reduce tailpipe emissions. Other modifications were also performed to ensure that the vehicle would still operate with the same power and driveability as its gasoline counterpart.
Technical Paper

Laser Welding of Elastomers to Polypropylene

2003-03-03
2003-01-1134
The effects of varying laser-welding parameters were studied for the welding of the thermoplastic elastomer EPDM to glass filled polypropylene. Through-thickness scanning transmission welding (contour welding) was carried out with a diode laser with a wavelength of 940 nm using various power levels up to 150W and line speeds up to 2500 mm/minute. The observable weld attributes: weld strengths, weld widths, and failure modes, have been tabulated and discussed.
Technical Paper

Disassembly Modeling Used to Assess Automotive Recycling Opportunities

1997-02-24
970416
Currently, the recycling of automobiles can be considered to be a success story. However, it is hoped by the automakers that the current automotive recycling infrastructure can adapt to include more disassembly of plastics for recycling. The success of this option depends on the economics involved. Therefore, a method for evaluating the economics of disassembly for recycling is utilized to see how changes in recycling prices, disassembly costs, or design might affect the practices of dismantlers.
Technical Paper

Wear of D2 Tool Steel Dies during Trimming DP980-type Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) for Automotive Parts

2017-03-28
2017-01-1706
Automobile body panels made from advanced high strength steel (AHSS) provide high strength-to-mass ratio and thus AHSS are important for automotive light-weighting strategy. However, in order to increase their use, the significant wear damage that AHSS sheets cause to the trim dies should be reduced. The wear of dies has undesirable consequences including deterioration of trimmed parts' edges. In this research, die wear measurement techniques that consisted of white-light optical interferometry methods supported by large depth-of-field optical microscopy were developed. 1.4 mm-thick DP980-type AHSS sheets were trimmed using dies made from AISI D2 steel. A clearance of 10% of the thickness of the sheets was maintained between the upper and lower dies. The wear of the upper and lower dies was evaluated and material abrasion and chipping were identified as the main damage features at the trim edges.
Technical Paper

A Review of Human Physiological, Psychological & Human Biomechanical Factors on Perceived Thermal Comfort of Automotive Seats.

2017-03-28
2017-01-1388
Thermal comfort in automotive seating has been studied and discussed for a long time. The available research, because it is focused on the components, has not produced a model that provides insight into the human-seat system interaction. This work, which represents the beginning of an extensive research program, aims to establish the foundation for such a model. This paper will discuss the key physiological, psychological, and biomechanical factors related to perceptions of thermal comfort in automotive seats. The methodology to establish perceived thermal comfort requirements will also be presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Modular Design and Methods to Optimize Seat Complete Assemblies

2017-03-28
2017-01-1309
Modularity in product architecture and its significance in product development have become an important product design topics in the last few decades. Several Product Modularity definitions and methodologies were developed by many researchers; however, most of the definitions and concepts have proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to apply one universal definition for modular product architecture and in product development. Automotive seat modular strategy and key factors for consideration towards modular seat design and assemblies are the main focus of this work. The primary objectives are focused on the most “natural segmentation” of the seat elements (i.e., cushions, backs, trims, plastics, head restraints, etc.) to enable the greatest ease of final assembly and greatest flexibility for scalable feature offerings around common assembly “hard-points.”
Technical Paper

Boosted Current Spark Strategy for Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1133
Spark ignition systems with the capability of providing spark event with either higher current level or longer discharge duration has been developed in recent years to help IC engines towards clean combustion with higher efficiency under lean/diluted intake charge. In this research, a boosted current spark strategy was proposed to investigate the effect of spark discharge current level and discharge duration on the combustion process. Firstly, the discharge characteristics of a boosted current spark system were tested with a traditional spark plug under crossflow conditions, and results showed that the spark channel was more stable, and was stretched much longer when the discharge current was boosted. Then the boosted current strategy was used in a spark ignition engine operating under lean conditions. Boosted current was added to the spark channel with different timing, duration, and current levels.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Measurement of Diluted Combustion Using a Multi-Electrode Spark Plug

2018-04-03
2018-01-1134
Close-loop feedback combustion control is essential for improving the internal combustion engines to meet the rigorous fuel efficiency demands and emission legislations. A vital part is the combustion sensing technology that diagnoses in-cylinder combustion information promptly, such as using cylinder pressure sensor and ion current measurement. The promptness and fidelity of the diagnostic are particularly important to the potential success of using intra-cycle control for abnormal cycles such as super knocking and misfiring. Many research studies have demonstrated the use of ion-current sensing as feedback signal to control the spark ignition gasoline engines, with the spark gap shared for both ignition and ion-current detection. During the spark glow phase, the sparking current may affect the combustion ion current signal. Moreover, the electrode gap size is optimized for sparking rather than measurement of ion current.
Technical Paper

Metrics for Evaluating the Ride Handling Compromise

2010-04-12
2010-01-1139
Though the purpose of a vehicle's suspension is multi-faceted and complex, the fundamentals may be simply stated: the suspension exists to provide the occupants with a tolerable ride, while simultaneously ensuring that the tires maintain good contact with the ground. At the root of the familiar ride/handling compromise, is the problem that tuning efforts which improve either grip or handling are generally to the detriment of the other. This study seeks to set forth a clear means for examining the familiar ride/handing compromise, by first exploring the key ideas of these terms, and then by describing the development of content-rich metrics to permit a direct optimization strategy. For simplicity, the optimization problem was examined in a unilateral manner, where heave (vertical; z-axis) behaviour is examined in isolation, though the methods described herein may be extended to pitch and roll behaviour as well.
Technical Paper

In-vehicle Speech Intelligibility for the Hearing Impaired Using Speech Intelligibility Index

2011-05-17
2011-01-1681
Individuals with hearing impairments often report hearing difficulties within the driving environment. This is an ever growing issue given the increasing population of senior aged drivers. In this study, Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) is used to predict in-vehicle speech intelligibility of individuals having common hearing impairments. The effect of hearing threshold levels obtained from audiograms and the impact of vehicle background noise measured for various vehicle operating conditions, road surface types and talker and listener configurations are investigated. This is done by using measured and user-defined speech spectra as described by ANSI S3.5-1997 (Methods for Calculation of the Speech Intelligibility Index). The results demonstrate poor speech intelligibility for most situations considered and provide evidence for the need to improve automotive interior sound quality in terms of speech intelligibility for hearing impaired drivers including aged drivers.
Technical Paper

Engine Fault Detection Using Vibration Signal Reconstruction in the Crank-Angle Domain

2011-05-17
2011-01-1660
Advanced engine test methods incorporate several different sensing and signal processing techniques for identifying and locating manufacturing or assembly defects of an engine. A successful engine test method therefore, requires advanced signal processing techniques. This paper introduces a novel signal processing technique to successfully detect a faulty internal combustion engine in a quantitative manner. Accelerometers are mounted on the cylinder head and lug surfaces while vibration signals are recorded during engine operation. Using the engine's cam angular position, the vibration signals are transformed from the time domain to the crank-angle domain. At the heart of the transformation lies interpolation. In this paper, linear, cubic spline and sinc interpolation methods are demonstrated for reconstructing vibration signals in the crank-angle domain.
Technical Paper

Empirical Study of Energy in Diesel Combustion Emissions with EGR Application

2011-08-30
2011-01-1817
Modern diesel engines were known for producing ultra-low levels of hydrogen and hydrocarbons. However, as emission control techniques such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are implemented to meet stringent NOx standards, the resulting increase in partial-combustion products can be significant in quantity both as pollutants and sources of lost engine efficiency. In this work, a modern common-rail diesel engine was configured to investigate the EGR threshold for elevated carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and hydrogen emissions at fixed loads and fixed heat-release phasing. It is noted that increase in hydrocarbons, in particular light hydrocarbons (such as methane, ethylene, and acetylene) was concurrent with ultra-low NOx emissions. Hydrogen gas can be emitted in significant quantities with the application of very high EGR. Under ultra-low NOx production conditions for medium and high load conditions, the light hydrocarbon species can account for the majority of hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper

Power Management Methodologies for Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0849
The implementation of fuel cell-battery hybrid vehicles requires a supervisory control strategy that manages the power distribution between the fuel cell and the energy storage device (i.e., battery). Several advanced control methods have already been developed and published in literature. However, most control methods have been developed for different vehicle types and using different mathematical models. The performance of these power management methods have not been directly compared for the same application. This study aims at obtaining direct analytical comparisons, which will provide useful insight in selecting a power management method for fuel cell-battery hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Active Suspension Handling Simulation using Cosimulation

2010-12-01
2010-01-1582
In this study the capabilities of a semi-active suspension and an active roll suspension are evaluated for comparison with a passive suspension. The vehicle used is a utility truck modeled as a multi-body system in ADAMS/Car while the ECU (electronic control unit) is built in Matlab/Simulink. Cosimulation is used in linking the vehicle model with the controller by exchanging the input and output values of each sub-system with one another. For the simulation models considered, results indicate that for a fish-hook cornering maneuver the semi-active suspension is limited in increasing vehicle performance while the active roll suspension significantly improves it. Further analysis is needed to confirm these findings.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stability Analysis of Coupled Vehicles for General and Military Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0638
The paper describes a study conducted by the University of Windsor Vehicle Dynamics and Control Research Group into the stability of coupled vehicles, e.g., truck-trailer combinations. Several instabilities associated with truck-trailer combinations have been well documented, and have been predicted using mathematical models. Despite having relatively low complexity the classic truck-trailer model, a simple two body, three degree of freedom, linear model has been used extensively in coupled vehicle stability analyses. The aim of the presented work was to extend the conventional coupled vehicle analysis with a set of more elaborate mathematical models evaluating various vehicle configurations. Using in-house multibody dynamics software the linearized equations of motion of three dimensional models were automatically generated for various coupled vehicle configurations with general and military applications. Stability analyses were conducted over a range of expected operating speeds.
Technical Paper

Constructing a Gate-to-gate Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV) Dismantling and Shredding Processes

2008-04-14
2008-01-1283
End-of-life is the least studied phase of the vehicle life-cycle. Dismantling and shredding are the principal processes used for vehicle end-of-life (VEOL) management in Canada and the U.S. and are typically perceived as distinct processes, each one having its own unique challenges. Dismantling typically precedes shredding, with vehicle parts and materials removed for direct reuse, for remanufacturing and reuse, or for recycling. Dismantling may be perceived as a non-preferred alternative, compared to shredding, because it is principally a manual process which can be cost prohibitive in the North America/western labour market. However, there has been no exhaustive assessment of the dismantling process. Because of the complexity in automobiles, significantly more needs to be known about dismantling, its benefits and impacts, its efficiencies and inefficiencies, and its relation to other ELV management processes.
Technical Paper

Active Four Wheel Brake Proportioning for Improved Performance and Safety

2008-04-14
2008-01-1224
A vehicle undergoing longitudinal or lateral accelerations experiences load transfer, dynamically changing the normal load carried by each tire. Conventional braking systems are designed only to work adequately over a large range of conditions, but often ignore the dynamic state of the tire's normal load. Fortunately, new developments in braking system hardware give designers more control over the application of braking pressures. By identifying the tires that carry increased normal load, and biasing the braking system toward those tires, total braking force can be increased. The purpose of this research is to investigate advantages of open-loop load transfer based active brake pressure distribution. By estimating the tractive ability of the tires as a function of measurable vehicle conditions, brake pressure can be applied in proportions appropriate for the current dynamic state of the vehicle, referred to as Active Brake Proportioning (ABP).
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Study on the “Wake Bubble” of Model Truck

2008-04-14
2008-01-0739
Heavy traffic volume makes tailgating a common picture on the road today. Wake interference, particularly in the scenario when a relatively small sedan drives into the wake of a large truck, may raise some serious highway safety concerns. In this paper, the characteristics of the separation bubble of model trucks with various degrees of details are studied. The objective is to find out the impact of truck model details on the characteristics of the wake bubble. Our wind tunnel results revealed that the degree of model detail has a significant effect on the wake bubble; the bubble length increases with model details.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cooling Rates on the Microstructure Evolution and Eutectic Formation of As-cast Mg-Al-Ca Alloys

2009-04-20
2009-01-0789
A Mg-5.0wt.%Al-2.0wt.%Ca alloy (AC52) was cast at different cooling rates varying from 0.5 to 65 °C/s. The dendrites was characterized by determining the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) and the volume fraction of secondary eutectic phases with the linear intercept and point counting methods, respectively. The SDAS decreases significantly with increasing cooling rates, while the volume fraction of the eutectic phase increases from 10.8 ± 1.44 vol.% at 0.5 °C/s to 20.4 ± 1.52 vol.% at 20 °C/s. However, a further increase in cooling rate beyond 20 °C/s has limited influence on the volume fraction of eutectic phases. A large number of dispersed eutectic phases were observed in the primary α-Mg of the alloys cast at low cooling rates. Although, at the microscale, there were no dispersed eutectic phases in alloys cast at a high cooling rate of 30 °C/s, nanoscale eutectic phases were found by TEM observation.
Technical Paper

Wear and Galvanic Corrosion Protection of Mg alloy via Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Process for Mg Engine Application

2009-04-20
2009-01-0790
Sliding wear of magnesium (Mg) engine cylinder bore surfaces and corrosion of Mg engine coolant channels are the two unsolved critical issues that automakers have to deal with in development of magnesium-intensive engines. In this paper, Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process was used to produce oxide coatings on AJ62 Mg alloy to provide wear and corrosion protection. In order to optimize the PEO process, orthogonal experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of PEO process parameters on the wear properties of PEO coatings. The PEO coatings showed a much better wear resistance, as well as a smaller friction coefficient, than the AJ62 substrate. The galvanic corrosion property of AJ62 Mg coupled with stainless steel and aluminum (Al) was investigated via immersion corrosion test in an engine coolant. Applying PEO coating on Mg can effectively prevent the galvanic corrosion attack to Mg.
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