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Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency Analysis between In-cylinder and External Supplemental Fuel Strategies

2007-04-16
2007-01-1125
Preliminary empirical and modeling analyses are conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency of in-cylinder and external fuel injection strategies and their impact on the energy required to enable diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration for instance. During the tests, a thermal wave that is generated from the engine propagates along the exhaust pipe to the DPF substrate. The thermal response of the exhaust system is recorded with the thermocouple arrays embedded in the exhaust system. To implement the external fuel injection, an array of thermocouples and pressure sensors in the DPF provide the necessary feedback to the control system. The external fuel injection is dynamically adjusted based on the thermal response of the DPF substrate to improve the thermal management and to reduce the supplemental energy. This research intends to quantify the effectiveness of the supplemental energy utilization on aftertreatment enabling.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Method to Study the Sensitivity of Transmission Laser Welding of Plastic Parts to Interfacial Gaps

2009-04-20
2009-01-1298
Hollow polymer-based automotive components cannot, in general, be directly injection molded because they cannot be ejected from the mold. The common practice is to injection mold two or more parts, and then join these together with a welding process. Of the many joining process available, laser welding has an advantage in geometric design freedom. The laser weld joints are also generally stronger than those of vibration welds because the weld joints are located in the walls rather than on external flanges. Eliminating the external flanges also makes the part more compact. In transmission laser welding processes, the laser beam passes through a transparent part to its interface with an opaque part. The beam energy is absorbed near the interface in the opaque part, and heat flows back across to the transparent half to make the weld pool. So successful laser welds are possible only when there is a continuous interfacial fit between the parts.
Technical Paper

Engine Fault Detection Using Vibration Signal Reconstruction in the Crank-Angle Domain

2011-05-17
2011-01-1660
Advanced engine test methods incorporate several different sensing and signal processing techniques for identifying and locating manufacturing or assembly defects of an engine. A successful engine test method therefore, requires advanced signal processing techniques. This paper introduces a novel signal processing technique to successfully detect a faulty internal combustion engine in a quantitative manner. Accelerometers are mounted on the cylinder head and lug surfaces while vibration signals are recorded during engine operation. Using the engine's cam angular position, the vibration signals are transformed from the time domain to the crank-angle domain. At the heart of the transformation lies interpolation. In this paper, linear, cubic spline and sinc interpolation methods are demonstrated for reconstructing vibration signals in the crank-angle domain.
Technical Paper

A Hardness Study on Laser Cladded Surfaces for a Selected Bead Overlap Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0285
Laser cladding is used to coat a surface of a metal to enhance the metallurgical properties at the surface level of a substrate. For surface cladding operations, overlapping bead geometry is required. Single bead analyses do not provide a complete representation of essential properties; hence, this research focuses on overlapping conditions. The research scope targets the coaxial laser cladding process specifically for P420 stainless steel clad powder using a fiber optic laser with a 4.3 mm spot size on a low/medium carbon structural steel plate (AISI 1018). Many process parameters influence the bead geometrical shape, and it is assumed that the complex temperature distributions within the process could cause subsequent large variations in hardness values. The bead overlap configurations experiments are performed with 40%, 50% and 60% bead overlaps for a three-pass bead formation.
Technical Paper

Investigating Process Parameters and Microhardness Predictive Modeling Approaches for Single Bead 420 Stainless Steel Laser Cladding

2017-03-28
2017-01-0283
Laser cladding is a novel process of surface coating, and researchers in both academia and industry are developing additive manufacturing solutions for large, metallic components. There are many interlinked process parameters associated with laser cladding, which may have an impact on the resultant microhardness profile throughout the bead zone. A set of single bead laser cladding experiments were done using a 4 kW fiber laser coupled with a 6-axis robotic arm for 420 martensitic stainless steel powder. A design of experiments approach was taken to explore a wide range of process parameter settings. The goal of this research is to determine whether robust predictive models for hardness can be developed, and if there are predictive trends that can be employed to optimize the process settings for a given set of process parameters and microhardness requirements.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Model for Electric Power Steering System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0938
Electric power steering (EPS) systems have been used to replace hydraulic power steering systems in vehicles. How to enhance the safety and reliability while reducing the manufacturing cost of EPS systems is still of strong interest to the automotive industry. In this paper, modeling analysis is conducted for advanced control of electric power steering system. Specifically, a mathematical model is proposed for a column-mounted EPS system and then a simplified model for control design purpose is proposed. Issues that need to be addressed, such as noise/ disturbance attenuation as well as potential fault detection/tolerance are analyzed. Simulation using CarSim™ is also presented for an optimal control design using the simplified model as an example to validate the proposed ideas.
Technical Paper

Empirical and Theoretical Investigations of Active-flow Control on Diesel Engine After-treatment

2006-04-03
2006-01-0465
Empirical and theoretical studies are made between active-flow control and passive-flow control schemes in investigating the influences of gas flow, heat transfer, chemical reaction, oxygen concentration, and substrate properties. The exhaust active-flow control includes the parallel alternating flow, partial restricting flow, periodic flow reversal, and extended flow stagnation that are found to be especially effective to treat engine exhausts that are difficult to cope with conventional passive-flow converters [1, 2]. The tests are set up on a single cylinder Yanmar engine. Theoretical studies are performed with the one-dimensional transient modeling techniques to analyze the thermal behavior of the diesel after-treatment systems when active flow control schemes are applied.
Technical Paper

Heat Release Based Adaptive Control to Improve Low Temperature Diesel Engine Combustion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0771
Heat-release and cylinder pressure based adaptive fuel-injection control tests were performed on a modern common-rail diesel engine to improve the engine operation in the low-temperature combustion (LTC) region. A single shot injection strategy with heavy amount of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was used to modulate the in-cylinder charge conditions to achieve the low-temperature combustion. Adaptive fuel-injection techniques were used to anchor the cylinder pressure characteristics in the desired crank angle window and thereby stabilize the engine operation. The response of the adaptive control to boost, fueling, and engine speed variations was also tested. A combination of adaptive fuel-injection and automatic boost/back-pressure controls had helped to make the transient emissions comparable to the steady-state LTC emissions.
Technical Paper

Variable Torque Distribution Yaw Moment Control for Hybrid Powertrains

2007-04-16
2007-01-0278
This paper proposes and evaluates the use of a robust variable torque distribution (VTD) yaw moment control for an all wheel drive (AWD) hybrid vehicle prototype currently under development. The proposed VTD controller was used to improve the linearity of vehicle response to driver input through the modulation of front-to-rear torque distribution and a corrective torque differential between the left and right rear wheels. The development of a non-linear vehicle model and a reference model tracking sliding mode based control are discussed. The efficacy of the proposed control system was demonstrated through the use of numerical simulations using the developed non-linear vehicle model. The simulation results presented indicate the effectiveness of the proposed system and the potential restrictions to such a system including tire saturation and drivetrain component limitations.
Technical Paper

Real-time Heat Release Analysis for Model-based Control of Diesel Combustion

2008-04-14
2008-01-1000
A number of cylinder-pressure derived parameters including the crank angles of maximum pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise, and 50% heat released are considered as among the desired feedback for cycle-by-cycle adaptive control of diesel combustion. For real-time computation of these parameters, the heat release analyses based on the first law of thermodynamics are used. This paper intends to identify the operating regions where the simplified heat release approach provides sufficient accuracy for control applications and also highlights those regions where its use can lead to significant errors in the calculated parameters. The effects of the cylinder charge-to-wall heat transfer and the temperature dependence of the specific heat ratio on the model performance are reported. A new computationally efficient algorithm for estimating the crank angle of 50% heat released with adequate accuracy is proposed for computation in real-time.
Technical Paper

A Neural Network Approach for Predicting Collision Severity

2014-04-01
2014-01-0569
The development of a collision severity model can serve as an important tool in understanding the requirements for devising countermeasures to improve occupant safety and traffic safety. Collision type, weather conditions, and driver intoxication are some of the factors that may influence motor vehicle collisions. The objective of this study is to use artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify the major determinants or contributors to fatal collisions based on various driver, vehicle, and environment characteristics obtained from collision data from Transport Canada. The developed model will have the capability to predict similar collision outcomes based on the variables analyzed in this study. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network model with feed-forward back-propagation architecture is used to develop a generalized model for predicting collision severity. The model output, collision severity, is divided into three categories - fatal, injury, and property damage only.
Technical Paper

Performance of Stirling Engine Hybrid Electric Vehicles: A Simulation Approach

2001-08-20
2001-01-2513
Hybrid Vehicles have gained momentum in the automotive industry. The joint action of power sources and energy storage systems for energizing the vehicle improves the vehicle's fuel economy while reducing its pollutant emissions and noise levels, challenging automotive designers to optimize vehicle's cost, weight and control. The marketing success of hybrid vehicles significantly depends on the selection, integration and cost of the energy systems. The internal combustion engine, dominant of the vehicle market, has been the “option of choice” for auxiliary power unit of the hybrid vehicle, although other power sources as fuel cells, Stirling engines and gas turbines have been employed as well [1]. This document is focused in the application of Stirling engines as the power source for automobile propulsion.
Journal Article

A Methodology for Investigating and Modelling Laser Clad Bead Geometry and Process Parameter Relationships

2014-04-01
2014-01-0737
Laser cladding is a method of material deposition through which a powdered or wire feedstock material is melted and consolidated by use of a laser to coat part of a substrate. Determining the parameters to fabricate the desired clad bead geometry for various configurations is problematic as it involves a significant investment of raw materials and time resources, and is challenging to develop a predictive model. The goal of this research is to develop an experimental methodology that minimizes the amount of data to be collected, and to develop a predictive model that is accurate, adaptable, and expandable. To develop the predictive model of the clad bead geometry, an integrated five-step approach is presented. From the experimental data, an artificial neural network model is developed along with multiple regression equations.
Journal Article

An Enabling Study of Diesel Low Temperature Combustion via Adaptive Control

2009-04-20
2009-01-0730
Low temperature combustion (LTC), though effective to reduce soot and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) simultaneously from diesel engines, operates in narrowly close to unstable regions. Adaptive control strategies are developed to expand the stable operations and to improve the fuel efficiency that was commonly compromised by LTC. Engine cycle simulations were performed to better design the combustion control models. The research platform consists of an advanced common-rail diesel engine modified for the intensified single cylinder research and a set of embedded real-time (RT) controllers, field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, and a synchronized personal computer (PC) control and measurement system.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Pressure Measurements with Optical Fiber and Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

2002-03-04
2002-01-0745
Highly accurate cylinder pressure data can be acquired using a wall-mounted and water-cooled quartz piezoelectric transducer. However, this type of transducer does not satisfy the cost and packaging constraints when used in a production engine application. A potential solution to these issues that has been the interest of many is the much smaller and less expensive optical fiber based pressure transducer. This research compares Kistler piezoelectric transducers to Optrand optical fiber transducers. The influence of the transducer type and mounting arrangement on the quality of cylinder pressure data was examined. The transducers were evaluated on a DaimlerChrysler 4.7L V-8 Compressed Natural Gas fuelled test engine. The analysis method is comprised of examining measured individual cycle and ensemble-averaged cylinder pressure records to assess the quality of the data and its usefulness for engine management.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency Analysis of Active-flow Operations in Diesel Engine Aftertreatment

2006-10-16
2006-01-3286
Experiments are carried out with the diesel particulate filter and oxidation catalyst embedded in the active-flow configurations on a single cylinder diesel engine. The combined use of various active flow control schemes are identified to be capable of shifting the exhaust gas temperature, flow rate, and oxygen concentration to favorable windows for filtration, conversion, and regeneration processes. Empirical and theoretical investigations are performed with a transient one-dimensional single channel aftertreatment model developed in FORTRAN and MATLAB. The influence of the supplemental energy distribution along the length of aftertreatment device is evaluated. The theoretical analysis indicates that the active-flow control schemes have fundamental advantages in optimizing the converter thermal management including reduction in supplemental heating, increase in thermal recuperation, and improving overheating protection.
Technical Paper

Identification of Damage Parameters Using Virtual Fields Method and Finite Element Model Updating

2007-04-16
2007-01-0999
Whole field displacement/strain measurement of automotive components can be done efficiently by digital image correlation based technique. Inverse problems with this kind of input data, such as the identification of damage parameters/effective modulus in different part of a component, can be pursued by either virtual fields method or finite element model updating. In this paper, the two methods are applied to the identification of a tension plate with a circular hole, and different aspects of the two methods are discussed. It is found that the success of virtual fields method relies on the choice of a set of optimal virtual displacement fields; finite element model updating, on the other hand, can be applied to any geometry and any load condition, and can also be applied to problems where only limited number of measurements are available. However, its performance relies on the choice of optimization algorithms.
Journal Article

Plasmonic in Metallic Nanostructures – Fabrication, Characterization and Applications in Surface-Enhanced Spectroscopy

2008-04-14
2008-01-1267
We are witnessing a rapid and ongoing expansion of nanoscience, driven by potential applications in advanced materials and nanotechnology. There is a race to develop techniques that may allow controlling the size, shape of nanostructures that can allow the tuning of their optical and electronic properties. Plasmonics is a field that encompasses and profits from the optical enhancement in nanostructures that support plasmon excitations. One of these new techniques is surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), commonly used for nanostructure characterization. In the present report, we present a theoretical model for plasmon excitation and electric field enhancement that help to provide an explanation for the special features observed in experimental SERS. Two sets of experimental results are discussed illustrating the make out of the signature of the plasmonics producing the optical enhancement.
Technical Paper

Cosimulation of Active Suspension

2005-04-11
2005-01-0984
The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of simulating an active suspension using cosimulation. The vehicle used is a utility truck created in ADAMS/View while the E.C.U. (electronic control unit) is implemented in Simulink for both a fully-active and semi-active controller. The LQR (Linear Quadratic Regulator) is used for the fully-active system while the semi-active system uses a switching law adopted from Karnopp et al. {1}. Nonlinear and linear vehicle models are compared and the influence of suspension bushings is examined. All simulations undertaken are geared towards evaluating the ride capabilities of such systems.
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