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Technical Paper

Cyclic Variations and Average Burning Rates in a S. I. Engine

1970-02-01
700064
A method of calculating mass burning rates for a single cylinder spark-ignition combustion engine based on experimentally obtained pressure-time diagrams was used to analyze the effects of fuel-air ratio, engine speed, spark timing, load, and cyclic cylinder pressure variations on mass burning rates and engine output. A study of the effects on mass burning rates by cyclic pressure changes showed the low pressure cycles were initially slow burning cycles. Although large cyclic cylinder pressure variations existed in the data the cyclic variations in imep were relatively small.
Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Introduction of Fuel on Performance of a Compression Ignition Engine

1964-01-01
640723
An investigation into effects of multiple fuel introduction on isfc, rate-of-pressure rise, ignition delay, and smoothness of P-T diagram was conducted. Work, including pilot and manifold injection and the Vigom process, was conducted in a prechamber, an open chamber, and a Ricardo Comet chamber, all mounted on a CFR crankcase. Results show marked smoothening of the P-T diagram, with slight loss in fuel economy, particularly in the open chamber, and decrease in ignition delay for both high and low cetane fuels, especially at lower engine speeds. Data show that the quantity of preliminary fuel required for best performance changes considerably with cetane number of the fuel and with combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Experimental Instantaneous Heat Fluxes in a Diesel Engine and Their Correlation

1969-02-01
690464
By the use of surface thermocouples to measure instantaneous temperatures, the instantaneous heat fluxes are calculated at several positions on the cylinder head and sleeve of a direct injection diesel engine for both motored and fired operation. Existing correlations are shown to be unable to predict these data. An analysis of convective heat transfer in the engine leads to a boundary layer model which adequately correlates the data for motored operation. The extension of this motored correlation to fired operation demonstrates the need for instantaneous local gas velocity and temperature data.
Technical Paper

Mass Burning Rate in a Rotary Combustion Engine

1974-02-01
741089
This paper reports the mass-burning rate in a rotary combustion engine. The mass-burning rate is calculated through an iterative constituent and energy constraints during the combustion process. First approximation is obtained through the firing and motoring-pressure trace as recorded by an image-retaining oscilloscope and recorded subsequently by a polaroid camera. Effect of engine load, engine speed, relative (A/F) on the mass-burning rate and maximum heat release rate were studied. Three different type of fuels were used in the experimental test runs.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Surface Film Models for Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Spray-Wall Interaction

2019-04-02
2019-01-0209
Surface film formation is an important phenomenon during spray impingement in a combustion chamber. The film that forms on the chamber walls and piston bowl produces soot post-combustion. While some droplets stick to the wall surface, others splash and interact with the gas present inside the combustion chamber. Accurate prediction of both the film thickness and splashed mass is crucial for surface film model development since it leads to a precise estimation of the amount of soot and other exhaust gases formed. This information could guide future studies aimed at a comprehensive understanding of the combustion process and might enable development of engines with reduced emissions. Dynamic structure Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model implemented for in-cylinder sprays [1] has shown to predict the flow structure of a spray more accurately than the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0204
Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

The Detection of Visual Distraction using Vehicle and Driver-Based Sensors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0114
Distracted driving remains a serious risk to motorists in the US and worldwide. Over 3,000 people were killed in 2013 in the US because of distracted driving; and over 420,000 people were injured. A system that can accurately detect distracted driving would potentially be able to alert drivers, bringing their attention back to the primary driving task and potentially saving lives. This paper documents an effort to develop an algorithm that can detect visual distraction using vehicle-based sensor signals such as steering wheel inputs and lane position. Additionally, the vehicle-based algorithm is compared with a version that includes driving-based signals in the form of head tracking data. The algorithms were developed using machine learning techniques and combine a Random Forest model for instantaneous detection with a Hidden Markov model for time series predictions.
Technical Paper

A Visual Investigation of CFD-Predicted In-Cylinder Mechanisms That Control First- and Second-Stage Ignition in Diesel Jets

2019-04-02
2019-01-0543
The long-term goal of this work is to develop a conceptual model for multiple injections of diesel jets. The current work contributes to that effort by performing a detailed modeling investigation into mechanisms that are predicted to control 1st and 2nd stage ignition in single-pulse diesel (n-dodecane) jets under different conditions. One condition produces a jet with negative ignition dwell that is dominated by mixing-controlled heat release, and the other, a jet with positive ignition dwell and dominated by premixed heat release. During 1st stage ignition, fuel is predicted to burn similarly under both conditions; far upstream, gases at the radial-edge of the jet, where gas temperatures are hotter, partially react and reactions continue as gases flow downstream. Once beyond the point of complete fuel evaporation, near-axis gases are no longer cooled by the evaporation process and 1st stage ignition transitions to 2nd stage ignition.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Swirl Ratio on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Motored HSDI Diesel Engine - A Combined Experimental and Numerical Study

2004-03-08
2004-01-1678
Simultaneous two-component measurements of gas velocity and multi-dimensional numerical simulation are employed to characterize the evolution of the in-cylinder turbulent flow structure in a re-entrant bowl-in-piston engine under motored operation. The evolution of the mean flow field, turbulence energy, turbulent length scales, and the various terms contributing to the production of the turbulence energy are correlated and compared, with the objectives of clarifying the physical mechanisms and flow structures that dominate the turbulence production and of identifying the source of discrepancies between the measured and simulated turbulence fields. Additionally, the applicability of the linear turbulent stress modeling hypothesis employed in the k-ε model is assessed using the experimental mean flow gradients, turbulence energy, and length scales.
Technical Paper

The Simulation of Single Cylinder Intake and Exhaust Systems

1967-02-01
670478
A detailed description of a numerical method for computing unsteady flows in engine intake and exhaust systems is given. The calculations include the effects of heat transfer and friction. The inclusion of such calculations in a mathematically simulated engine cycle is discussed and results shown for several systems. In particular, the effects of bell-mouth versus plain pipe terminations and the effects of a finite surge tank are calculated. Experimental data on the effect of heat transfer from the back of the intake valve on wave damping are given and show the effect to be negligible. Experimental data on wave damping during the valve closed period and on the temperature rise of the air near the valve are also given.
Technical Paper

Improving Upon Best Available Technology: A Clean Flex Fuel Snowmobile

2008-09-09
2008-32-0049
The University of Wisconsin-Madison Snowmobile Team has designed and constructed a clean, quiet, high performance snowmobile for entry in the 2008 Society of Automotive Engineers' Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Built on a 2003 cross-country touring chassis, this machine features a 750 cc fuel-injected four-stroke engine equipped with a fuel sensor which allows operation ranging from regular gasoline to an 85% blend of ethanol and gasoline (E85). The engine has been customized with a Mototron control system which allows for full engine optimization using a range of fuels from E00 to E85. Utilizing a heated oxygen sensor and a 3-way catalyst customized for this engine by W.C. Heraeus-GmbH, this sled reduces NOx, HC and CO emissions by up to 89% to an average specific mass of 0.484, 0.154, 4.94 g/kW-hr respectively. Finally, the Mototron system also allowed Wisconsin to extract another 4 kW from the Weber 750cc engine; producing 45 kW and 65 Nm of torque.
Technical Paper

Flame Temperature Measurements-ELECTRONIC SOLUTION of the TEMPERATURE EQUATIONS

1947-01-01
470246
A NEW electronic circuit arrangement added to the electro-optical pyrometer developed at the University of Wisconsin indicates instantaneously the temperature in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. The electronic device, which is described in this paper, solves an equation relating true temperature to intensity and wave length of monochromatic radiation from a luminous flame. True flame temperature is charted on an oscillograph as a function of such abscissas as time or crank angle. Several circuits are reviewed which were found unsuited for use with the pyrometer but which may be useful for other applications.
Technical Paper

Principal Component Analysis and Study of Port-Induced Swirl Structures in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1696
In this work computational and experimental approaches are combined to characterize in-cylinder flow structures and local flow field properties during operation of the Sandia 1.9L light-duty optical Diesel engine. A full computational model of the single-cylinder research engine was used that considers the complete intake and exhaust runners and plenums, as well as the adjustable throttling devices used in the experiments to obtain different swirl ratios. The in-cylinder flow predictions were validated against an extensive set of planar PIV measurements at different vertical locations in the combustion chamber for different swirl ratio configurations. Principal Component Analysis was used to characterize precession, tilting and eccentricity, and regional averages of the in-cylinder turbulence properties in the squish region and the piston bowl.
Technical Paper

Guidelines for CFD Simulations of Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics

2006-10-31
2006-01-3544
The CFD tools in aerodynamic design process have been commonly used in aerospace industry in last three decades. Although there are many CFD software algorithms developed for aerodynamic applications, the nature of a complex, three-dimensional geometry in incompressible highly separated, viscous flow made computational simulation of ground vehicle aerodynamics more difficult than aerospace applications. However, recent developments in computational hardware and software industry enabled many new engineering applications on computational environment. Traditional production process has largely influenced by computational design, analysis, manufacturing and visualization. Different aspects of linking advanced computational tools and aerodynamic vehicle design challenges are discussed in the present work. Key technologies like parallel computation, turbulence modeling and CFD/wind tunnel compatibility issues are presented.
Technical Paper

Portable Power from Nonportable Energy Sources

1963-01-01
630470
To meet future world energy demands, the engineer’s task will be to develop, through research, means of supplying new sources of energy. Though nuclear processes and solar energy will provide future energy, they are not readily adaptable to portable power systems due to inherent shortcomings. Energy can be supplied to portable power systems by energy storage systems using chemical, mechanical, or electrical forms, or it may be supplied through energy-in-transit systems. Technical discussion of various systems is presented. To develop suitable energy storage systems, thought must be given to problems of construction, operation, maintenance, and economics. Research is necessary to determine which chemical fuels are most adaptable for internal combustion engines.
Technical Paper

The Radiant and Convective Components of Diesel Engine Heat Transfer

1963-01-01
630148
The ratio of two temperature gradients across the combustion-chamber wall in a diesel engine is used to provide a heat flow ratio showing the radiant heat transfer as a per cent of local total heat transfer. The temperature gradients were obtained with a thermocouple junction on each side of the combustion-chamber wall. The first temperature gradient was obtained by covering the thermocouple at the cylinder gas-wall interface with a thin sapphire window, while the second was obtained without the window. Results show that the time-average radiant heat transfer is of significant magnitude in a diesel engine, and is probably even more significant in heat transfer during combustion and expansion.
Technical Paper

Aid of Digital Computer in the Analysis of Rigid Spring-Loaded Valve Mechanisms

1962-01-01
620290
A digital computer is used to calculate the free motion of the valve train of a riged valve mechanism, after jump-off from the cam profile, in order to verify the correctness of the assumptions made with regard to the friction, in the dynamic analysis of the mechanism. Close correlation between the calculated and experimentally measured valve motions appears to justify the linearization of the friction present in the mechanism.
Technical Paper

End-Gas Temperatures, Pressures, Reaction Rates, and Knock

1965-02-01
650505
The infrared radiation method of compression and end-gas temperature measurement was applied to the problem of measuring gas temperatures up to the time of knock. Pressure data were taken for each run on a CFR engine with mixtures of isooctane and n-heptane under both knocking and nonknocking conditions. Main engine parameters studied were the intake pressure, intake temperature, and engine speed. The rate and extent of chemical energy release were calculated from the temperature and pressure histories using an energy balance. The computed rates of chemical energy release were correlated to a chain-type kinetic model
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Crankcase Scavenged, Two-Stroke, SI Engine and Comparisons with Experimental Data

1969-02-01
690135
A detailed mathematical model of the thermodynamic events of a crankcase scavenged, two-stroke, SI engine is described. The engine is divided into three thermodynamic systems: the cylinder gases, the crankcase gases, and the inlet system gases. Energy balances, mass continuity equations, the ideal gas law, and thermodynamic property relationships are combined to give a set of coupled ordinary differential equations which describe the thermodynamic states encountered by the systems of the engine during one cycle of operation. A computer program is used to integrate the equations, starting with estimated initial thermodynamic conditions and estimated metal surface temperatures. The program iterates the cycle, adjusting the initial estimates, until the final conditions agree with the beginning conditions, that is, until a cycle results.
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