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Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion

The three-dimensional CFD codes KIVA-II and KIVA-3 have been used together to study the effects of intake generated in-cylinder flow structure on fuel-air mixing and combustion in a direct injected (DI) Diesel engine. In order to more accurately account for the effect of intake flow on in-cylinder processes, the KIVA-II code has been modified to allow for the use of data from other CFD codes as initial conditions. Simulation of the intake and compression strokes in a heavy-duty four-stroke DI Diesel engine has been carried out using KIVA-3. Flow quantities and thermodynamic field information were then mapped into a computational grid in KIVA-II for use in the study of mixing and combustion. A laminar and turbulent timescale combustion model, as well as advanced spray models, including wave breakup atomization, dynamic drop drag, and spray-wall interaction has been used in KIVA-II.
Technical Paper

Effects of Low Pressure EGR on Transient Air System Performance and Emissions for Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

Low pressure EGR offers greater effectiveness and flexibility for turbocharging and improved heat transfer compared to high pressure EGR systems. These characteristics have been shown to provide potential for further NOx, soot, and fuel consumption reductions in modern diesel engines. One of the drawbacks is reduced transient response capability due to the long EGR path. This can be largely mitigated by combining low pressure and high pressure loops in a hybrid EGR system, but the changes in transient response must be considered in the design of an effective control strategy. The effect of low pressure EGR on transient emissions was evaluated using two different combustion strategies over a variety of transient events. Low pressure EGR was found to significantly lengthen the response time of intake oxygen concentration following a transient event, which can have a substantial effect on emissions formation.
Technical Paper

Injection Effects in Low Load RCCI Dual-Fuel Combustion

Dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine experiments were conducted with port fuel injection of isooctane and direct injection of n-heptane. The experiments were conducted at a nominal load of 4.75 bar IMEPg, with low isooctane equivalence ratios. Two sets of experiments explored the effects of direct injection timing with single and double injections, and multi-dimensional CFD modeling was used to explore mixture preparation and timing effects. The findings were that if fuel-liner impingement is to be avoided, double injections provide a 40% reduction in CO and HC emissions, resulting in a 1% increase in thermal efficiency. The second engine experiment showed that there is a linear relationship between reactivity (PRF number) and intake temperature. It was also found that if the premixed fuel fraction is above a certain limit, the high-temperature heat release (HTHR) can be manipulated by changing the global PRF number of the in-cylinder fuel blend.
Technical Paper

The Reaction of Ethane in Spark Ignition Engine Exhaust Gas

This paper describes a method for studying reactions of hydrocarbons in S.I. engine exhaust gases. The reaction of ethane is described using an Arrhenius model (experimentally E = 86,500 cal/mole) for the rate of ethane diappearance and empirical correlations for distributions of the products carbon monoxide, ethylene, formaldehyde, methane, acetylene, and propane as a function of the fraction of ethane reacted. The results show that the nature of partial oxidation products from a nonreactive hydrocarbon may be less desirable from an air pollution viewpoint than the initial hydrocarbon.
Technical Paper

Mass Burning Rate in a Rotary Combustion Engine

This paper reports the mass-burning rate in a rotary combustion engine. The mass-burning rate is calculated through an iterative constituent and energy constraints during the combustion process. First approximation is obtained through the firing and motoring-pressure trace as recorded by an image-retaining oscilloscope and recorded subsequently by a polaroid camera. Effect of engine load, engine speed, relative (A/F) on the mass-burning rate and maximum heat release rate were studied. Three different type of fuels were used in the experimental test runs.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

The Detection of Visual Distraction using Vehicle and Driver-Based Sensors

Distracted driving remains a serious risk to motorists in the US and worldwide. Over 3,000 people were killed in 2013 in the US because of distracted driving; and over 420,000 people were injured. A system that can accurately detect distracted driving would potentially be able to alert drivers, bringing their attention back to the primary driving task and potentially saving lives. This paper documents an effort to develop an algorithm that can detect visual distraction using vehicle-based sensor signals such as steering wheel inputs and lane position. Additionally, the vehicle-based algorithm is compared with a version that includes driving-based signals in the form of head tracking data. The algorithms were developed using machine learning techniques and combine a Random Forest model for instantaneous detection with a Hidden Markov model for time series predictions.
Technical Paper

A Visual Investigation of CFD-Predicted In-Cylinder Mechanisms That Control First- and Second-Stage Ignition in Diesel Jets

The long-term goal of this work is to develop a conceptual model for multiple injections of diesel jets. The current work contributes to that effort by performing a detailed modeling investigation into mechanisms that are predicted to control 1st and 2nd stage ignition in single-pulse diesel (n-dodecane) jets under different conditions. One condition produces a jet with negative ignition dwell that is dominated by mixing-controlled heat release, and the other, a jet with positive ignition dwell and dominated by premixed heat release. During 1st stage ignition, fuel is predicted to burn similarly under both conditions; far upstream, gases at the radial-edge of the jet, where gas temperatures are hotter, partially react and reactions continue as gases flow downstream. Once beyond the point of complete fuel evaporation, near-axis gases are no longer cooled by the evaporation process and 1st stage ignition transitions to 2nd stage ignition.
Technical Paper

Improving Upon Best Available Technology: A Clean Flex Fuel Snowmobile

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Snowmobile Team has designed and constructed a clean, quiet, high performance snowmobile for entry in the 2008 Society of Automotive Engineers' Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Built on a 2003 cross-country touring chassis, this machine features a 750 cc fuel-injected four-stroke engine equipped with a fuel sensor which allows operation ranging from regular gasoline to an 85% blend of ethanol and gasoline (E85). The engine has been customized with a Mototron control system which allows for full engine optimization using a range of fuels from E00 to E85. Utilizing a heated oxygen sensor and a 3-way catalyst customized for this engine by W.C. Heraeus-GmbH, this sled reduces NOx, HC and CO emissions by up to 89% to an average specific mass of 0.484, 0.154, 4.94 g/kW-hr respectively. Finally, the Mototron system also allowed Wisconsin to extract another 4 kW from the Weber 750cc engine; producing 45 kW and 65 Nm of torque.
Technical Paper

High Speed Dual-Fuel RCCI Combustion for High Power Output

In recent years society's demand and interest in clean and efficient internal combustion engines has grown significantly. Several ideas have been proposed and tested to meet this demand. In particular, dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion has demonstrated high thermal efficiency, and low engine-out NOx, and soot emissions. Unlike homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, which solely relies on the chemical kinetics of the fuel for ignition control, RCCI combustion has proven to provide superior combustion controllability while retaining the known benefits of low emissions and high thermal efficiency of HCCI combustion. However, in order for RCCI combustion to be adopted as a high efficiency and low engine-out emission solution, it is important to achieve high-power operation that is comparable to conventional diesel combustion (CDC).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Injection Pressure on Air Entrainment into Transient Diesel Sprays

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of injection pressure on air entrainment into transient diesel sprays. The main application of interest was the direct injection diesel engine. Particle Image Velocimetry was used to make measurements of the air entrainment velocities into a spray plume as a function of time and space. A hydraulically actuated, electronically controlled unit injector (HEUI) system was used to supply the fuel into a pressurized spray chamber. The gas chamber density was maintained at 27 kg/m3. The injection pressures that were studied in this current research project were 117.6 MPa and 132.3 MPa. For different injection pressures, during the initial two-thirds of the spray plume there was little difference in the velocities normal to the spray surface. For the last third of the spray plume, the normal velocities were 125% higher for the high injection pressure case.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mixing on Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Prediction for Isooctane HCCI Engine Combustion Using a Multi-zone Detailed Kinetics Solver

This research investigates how the handling of mixing and heat transfer in a multi-zone kinetic solver affects the prediction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions for simulations of HCCI engine combustion. A detailed kinetics multi-zone model is now more closely coordinated with the KIVA3V computational fluid dynamics code for simulation of the compression and expansion processes. The fluid mechanics is solved with high spatial and temporal resolution (40,000 cells). The chemistry is simulated with high temporal resolution, but low spatial resolution (20 computational zones). This paper presents comparison of simulation results using this enhanced multi-zone model to experimental data from an isooctane HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Surrogate Diesel Fuel Models for Low Temperature Combustion

Diesel fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbons. Since modeling their combustion characteristics with the inclusion of all hydrocarbon species is not feasible, a hybrid surrogate model approach is used in the present work to represent the physical and chemical properties of three different diesel fuels by using up to 13 and 4 separate hydrocarbon species, respectively. The surrogates are arrived at by matching their distillation profiles and important properties with the real fuel, while the chemistry surrogates are arrived at by using a Group Chemistry Representation (GCR) method wherein the hydrocarbon species in the physical property surrogates are grouped based on their chemical classes, and the chemistry of each class is represented by using up to two hydrocarbon species.
Technical Paper

A Computer Program for Calculating Properties of Equilibrium Combustion Products with Some Applications to I.C. Engines

A computer program which rapidly calculates the equilibrium mole fractions and the partial derivatives of the mole fractions with respect to temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio for the products of combustion of any hydrocarbon fuel and air is described. A subroutine is also given which calculates the gas constant, enthalpy, internal energy and the partial derivatives of these with respect to temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. Some examples of the uses of the programs are also given.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of the Soot Deposition Mechanism in Diesel Particulate Filters

A computational, three-dimensional approach to investigate the behavior of diesel soot particles in the micro-channels of wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters is presented. The KIVA3V CFD code, already extended to solve the 2D conservation equations for porous media materials [1], has been enhanced to solve in 2-D and 3-D the governing equations for reacting and compressible flows through porous media in non axes-symmetric geometries. With respect to previous work [1], a different mathematical approach has been followed in the implementation of the numerical solver for porous media, in order to achieve a faster convergency as source terms were added to the governing equations. The Darcy pressure drop has been included in the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation has been extended to account for the thermal exchange between the gas flow and the porous wall.
Technical Paper

Guidelines for CFD Simulations of Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics

The CFD tools in aerodynamic design process have been commonly used in aerospace industry in last three decades. Although there are many CFD software algorithms developed for aerodynamic applications, the nature of a complex, three-dimensional geometry in incompressible highly separated, viscous flow made computational simulation of ground vehicle aerodynamics more difficult than aerospace applications. However, recent developments in computational hardware and software industry enabled many new engineering applications on computational environment. Traditional production process has largely influenced by computational design, analysis, manufacturing and visualization. Different aspects of linking advanced computational tools and aerodynamic vehicle design challenges are discussed in the present work. Key technologies like parallel computation, turbulence modeling and CFD/wind tunnel compatibility issues are presented.
Technical Paper

Portable Power from Nonportable Energy Sources

To meet future world energy demands, the engineer’s task will be to develop, through research, means of supplying new sources of energy. Though nuclear processes and solar energy will provide future energy, they are not readily adaptable to portable power systems due to inherent shortcomings. Energy can be supplied to portable power systems by energy storage systems using chemical, mechanical, or electrical forms, or it may be supplied through energy-in-transit systems. Technical discussion of various systems is presented. To develop suitable energy storage systems, thought must be given to problems of construction, operation, maintenance, and economics. Research is necessary to determine which chemical fuels are most adaptable for internal combustion engines.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Vaporization Histories and Trajectories of Fuel Drops Injected into Swirling Air

Single droplet theory is used to simulate the behavior of fuel sprays in high-speed open-chamber diesels. A model for sprays in still air is presented which includes the air motion induced by the spray. Calculated paths and vaporization histories for droplets injected into swirling air are also presented. It is shown that the paths of vaporizing drops are closely approximated by solid sphere calculations. The effects of swirl speed, engine rpm, and squish air motion are also investigated.
Technical Paper

The Self Ignition of Fuel Drops in Heated Air Streams

The results of both theoretical and experimental studies on the self-ignition of single pure hydrocarbon drops are described. In this work single drops were subjected to air streams heated to such degrees that self-ignition of the drops would occur. Experimental heat and mass transfer parameters, as well as ignition delay data for different fuels and at different operating conditions were obtained. The experimental data were then used in conjunction with boundary layer correlations to evaluate the extent of the ignition delay that is physical (vaporization) and chemical (molecular interaction).