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Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion

The three-dimensional CFD codes KIVA-II and KIVA-3 have been used together to study the effects of intake generated in-cylinder flow structure on fuel-air mixing and combustion in a direct injected (DI) Diesel engine. In order to more accurately account for the effect of intake flow on in-cylinder processes, the KIVA-II code has been modified to allow for the use of data from other CFD codes as initial conditions. Simulation of the intake and compression strokes in a heavy-duty four-stroke DI Diesel engine has been carried out using KIVA-3. Flow quantities and thermodynamic field information were then mapped into a computational grid in KIVA-II for use in the study of mixing and combustion. A laminar and turbulent timescale combustion model, as well as advanced spray models, including wave breakup atomization, dynamic drop drag, and spray-wall interaction has been used in KIVA-II.
Technical Paper

Fuel - Engine Research in Universities

The reasons for conducting research in a university are presented and discussed. It is concluded that fuel-engine studies are compatible with these reasons and therefore are well suited for university research. Past studies in this field are summarized and unanswered questions and future topics suitable for university investigation are suggested. Included in the topics discussed are: instrumentation, thermodynamic description of working fluids, fuel vaporization and atomization, combustion, and instantaneous heat transfer and mass flow rates. The steps that need to be taken to ensure continuing university interest in fuel-engine studies are presented.
Technical Paper

Principal Component Analysis and Study of Port-Induced Swirl Structures in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

In this work computational and experimental approaches are combined to characterize in-cylinder flow structures and local flow field properties during operation of the Sandia 1.9L light-duty optical Diesel engine. A full computational model of the single-cylinder research engine was used that considers the complete intake and exhaust runners and plenums, as well as the adjustable throttling devices used in the experiments to obtain different swirl ratios. The in-cylinder flow predictions were validated against an extensive set of planar PIV measurements at different vertical locations in the combustion chamber for different swirl ratio configurations. Principal Component Analysis was used to characterize precession, tilting and eccentricity, and regional averages of the in-cylinder turbulence properties in the squish region and the piston bowl.
Technical Paper

Psychophysics of Trust in Vehicle Control Algorithms

Increasingly sophisticated vehicle automation can perform steering and speed control, allowing the driver to disengage from driving. However, vehicle automation may not be capable of handling all roadway situations and driver intervention may be required in such situations. The typical approach is to indicate vehicle capability through displays and warnings, but control algorithms can also signal capability. Psychophysical methods can be used to link perceptual experiences to physical stimuli. In this situation, trust is an important perceptual experience related to automation capability that is revealed by the physical stimuli produced by different control algorithms. For instance, precisely centering the vehicle in the lane may indicate a highly capable system, whereas simply keeping the vehicle within lane boundaries may signal diminished capability.
Technical Paper

Guidelines for CFD Simulations of Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics

The CFD tools in aerodynamic design process have been commonly used in aerospace industry in last three decades. Although there are many CFD software algorithms developed for aerodynamic applications, the nature of a complex, three-dimensional geometry in incompressible highly separated, viscous flow made computational simulation of ground vehicle aerodynamics more difficult than aerospace applications. However, recent developments in computational hardware and software industry enabled many new engineering applications on computational environment. Traditional production process has largely influenced by computational design, analysis, manufacturing and visualization. Different aspects of linking advanced computational tools and aerodynamic vehicle design challenges are discussed in the present work. Key technologies like parallel computation, turbulence modeling and CFD/wind tunnel compatibility issues are presented.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Swirl Ratio on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Motored HSDI Diesel Engine - A Combined Experimental and Numerical Study

Simultaneous two-component measurements of gas velocity and multi-dimensional numerical simulation are employed to characterize the evolution of the in-cylinder turbulent flow structure in a re-entrant bowl-in-piston engine under motored operation. The evolution of the mean flow field, turbulence energy, turbulent length scales, and the various terms contributing to the production of the turbulence energy are correlated and compared, with the objectives of clarifying the physical mechanisms and flow structures that dominate the turbulence production and of identifying the source of discrepancies between the measured and simulated turbulence fields. Additionally, the applicability of the linear turbulent stress modeling hypothesis employed in the k-ε model is assessed using the experimental mean flow gradients, turbulence energy, and length scales.
Technical Paper

Pressure-Swirl Atomization in the Near Field

To model sprays from pressure-swirl atomizers, the connection between the injector and the downstream spray must be considered. A new model for pressure-swirl atomizers is presented which assumes little knowledge of the internal details of the injector, but instead uses available observations of external spray characteristics. First, a correlation for the exit velocity at the injector exit is used to define the liquid film thickness. Next, the film must be modeled as it becomes a thin, liquid sheet and breaks up, forming ligaments and droplets. A linearized instability analysis of the breakup of a viscous, liquid sheet is used as part of the spray boundary condition. The spray angle is estimated from spray photographs and patternator data. A mass averaged spray angle is calculated from the patternator data and used in some of the calculations.
Journal Article

On the Accuracy of Dissipation Scale Measurements in IC Engines

The effects of imaging system resolution and laser sheet thickness on the measurement of the Batchelor scale were investigated in a single-cylinder optical engine. The Batchelor scale was determined by fitting a model spectrum to the dissipation spectrum that was obtained from fuel tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of the in-cylinder scalar field. The imaging system resolution was quantified by measuring the step-response function; the scanning knife edge technique was used to measure the 10-90% clip width of the laser sheet. In these experiments, the spatial resolution varied from a native resolution of 32.0 μm to 137.4 μm, and the laser sheet thickness ranged from 108 μm to 707 μm. Thus, the overall resolution of the imaging system was made to vary by approximately a factor of four in the in-plane dimension and a factor of six in the out-of-plane dimension.
Technical Paper

A Resistance Thermometer for Engine Compression Temperatures

Fine-wire resistance thermometers were used to measure compression gas temperatures in a motoring (nonfiring) cycle CFR engine. Temperature versus crankangle curves were obtained for the compression and expansion strokes by means of tungsten wires ranging in diameter from 0.15–1.00 mils and at speeds from 600–1800 rpm. The results were compared with the infrared pyrometer; the peak temperature and peak crankangle lags were determined as a function of the wire diameter and engine speed. Attempts to evaluate the instantaneous energy balance around the wire resulted in a negative heat transfer coefficient, for which no current satisfactory explanation is available, although other observers have reported similar phenomena. The tungsten resistance thermometer is simple to build, easy to install, and requires no modification of the engine block for use during motoring. Thus, it is suitable for comparing the compression temperatures of different design engines.