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Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in the Piston Bowl of a DI Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940283
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to make gas velocity and turbulence measurements in a motored diesel engine. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 production engine. One of the exhaust valves and the fuel injector port were used to provide optical access to the combustion chamber so that modifications to the engine geometry were minimal, and the results are representative of the actual engine. Measurements of gas velocity were made in a plane in the piston bowl using TiO2 seed particles. The light sheet necessary for PIV was formed by passing the beam from a Nd:YAG laser through the injector port and reflecting the beam off a conical mirror at the center of the piston. PIV data was difficult to obtain due to significant out-of-plane velocities. However, data was acquired at 25° and 15° before top dead center of compression at 750 rev/min.
Technical Paper

A Visual Investigation of CFD-Predicted In-Cylinder Mechanisms That Control First- and Second-Stage Ignition in Diesel Jets

2019-04-02
2019-01-0543
The long-term goal of this work is to develop a conceptual model for multiple injections of diesel jets. The current work contributes to that effort by performing a detailed modeling investigation into mechanisms that are predicted to control 1st and 2nd stage ignition in single-pulse diesel (n-dodecane) jets under different conditions. One condition produces a jet with negative ignition dwell that is dominated by mixing-controlled heat release, and the other, a jet with positive ignition dwell and dominated by premixed heat release. During 1st stage ignition, fuel is predicted to burn similarly under both conditions; far upstream, gases at the radial-edge of the jet, where gas temperatures are hotter, partially react and reactions continue as gases flow downstream. Once beyond the point of complete fuel evaporation, near-axis gases are no longer cooled by the evaporation process and 1st stage ignition transitions to 2nd stage ignition.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of the Impact of Pilot Ratio Variations on Natural Gas Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-1159
Experiments were performed on a small-bore optically accessible engine to investigate diesel pilot ignition (DPI) and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) dual-fuel combustion strategies with direct injection of natural gas and diesel. Parametric variations of pilot ratio were performed. Natural luminosity and OH chemiluminescence movies of the combustion processes were captured at 28.8 and 14.4 kHz, respectively. These data were used to create ignition maps, which aided in comparing the propagation modes of the two combustion strategies. Lower pilot ratios resulted in lower initial heat release rates, and the initial ignition sites were generally smaller and less luminous; for increased pilot ratios the initial portion of the heat release was larger, and the ignition sites were large and bright. Comparisons between diesel pilot ignition and reactivity controlled compression ignition showed differences in combustion propagation mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Modeling Early Injection Processes in HSDI Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0056
Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the combustion process in the Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) regime in a light-duty diesel engine. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into an updated KIVA-3V release 2 code to simulate combustion and emission characteristics using reduced chemistry. The test engine used for validation data was a single cylinder version of a production 1.9L four-cylinder HSDI diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was 2,000 rev/min and 5 bar BMEP load. Because high EGR levels are required for combustion retardation to make PCI combustion possible, the EGR rate was set at a relatively high level (40%) and injection timing sweeps were considered. Since injection timings were very advanced, impingement of the fuel spray on the piston bowl wall was unavoidable. To model the effects of fuel films on exhaust emissions, a drop and wall interaction model was implemented in the present code.
Technical Paper

Flamelet Modeling with LES for Diesel Engine Simulations

2006-04-03
2006-01-0058
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a flamelet time scale combustion model is used to simulate diesel combustion. The flamelet time scale model uses a steady-state flamelet library for n-heptane indexed by mean mixture fraction, mixture fraction variance, and mean scalar dissipation rate. In the combustion model, reactions proceed towards the flamelet library solution at a time scale associated with the slowest reaction. This combination of a flamelet solution and a chemical time scale helps to account for unsteady mixing effects. The turbulent sub-grid stresses are simulated using a one-equation, non-viscosity LES model called the dynamic structure model. The model uses a tensor coefficient determined by the dynamic procedure and the subgrid kinetic energy. The model has been expanded to include scalar mixing and scalar dissipation. A new model for the conditional scalar dissipation has been developed to better predict local extinction.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Characteristic Time (CTC), Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF), and Direct Integration with Detailed Chemistry Combustion Models against Optical Diagnostic Data for Multi-Mode Combustion in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0055
Three different approaches for modeling diesel engine combustion are compared against cylinder pressure, NOx emissions, high-speed soot luminosity imaging, and 2-color thermometry data from a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. A characteristic time combustion (KIVA-CTC) model, a representative interactive flamelet (KIVA-RIF) model, and direct integration using detailed chemistry (KIVA-CHEMKIN) were integrated into the same version of the KIVA-3v computer code. In this way, the computer code provides a common platform for comparing various combustion models. Five different engine operating strategies that are representative of several different combustion regimes were explored in the experiments and model simulations. Two of the strategies produce high-temperature combustion with different ignition delays, while the other three use dilution to achieve low-temperature combustion (LTC), with early, late, or multiple injections.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of a Non-Gradient Step-Controlled Search Algorithm for Engine Combustion Optimization

2006-04-03
2006-01-0239
A new search technique, called Non-Gradient Step-Controlled algorithm (NGSC), is presented. The NGSC was applied independently from pre-selected starting points and as a supplement to a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimize a HSDI diesel engine using split injection strategies. It is shown that the NGSC handles well the challenges of a complex response surface and factor high-dimensionality, which demonstrates its capability as an efficient and accurate tool to seek “local” convergence on complex surfaces. By directly tracking the change of a merit function, the NGSC places no requirement on response surface continuity / differentiability, and hence is more robust than gradient-dependent search techniques. The directional search mechanism takes factor interactions into consideration, and search step size control is adopted to facilitate search efficiency.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Modeling Using a Level Set Method with Detailed Chemistry

2006-04-03
2006-01-0243
A level set method (G-equation)-based combustion model incorporating detailed chemical kinetics has been developed and implemented in KIVA-3V for Spark-Ignition (SI) engine simulations for better predictions of fuel oxidation and pollutant formation. Detailed fuel oxidation mechanisms coupled with a reduced NOX mechanism are used to describe the chemical processes. The flame front in the spark kernel stage is tracked using the Discrete Particle Ignition Kernel (DPIK) model. In the G-equation model, it is assumed that after the flame front has passed, the mixture within the mean flame brush tends to local equilibrium. The subgrid-scale burnt/unburnt volumes of the flame containing cells are tracked for the primary heat release calculation. A progress variable concept is introduced into the turbulent flame speed correlation to account for the laminar to turbulent evolution of the spark kernel flame.
Technical Paper

Stoichiometric Combustion in a HSDI Diesel Engine to Allow Use of a Three-way Exhaust Catalyst

2006-04-03
2006-01-1148
The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the characteristics of rich diesel combustion near the stoichiometric operating condition, 2) to explore the possibility of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine in order to allow use of a three-way exhaust after-treatment catalyst, and 3) to achieve practical operation ranges with acceptable fuel economy impacts. Boost pressure, EGR rate, intake air temperature, fuel mass injected, and injection timing variations were investigated to evaluate diesel stoichiometric combustion characteristics in a single-cylinder high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. Stoichiometric operation in the Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion regime and standard diesel combustion were examined to investigate the characteristics of rich combustion. The results indicate that diesel stoichiometric operation can be achieved with minor fuel economy and soot impact.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Analysis of Waste Heat Recovery from an Internal Combustion Engine in a Hybrid Vehicle

2006-04-03
2006-01-1605
This paper presents a theoretical study of different strategies of waste heat recovery in an internal combustion engine, operating in a hybrid vehicle (spark ignition engine and electric motor). Many of the previous studies of energy recovery from waste heat focused on running thermodynamic cycles with the objective of supplying air-conditioning loads. There are two elements of this study that are different from previous studies: first, the end use of the recovered waste heat is the generation of electric power, and, second, the implementation of these heat recovery strategies takes place in a hybrid vehicle. The constant load conditions for the SI-engine in the hybrid vehicle are a potential advantage for the implementation of a heat recovery system. Three configurations of Rankine cycles were considered: a cycle running with the exhaust gases, a cycle with the engine coolant system, and a combined exhaust-engine coolant system.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Gas Temperature in a HCCI Engine Using a Fourier Domain Mode Locking Laser

2006-04-03
2006-01-1366
Initial measurements of water vapor temperature using a Fourier domain mode locking (FDML) laser were performed in a carefully controlled homogenous charge compression ignition engine with optical access. The gas temperature was inferred from water absorption spectra that were measured each 0.25 crank angle degrees (CAD) over a range of 150 CAD. Accuracy was tested in a well controlled shock tube experiment. This paper will validate the potential of this FDML laser in combustion applications.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Parameters on near Stoichiometric Diesel Combustion Characteristics

2007-04-16
2007-01-0121
Stoichiometric combustion could enable a three-way catalyst to be used for treating NOx emissions of diesel engines, which is one of the most difficult species for diesel engines to meet future emission regulations. Previous study by Lee et al. [1] showed that diesel engines can operate with stoichiometric combustion successfully with only a minor impact on fuel consumption. Low NOx emission levels were another advantage of stoichiometric operation according to that study. In this study, the characteristics of stoichiometric diesel combustion were evaluated experimentally to improve fuel economy as well as exhaust emissions The effects of fuel injection pressure, boost pressure, swirl, intake air temperature, combustion regime (injection timing), and engine load (fuel mass injected) were assessed under stoichiometric conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake Air Temperature, Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature on the Start of Heat Release in an HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) Engine

2001-12-01
2001-01-1880
In this paper, effect of intake air temperature, coolant temperature, and compression ratio on start of heat release (SOHR) in HCCI engines is investigated. The operational range with HCCI operation was determined experimentally using a CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine with n-butane as the fuel. In-cylinder pressure was processed to evaluate SOHR. The effect of intake air and coolant temperature on SOHR increases as engine speed increases. In order to gain more insight into the combustion phenomena, SOHR was calculated using the theory of Livengood-Wu and compared with the experimental data. Dependence of SOHR on the equivalence ratio shows good correspondence between experiment and calculation. On the contrary, dependence on the intake air temperature and compression ratio shows poorer correspondence with predictions, especially under low engine speed. We interpret this as an indication of the importance of the active intermediate species that remain in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement of Particulate Radiant Heat Transfer in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0072
A method of determining the total hemispherical in-cylinder radiant heat transfer of a direct injection diesel engine was developed using the Two Color theory. A radiant probe was installed in the head of a single cylinder test engine version of a Cummins N14 diesel engine to facilitate the optical measurement. Two probes, installed one at a time, were used to provide the data to calculate the hemispherical radiant heat flux. Each of the probes had a different field of view but both had a near-hemispherical field of view and used a window material that exhibits a cosine-normalized response. The radiant probes were designed to be self-cleaning and remained free of soot deposits during engine operation at high load. The test engine was operated at 1200 and 1500 RPM and at 50, 75, and 100% load for each engine speed. At each operating combination of engine speed and load, measurements were made at several injection timings.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Late Cycle Oxygen Enrichment on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions

2002-03-04
2002-01-1158
A multidimensional simulation of Auxiliary Gas Injection (AGI) for late cycle oxygen enrichment was exercised to assess the merits of AGI for reducing the emissions of soot from heavy duty diesel engines while not adversely affecting the NOx emissions of the engine. Here, AGI is the controlled enhancement of mixing within the diesel engine combustion chamber by high speed jets of air or another gas. The engine simulated was a Caterpillar 3401 engine. For a particular operating condition of this engine, the simulated soot emissions of the engine were reduced by 80% while not significantly affecting the engine-out NOx emissions compared to the engine operating without AGI. The effects of AGI duration, timing, and orientation are studied to confirm the window of opportunity for realizing lower engine-out soot while not increasing engine out NOx through controlled enhancement of in-cylinder mixing.
Technical Paper

Modeling Fuel Preparation and Stratified Combustion in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0175
Fuel preparation and stratified combustion were studied for a conceptual gasoline Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (GDI or DISI) engine by computer simulations. The primary interest was on the effects of different injector orientations and the effects of tumble ratio for late injection cases at a partial load operating condition. A modified KIVA-3V code that includes improved spray breakup and wall impingement and combustion models was used. A new ignition kernel model, called DPIK, was developed to describe the early flame growth process. The model uses Lagrangian marker particles to describe the flame positions. The computational results reveal that spray wall impingement is important and the fuel distribution is controlled by the spray momentum and the combustion chamber shape. The injector orientation significantly influences the fuel stratification pattern, which results in different combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection and Mean Swirl Effects on Combustion and Soot Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0912
High-speed video imaging in a swirl-supported (Rs = 1.7), direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine operated with moderate-to-high EGR rates reveals a distinct correlation between the spatial distribution of luminous soot and mean flow vorticity in the horizontal plane. The temporal behavior of the experimental images, as well as the results of multi-dimensional numerical simulations, show that this soot-vorticity correlation is caused by the presence of a greater amount of soot on the windward side of the jet. The simulations indicate that while flow swirl can influence pre-ignition mixing processes as well as post-combustion soot oxidation processes, interactions between the swirl and the heat release can also influence mixing processes. Without swirl, combustion-generated gas flows influence mixing on both sides of the jet equally. In the presence of swirl, the heat release occurs on the leeward side of the fuel sprays.
Technical Paper

Positive Displacement Calibration for Laboratory Flowmeters

1995-09-01
952093
Positive displacement flowmeters can be used to simply and accurately calibrate common flow transducers such as axial turbine and target flowmeters. Two means of utilizing positive displacement devices were studied for use as a laboratory flowmeter calibration. The first method employed a fixed displacement axial piston motor. This proved unsatisfactory due to the difficulty in quantifying flow losses. The second method used a large hydraulic cylinder. An optical encoder measured the position of the cylinder rod, permitting a direct calculation of the flow through the in-line flowmeter being calibrated. Because cylinder leakage is virtually zero at low pressure, flow can be readily calculated knowing the effective cylinder diameter and piston velocity. The method described in this paper permits flow rates to be measured with an accuracy of ±0.1% of the volumetric flow rate. This paper discusses details of the design of the flowmeter and calibration method.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer of Fuel Films Resulting from Impinging Sprays

1998-02-23
980132
To help account for fuel distribution during combustion in diesel engines, a fuel film model has been developed and implemented into the KIVA-II code [1]. Spray-wall interaction and spray-film interaction are also incorporated into the model. Modified wall functions for evaporating, wavy films are developed and tested. The model simulates thin fuel film flow on solid surfaces of arbitrary configuration. This is achieved by solving the continuity, momentum and energy equations for the two dimensional film that flows over a three dimensional surface. The major physical effects considered in the model include mass and momentum contributions to the film due to spray drop impingement, splashing effects, various shear forces, piston acceleration, dynamic pressure effects, and convective heat and mass transfer.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation into the Effects of Spray Targeting, Bowl Geometry and Swirl Ratio for Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0119
A computational study was performed to evaluate the effects of bowl geometry, fuel spray targeting and swirl ratio under highly diluted, low-temperature combustion conditions in a heavy-duty diesel engine. This study is used to examine aspects of low-temperature combustion that are affected by mixing processes and offers insight into the effect these processes have on emissions formation and oxidation. The foundation for this exploratory study stems from a large data set which was generated using a genetic algorithm optimization methodology. The main results suggest that an optimal combination of spray targeting, swirl ratio and bowl geometry exist to simultaneously minimize emissions formation and improve soot and CO oxidation rates. Spray targeting was found to have a significant impact on the emissions and fuel consumption performance, and was furthermore found to be the most influential design parameter explored in this study.
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