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Technical Paper

Combustion and Lift-Off Characteristics of n-Heptane Sprays Using Direct Numerical Simulations

2007-10-29
2007-01-4136
Fundamental simulations using DNS type procedures were used to investigate the ignition, combustion characteristics and the lift-off trends of a spatially evolving turbulent liquid fuel jet. In particular, the spatially evolving n-Heptane spray injected in a two-dimensional rectangular domain with an engine like environment was investigated. The computational results were compared to the experimental observations from an optical engine as reported in the literature. It was found that an initial fuel rich combustion downstream of the spray tip is followed by diffusion combustion. Investigations were also made to understand the effects of injection velocity, ambient temperature and the droplet radius on the lift-off length. For each of these parameters three different values in a given range were chosen. For both injection velocity and droplet radius, an increase resulted in a near linear increase in the lift-off length.
Technical Paper

Three Way Catalyst Modeling with Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Kinetics for a Lean Burn Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) Gasoline Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1572
A Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) model with global TWC kinetics for lean burn DISI engines were developed and validated. The model incorporates kinetics of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide oxidations, NOx reduction, water-gas and steam reforming and oxygen storage. Ammonia (NH₃) and new nitrous oxide (N₂O) kinetics were added into the model to study NH₃ and N₂O formation in TWC systems. The model was validated over a wide range of engine operating conditions using various types of experimental data from a lean burn automotive SIDI engine. First, well-controlled time-resolved steady state data were used for calibration and initial model tests. In these steady state operations, the engine was switched between lean and rich conditions for NOx emission control. Then, the model was further validated using a large set of time-averaged steady state data. Temperature dependencies of NH₃ and N₂O kinetics in the TWC model were examined and well captured by the model.
Journal Article

Divided Exhaust Period Implementation in a Light-Duty Turbocharged Dual-Fuel RCCI Engine for Improved Fuel Economy and Aftertreatment Thermal Management: A Simulation Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-0256
Although turbocharging can extend the high load limit of low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), the low exhaust enthalpy prevalent in these strategies necessitates the use of high exhaust pressures for improving turbocharger efficiency, causing high pumping losses and poor fuel economy. To mitigate these pumping losses, the divided exhaust period (DEP) concept is proposed. In this concept, the exhaust gas is directed to two separate manifolds: the blowdown manifold which is connected to the turbocharger and the scavenging manifold that bypasses the turbocharger. By separately actuating the exhaust valves using variable valve actuation, the exhaust flow is split between two manifolds, thereby reducing the overall engine backpressure and lowering pumping losses. In this paper, results from zero-dimensional and one-dimensional simulations of a multicylinder RCCI light-duty engine equipped with DEP are presented.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Engine Operating Parameters Using Neural Networks

2003-10-27
2003-01-3228
Neural networks are useful tools for optimization studies since they are very fast, so that while capturing the accuracy of multi-dimensional CFD calculations or experimental data, they can be run numerous times as required by many optimization techniques. This paper describes how a set of neural networks trained on a multi-dimensional CFD code to predict pressure, temperature, heat flux, torque and emissions, have been used by a genetic algorithm in combination with a hill-climbing type algorithm to optimize operating parameters of a diesel engine over the entire speed-torque map of the engine. The optimized parameters are mass of fuel injected per cycle, shape of the injection profile for dual split injection, start of injection, EGR level and boost pressure. These have been optimized for minimum emissions. Another set of neural networks have been trained to predict the optimized parameters, based on the speed-torque point of the engine.
Journal Article

Effect of Mesh Structure in the KIVA-4 Code with a Less Mesh Dependent Spray Model for DI Diesel Engine Simulations

2009-06-15
2009-01-1937
Two different types of mesh used for diesel combustion with the KIVA-4 code are compared. One is a well established conventional KIVA-3 type polar mesh. The other is a non-polar mesh with uniform size throughout the piston bowl so as to reduce the number of cells and to improve the quality of the cell shapes around the cylinder axis which can contain many fuel droplets that affect prediction accuracy and the computational time. This mesh is specialized for the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh. To prevent dramatic changes in spray penetration caused by the difference in cell size between the two types of mesh, a recently developed spray model which reduces mesh dependency of the droplet behavior has been implemented. For the ignition and combustion models, the Shell model and characteristic time combustion (CTC) model are employed.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Structures on Fuel/Air Mixing in a Direct-injected Spark-Ignition Engine

1996-05-01
961192
Multidimensional computations were carried out to simulate the in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process of a direct-injection spark-ignition engine using a modified version of the KIVA-3 code. A hollow cone spray was modeled using a Lagrangian stochastic approach with an empirical initial atomization treatment which is based on experimental data. Improved Spalding-type evaporation and drag models were used to calculate drop vaporization and drop dynamic drag. Spray/wall impingement hydrodynamics was accounted for by using a phenomenological model. Intake flows were computed using a simple approach in which a prescribed velocity profile is specified at the two intake valve openings. This allowed three intake flow patterns, namely, swirl, tumble and non-tumble, to be considered. It was shown that fuel vaporization was completed at the end of compression stroke with early injection timing under the chosen engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

An Application of the Coherent Flamelet Model to Diesel Engine Combustion

1995-02-01
950281
A turbulent combustion model based on the coherent flamelet model was developed in this study and applied to diesel engines. The combustion was modeled in three distinct but overlapping phases: low temperature ignition kinetics using the Shell ignition model, high temperature premixed burn using a single step Arrhenius equation, and the flamelet based diffusion burn. Two criteria for transitions based on temperature, heat release rate, and the local Damköhler number were developed for the progression of combustion between each of these phases. The model was implemented into the computational computer code KIVA-II. Previous experiments on a Caterpillar model E 300, # 1Y0540 engine, a Tacom LABECO research engine, and a single cylinder version of a Cummins N14 production engine were used to validate the cylinder averaged predictions of the model.
Technical Paper

Modeling Fuel Film Formation and Wall Interaction in Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960628
A fuel film model has been developed and implemented into the KIVA-II code to help account for fuel distribution during combustion in diesel engines. Spray-wall interaction and spray-film interaction are also incorporated into the model. The model simulates thin fuel film flow on solid surfaces of arbitrary configuration. This is achieved by solving the continuity and momentum equations for the two dimensional film that flows over a three dimensional surface. The major physical effects considered in the model include mass and momentum contributions to the film due to spray drop impingement, splashing effects, various shear forces, piston acceleration, and dynamic pressure effects. In order to adequately represent the drop interaction process, impingement regimes and post-impingement behavior have been modeled using experimental data and mass, momentum and energy conservation constraints. The regimes modeled for spray-film interaction are stick, rebound, spread, and splash.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Generated Turbulence and Resolved Flow Structures on Combustion in DI Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960634
Previous studies have shown the importance of the in-cylinder flow field which exists prior to fuel injection on performance and emissions behavior of direct injected (DI) diesel engines. Key parameters in the flow field are the turbulence level and the resolved structures, such as swirl and tumble flow. These characteristics are known to have significant effects on the fuel vaporization, droplet break-up, and fuel-air mixing. The relative importance of these effects is investigated through simulation of injection into a stirred, heated, constant volume combustion bomb, using the computational fluid dynamics codes KIVA-3 [9] and KIVA-II [10]. Initial conditions for these simulations are based on in-cylinder conditions which exist in a heavy duty DI diesel engine immediately prior to fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Influence of Spray-Wall Interaction and Fuel Films on Cold Starting in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

1998-10-19
982584
Various single and split injection schemes are studied to provide a better understanding of fuel distribution during cold starting in DI diesel engines. Improved spray-wall interaction, fuel film and multicomponent vaporization models are used to analyze the combustion processes. Better combustion characteristics are obtained for the split injection schemes than with a single injection. An analysis of the fuel impingement processes identifies the mechanisms involved in producing the differences in vaporization and combustion of the fuel. A greater amount of splashing occurred for the split injections compared to a single injection. This behavior is attributed to the decreased film thickness (less dissipation of impingement energy), the decreased impingement area (obtained by increasing the impingement Weber number), and most importantly, the reduced frequency of drop impingement.
Journal Article

CO Emission Model for an Integrated Diesel Engine, Emissions, and Exhaust Aftertreatment System Level Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-1511
A kinetic carbon monoxide (CO) emission model is developed to simulate engine out CO emissions for conventional diesel combustion. The model also incorporates physics governing CO emissions for low temperature combustion (LTC). The emission model will be used in an integrated system level model to simulate the operation and interaction of conventional and low temperature diesel combustion with aftertreatment devices. The Integrated System Model consists of component models for the diesel engine, engine-out emissions (such as NOx and Particulate Matter), and aftertreatment devices (such as DOC and DPF). The addition of CO emissions model will enhance the capability of the Integrated System Model to predict major emission species, especially for low temperature combustion. In this work a CO emission model is developed based on a two-step global kinetic mechanism [8].
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional NOx Emission Model for Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) Gasoline Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1311
A fundamentally based quasi-dimensional NOx emission model for spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) gasoline engines was developed. The NOx model consists of a chemical mechanism and three sub-models. The classical extended Zeldovich mechanism and N₂O pathway for NOx formation mechanism were employed as the chemical mechanism in the model. A characteristic time model for the radical species H, O and OH was incorporated to account for non-equilibrium of radical species during combustion. A model of homogeneity which correlates fundamental dimensionless numbers and mixing time was developed to model the air-fuel mixing and inhomogeneity of the charge. Since temperature has a dominant effect on NOx emission, a flame temperature correlation was developed to model the flame temperature during the combustion for NOx calculation. Measured NOx emission data from a single-cylinder SIDI research engine at different operating conditions was used to validate the NOx model.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Components Along with Temperature and Equivalence Ratio on the Combustion of n-Heptane Fuel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0951
Fundamental simulations in a quiescent cell under adiabatic conditions were made to understand the effect of temperature, equivalence ratio and the components of the recirculated exhaust gas, viz., CO2 and H2O, on the combustion of n-Heptane. Simulations were made in single phase in which evaporated n-Heptane was uniformly distributed in the domain. Computations were made for two different temperatures and four different EGR levels. CO2 or H2O or N2was used as EGR. It was found that the initiation of the main combustion process was primarily determined by two competing factors, i.e., the amount of initial OH concentration in the domain and the specific heat of the mixture. Further, initial OH concentration can be controlled by the manipulating the ambient temperature in the domain, and the specific heat capacity of the mixture via the mixture composition. In addition to these, the pre combustion and the subsequent post combustion can also be controlled via the equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Experiments and CFD Modeling of Direct Injection Gasoline HCCI Engine Combustion

2002-06-03
2002-01-1925
The present study investigated HCCI combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine both experimentally and numerically. The engine was equipped with a hollow-cone pressure-swirl injector using gasoline direct injection. Characteristics of HCCI combustion were obtained by very early injection with a heated intake charge. Experimental results showed an increase in NOx emission and a decrease in UHC as the injection timing was retarded. It was also found that optimization can be achieved by controlling the intake temperature together with the start-of-injection timing. The experiments were modeled by using an engine CFD code with detailed chemistry. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into KIVA-3V such that the chemistry and flow solutions were coupled. The model predicted ignition timing, cylinder pressure, and heat release rates reasonably well. The NOx emissions were found to increase as the injection timing was retarded, in agreement with experimental results.
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