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Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Injections and Flexible Control of Boost and EGR on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0195
A study of the combined use of split injections, EGR, and flexible boosting was conducted. Statistical optimization of the engine operating parameters was accomplished using a new response surface method. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the emissions and fuel consumption capabilities of a state-of-the-art heavy -duty diesel engine when using split injections, EGR, and flexible boosting over a wide range of engine operating conditions. Previous studies have indicated that multiple injections with EGR can provide substantial simultaneous reductions in emissions of particulate and NOx from heavy-duty diesel engines, but careful optimization of the operating parameters is necessary in order to receive the full benefit of these combustion control techniques. Similarly, boost has been shown to be an important parameter to optimize. During the experiments, an instrumented single-cylinder heavy -duty diesel engine was used.
Technical Paper

Modeling Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines Using a G-equation Combustion Model Incorporating Detailed Chemical Kinetics

2007-04-16
2007-01-0165
In this paper, knock in a Ford single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine was modeled and investigated using the KIVA-3V code with a G-equation combustion model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The deflagrative turbulent flame propagation was described by the G-equation combustion model. A 22-species, 42-reaction iso-octane (iC8H18) mechanism was adopted to model the auto-ignition process of the gasoline/air/residual-gas mixture ahead of the flame front. The iso-octane mechanism was originally validated by ignition delay tests in a rapid compression machine. In this study, the mechanism was tested by comparing the simulated ignition delay time in a constant volume mesh with the values measured in a shock tube under different initial temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio conditions, and acceptable agreements were obtained.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0197
Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

Numerical Predictions of Diesel Flame Lift-off Length and Soot Distributions under Low Temperature Combustion Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1331
The lift-off length plays a significant role in spray combustion as it influences the air entrainment upstream of the lift-off location and hence the soot formation. Accurate prediction of lift-off length thus becomes a prerequisite for accurate soot prediction in lifted flames. In the present study, KIVA-3v coupled with CHEMKIN, as developed at the Engine Research Center (ERC), is used as the CFD model. Experimental data from the Sandia National Labs. is used for validating the model predictions of n-heptane lift-off lengths and soot formation details in a constant volume combustion chamber. It is seen that the model predictions, in terms of lift-off length and soot mass, agree well with the experimental results for low ambient density (14.8 kg/m3) cases with different EGR rates (21% O2 - 8% O2). However, for high density cases (30 kg/m3) with different EGR rates (15% O2 - 8% O2) disagreements were found.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Sparse Analytical Jacobian Chemistry Solver for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Simulations with Comprehensive Reaction Mechanisms

2012-09-24
2012-01-1974
The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Validation of the Generalized RNG Turbulence Model and Its Application to Flow in a HSDI Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0140
A generalized re-normalization group (RNG) turbulence model based on the local "dimensionality" of the flow field is proposed. In this modeling approach the model coefficients C₁, C₂, and C₃ are all constructed as functions of flow strain rate. In order to further validate the proposed turbulence model, the generalized RNG closure model was applied to model the backward facing step flow (a classic test case for turbulence models). The results indicated that the modeling of C₂ in the generalized RNG closure model is reasonable, and furthermore, the predictions of the generalized RNG model were in better agreement with experimental data than the standard RNG turbulence model. As a second step, the performance of the generalized RNG closure was investigated for a complex engine flow.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Large Diesel Engine via Spin Spray Combustion*

2005-04-11
2005-01-0916
A numerical simulation and optimization study was conducted for a medium speed direct injection diesel engine. The engine's operating characteristics were first matched to available experimental data to test the validity of the numerical model. The KIVA-3V ERC CFD code was then modified to allow independent spray events from two rows of nozzle holes. The angular alignment, nozzle hole size, and injection pressure of each set of nozzle holes were optimized using a micro-genetic algorithm. The design fitness criteria were based on a multi-variable merit function with inputs of emissions of soot, NOx, unburned hydrocarbons, and fuel consumption targets. Penalties to the merit function value were used to limit the maximum in-cylinder pressure and the burned gas temperature at exhaust valve opening. The optimization produced a 28.4% decrease in NOx and a 40% decrease in soot from the baseline case, while giving a 3.1% improvement in fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Boost Pressure on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy-Duty Single-Cylinder D.I. Diesel Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0840
An electronically controlled Caterpillar single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE) was used to study diesel combustion. The SCOTE retains the port, combustion chamber, and injection geometry of the production six cylinder, 373 kW (500 hp) 3406E heavy-duty truck engine. The engine was equipped with an electronic unit injector and an electronically controlled common rail injector that is capable of multiple injections. An emissions investigation was carried out using a six-mode cycle simulation of the EPA Federal Transient Test Procedure. The results show that the SCOTE meets current EPA mandated emissions levels, despite the higher internal friction imposed by the single-cylinder configuration. NOx versus particulate trade-off curves were generated over a range of injection timings for each mode and results of heat release calculations were examined, giving insight into combustion phenomena in current “state of the art” heavy-duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Studying the Roles of Kinetics and Turbulence in the Simulation of Diesel Combustion by Means of an Extended Characteristic-Time-Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-1177
A study was performed that takes into account both turbulence and chemical kinetic effects in the numerical simulation of diesel engine combustion in order to better understand the importance of their respective roles at changing operating conditions. An approach was developed which combines the simplicity and low computational and storage requests of the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time model with a detailed combustion chemistry model based on well-known simplified mechanisms. Assuming appropriate simplifications such as steady state or equilibrium for most of the radicals and intermediate species, the kinetics of hydrocarbons can be described by means of three overall steps. This approach was integrated in the KIVA-II code. The concept was validated and applied to a single-cylinder, heavy-duty engine. The simulation covers a wide range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operating Parameters Using A Response Surface Method

2000-06-19
2000-01-1962
A study of statistical optimization of engine operating parameters was conducted. The objective of the study was to develop a strategy to efficiently optimize operating parameters of diesel engines with multiple injection and EGR capabilities. Previous studies have indicated that multiple injections with EGR can provide substantial simultaneous reductions in emissions of particulate and NOx from heavy-duty diesel engines, but careful optimization of the operating parameters is necessary in order to receive the full benefit of these combustion control techniques. The goal of the present study was to optimize the control parameters to reduce emissions and brake specific fuel consumption. An instrumented single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine was used with a prototype mechanically actuated (cam driven) fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Use of Multiple Injectors and Split Injection to Reduce DI Diesel Engine Emissions

1996-10-01
962058
This research uses computational modeling to explore methods to increase diesel engine power density while maintaining low pollutant emission levels. Previous experimental studies have shown that injection-rate profiles and injector configurations play important roles on the performance and emissions of particulate and NOx in DI diesel engines. However, there is a lack of systematic studies and fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of spray atomization, mixture formation and distribution, and subsequently, the combustion processes in spray/spray and spray/swirl interaction and flow configurations. In this study, the effects of split injections and multiple injector configurations on diesel engine emissions are investigated numerically using a multidimensional computer code. In order to be able to explore the effects of enhanced fuel-air mixing, the use of multiple injectors with different injector locations, spray orientations and impingement angles was studied.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Nozzle Hole Size and Number on Spray Characteristics and the Performance of a Heavy Duty D.I. Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
962002
An engine emissions and performance study was conducted in conjunction with a series of experiments using a constant volume cold spray chamber. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of number of holes and hole size on the emissions and performance of a direct injection heavy duty diesel engine. The spray experiments provide insight into the spray parameters and their role in the engine's combustion processes. The fuel system used for both the engine and spray chamber experiments was an electronically controlled, common rail injector. The injector nozzle hole size and number combinations used in the experiments included 225X8 (225 gm diameter holes with 8 holes in the nozzle), 260X6, 260X8, and 30OX6. The engine tests were conducted on an instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty diesel engine. Data were taken with the engine running at 1600 RPM, 75% load.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement and Modeling of Liquid Fuel Spray Penetration in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1997-05-01
971591
Liquid fuel penetration was measured using an endoscopebased imaging system in an operating single-cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine with simulated turbocharging. Sprays were imaged via the elastic backscatter technique without significantly altering the engine geometry. Light loads (or pilot injections) were also studied because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes can be isolated since they are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in a full injection case. The pilot injections included cases with three different fuel amounts (10%, 15% and 20% of the fuel injected in the baseline case, i.e., 75% load and 1600 rev/min) with different start-of-injection timings. Maximum liquid penetration lengths beyond which the fuel is completely vaporized were observed for all the cases studied. The maximum lengths varied from 23 mm to 28 mm for the different start-of-injection timings.
Technical Paper

Development of Novel Direct-injection Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber Designs Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

1997-05-01
971594
A, three-dimensional CFD code, based on the KIVA code, is used to explore alternatives to conventional DI diesel engine designs for reducing NOx and soot emissions without sacrificing engine performance. The effects of combustion chamber design and fuel spray orientation are investigated using a new proposed GAMMA engine concept, and two new multiple injector combustion system (MICS) designs which utilize multiple injectors to increase gas motion and enhance fuel/air mixing in the combustion chamber. From these computational studies, it is found that both soot and nitrous oxide emissions can be significantly reduced without the need for more conventional emission control strategies such as EGR or ultra high injection pressure. The results suggest that CFD models can be a useful tool not only for understanding combustion and emissions production, but also for investigating new design concepts.
Journal Article

Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple- Pulse Injection

2012-04-16
2012-01-1131
An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline injected using a triple-pulse strategy in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. This work aims to extend the operation ranges for a light-duty diesel engine, operating on gasoline, that have been identified in previous work via extended controllability of the injection process. The single-cylinder engine (SCE) was operated at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min) and computational simulations of the in-cylinder processes were performed using a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion chosen to match ignition characteristics of the gasoline fuel used for the SCE experiments.
Technical Paper

Toward Predictive Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow, Combustion and Emissions

1994-10-01
941897
The development of analytic models of diesel engine flow, combustion and subprocesses is described. The models are intended for use as design tools by industry for the prediction of engine performance and emissions to help reduce engine development time and costs. Part of the research program includes performing engine experiments to provide validation data for the models. The experiments are performed on a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 engine that is equipped with state-of-the-art high pressure electronic fuel injection and emissions instrumentation. In-cylinder gas velocity and gas temperature measurements have also been made to characterize the flows in the engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Structures on Fuel/Air Mixing in a Direct-injected Spark-Ignition Engine

1996-05-01
961192
Multidimensional computations were carried out to simulate the in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process of a direct-injection spark-ignition engine using a modified version of the KIVA-3 code. A hollow cone spray was modeled using a Lagrangian stochastic approach with an empirical initial atomization treatment which is based on experimental data. Improved Spalding-type evaporation and drag models were used to calculate drop vaporization and drop dynamic drag. Spray/wall impingement hydrodynamics was accounted for by using a phenomenological model. Intake flows were computed using a simple approach in which a prescribed velocity profile is specified at the two intake valve openings. This allowed three intake flow patterns, namely, swirl, tumble and non-tumble, to be considered. It was shown that fuel vaporization was completed at the end of compression stroke with early injection timing under the chosen engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

The Development and Application of a Diesel Ignition and Combustion Model for Multidimensional Engine Simulation

1995-02-01
950278
An integrated numerical model has been developed for diesel engine computations based on the KIVA-II code. The model incorporates a modified RNG k-ε, turbulence model, a ‘wave’ breakup spray model, the Shell ignition model, the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time combustion model, a crevice flow model, a spray/wall impingement model that includes rebounding and breaking-up drops, and other improved submodels in the KIVA code. The model was validated and applied to model successfully different types of diesel engines under various operating conditions. These engines include a Caterpillar engine with different injection pressures at different injection timings, a small Tacom engine at different loads, and a Cummins engine modified by Sandia for optical experiments. Good levels of agreement in cylinder pressures and heat release rate data were obtained using the same computer model for all engine cases.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

An Analysis on Time Scale Separation for Engine Simulations with Detailed Chemistry

2011-09-11
2011-24-0028
The simulation of combustion chemistry in internal combustion engines is challenging due to the need to include detailed reaction mechanisms to describe the engine physics. Computational times needed for coupling full chemistry to CFD simulations are still too computationally demanding, even when distributed computer systems are exploited. For these reasons the present paper proposes a time scale separation approach for the integration of the chemistry differential equations and applies it in an engine CFD code. The time scale separation is achieved through the estimation of a characteristic time for each of the species and the introduction of a sampling timestep, wherein the chemistry is subcycled during the overall integration. This allows explicit integration of the system to be carried out, and the step size is governed by tolerance requirements.
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