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Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Hybrid-Electric Split-Parallel Crossover Sports Utility Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1068
The University of Wisconsin - Madison Hybrid Vehicle Team has designed, fabricated, tested and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2006 Challenge X competition. This multi-year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Trade-offs in fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were weighed to establish Wisconsin's Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, utilizes a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9 L CIDI engine coupled to GM's 6-speed F40 transmission. The rear axle is powered by a 65 kW Ballard induction motor/gearbox powered from a 44-module (317 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc., nickel-metal hydride hybrid battery pack. It includes a newly developed proprietary battery management algorithm which broadcasts the battery's state of charge onto the CAN network.
Technical Paper

Global Optimization of a Two-Pulse Fuel Injection Strategy for a Diesel Engine Using Interpolation and a Gradient-Based Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0248
A global optimization method has been developed for an engine simulation code and utilized in the search of optimal fuel injection strategies. This method uses a Lagrange interpolation function which interpolates engine output data generated at the vertices and the intermediate points of the input parameters. This interpolation function is then used to find a global minimum over the entire parameter set, which in turn becomes the starting point of a CFD-based optimization. The CFD optimization is based on a steepest descent method with an adaptive cost function, where the line searches are performed with a fast-converging backtracking algorithm. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Platinum and Cerium from Use of a FBC

2006-04-03
2006-01-1517
Fuel-borne catalysts (FBC) have demonstrated efficacy as an important strategy for integrated diesel emission control. The research summarized herein provides new methodologies for the characterization of engine-out speciated emissions. These analytical tools provide new insights on the mode of action and chemical forms of metal emissions arising from use of a platinum and cerium based commercial FBC, both with and without a catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Characterization efforts addressed metal solubility (water, methanol and dichloromethane) and particle size and charge of the target species in the water and solvent extracts. Platinum and cerium species were quantified using state-of-the-art high resolution plasma mass spectrometry. Liquid-chromatography-triple quad mass spectrometry techniques were developed to quantify potential parent Pt-FBC in the PM extracts. Speciation was examined for emissions from cold and warm engine cycles collected from an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Emission Tests of Diesel Fuel with NOx Reduction Additives

1993-10-01
932736
In this paper results are given from single-cylinder, steady-state engine tests using the Texaco Diesel Additive (TDA) as an in-fuel emission reducing agent. The data include NOx, total unburned hydrocarbons, indicated specific fuel consumption, and heat release analysis for one engine speed (1500 RPM) with two different loads (Φ ≈ 0.3, IMEP = 0.654 MPa and Φ ≈ 0.5, IMEP = 1.006 MPa) using the baseline fuel and fuels with one percent and five percent additive by weight. The emissions were measured in the exhaust stream of a modified TACOM-LABECO single cylinder engine. This engine is a 114 mm x 114 mm (4.5″ x 4.5″) open chamber low swirl design with a 110.5 MPa (16,000 psi) peak pressure Bosch injector. The injector has 8 holes, each of 0.2 mm diameter. The intake air was slightly boosted (approximately 171 kPa (25 psia)) and slightly heated (333 K (140 °F)). In previous research on this engine the emissions, including soot, were well documented.
Technical Paper

Spectral Characteristics of Turbulent Flow in a Scale Model of a Diesel Fuel Injector Nozzle

1993-03-01
930924
An experimental investigation of the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle hole has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of an injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase/Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Turbulence spectra were calculated from the velocity data using the Lomb-Scargle method. Injector hole length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Results were obtained for a steady flow average Reynolds number of 10,500, which is analogous to a fuel injection velocity of 320 m/s and a sac pressure of approximately 67 MPa (10,000 psi). Turbulence time frequency spectra were obtained for significant locations in each geometry, in order to determine how geometry affects the development of the turbulent spectra.
Technical Paper

Fault Tolerance Analysis of Alternate Automotive Brake System Designs

1993-03-01
930511
Brake systems in current production automobiles are the result of a long evolutionary process beginning with the first practical hydraulic brake patent in 1917. While the basic hydraulic design has many advantages, recent modifications to this system for anti-lock braking and traction control considerably increase the cost of manufacture. As a result, many manufacturers are investigating the possibility of developing alternate braking system structures that cost less and can easily interface with vehicle electronics. Evaluating these systems for fault tolerance and failure effects is crucial to provide a safe and reliable vehicle braking system. This paper demonstrates the use of the Fault Tree Analysis method for carrying out such an evaluation. An example system is presented to illustrate the application of this method to automobile brake design.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Oxygenate and Gasoline-Diesel Fuel Blends on Diesel Engine Emissions

2000-03-06
2000-01-1173
A study was performed in which the effects on the regulated emissions from a commercial small DI diesel engine were measured for different refinery-derived fuel blends. Seven different fuel blends were tested, of which two were deemed to merit more detailed evaluation. To investigate the effects of fuel properties on the combustion processes with these fuel blends, two-color pyrometry was used via optically accessible cylinderheads. Additional data were obtained with one of the fuel blends with a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. California diesel fuel was used as a baseline. The fuel blends were made by mixing the components typically found in gasoline, such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and whole fluid catalytic cracking gasoline (WH-FCC). The mixing was performed on a volume basis. Cetane improver (CI) was added to maintain the same cetane number (CN) of the fuel blends as that of the baseline fuel.
Technical Paper

Determination of Flame-Front Equivalence Ratio During Stratified Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0069
Combustion under stratified operating conditions in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was investigated using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of the fuel distribution (via 3-pentanone doped into the fuel) and the combustion products (via OH, which occurs naturally). The simultaneous images allow direct determination of the flame front location under highly stratified conditions where the flame, or product, location is not uniquely identified by the absence of fuel. The 3-pentanone images were quantified, and an edge detection algorithm was developed and applied to the OH data to identify the flame front position. The result was the compilation of local flame-front equivalence ratio probability density functions (PDFs) for engine operating conditions at 600 and 1200 rpm and engine loads varying from equivalence ratios of 0.89 to 0.32 with an unthrottled intake. Homogeneous conditions were used to verify the integrity of the method.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-Averaged Histories of Nitrogen Oxide in a D.I. Diesel with Simulated Turbocharging

1994-10-01
942046
An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct injection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine run conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERC modified KIVA-II computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend.
Technical Paper

Feature Extraction from Non-Linear Geometric Models in Design-for-Manufacturing

1994-09-01
941672
Automatic manufacturability analysis of injection moldings, sheet metal castings, stampings, forgings, etc., using knowledge-based heuristics depends on shape features, which are abstractions of the three dimensional (3D) geometric model of the parts. Conventional CAD systems do not explicitly contain shape feature information, therefore such information needs to be extracted from them. So far, extraction of shape features has been restricted to models with simple geometric shapes such as planar, cylindrical or conical shapes. Extending shape feature extraction to non-linear geometric models will allow Design For Manufacturability (DFM) analysis of non-linear models. This paper presents an approach to extract features from non-linear geometric models. The approach is based on abstract geometric entities called C-loops. The formation of a C-loop depends on a geometric entity called a silhouette. The C-loops are derived from the silhouette boundaries of an object.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Diesel Spray Impingement and Fuel Film Characteristics Using Refractive Index Matching Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0485
The fuel film thickness resulting from diesel fuel spray impingement was measured in a chamber at conditions representative of early injection timings used for low temperature diesel combustion. The adhered fuel volume and the radial distribution of the film thickness are presented. Fuel was injected normal to the impingement surface at ambient temperatures of 353 K, 426 K and 500 K, with densities of 10 kg/m3 and 25 kg/m3. Two injectors, with nozzle diameters of 100 μm and 120 μm, were investigated. The results show that the fuel film volume was strongly affected by the ambient temperature, but was minimally affected by the ambient density. The peak fuel film thickness and the film radius were found to increase with decreased temperature. The fuel film was found to be circular in shape, with an inner region of nearly constant thickness. The major difference observed with temperature was a decrease in the radial extent of the film.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effects on Fuel Sprays from a Multi-Hole Nozzle Injector

1996-10-01
962005
A study of fuel spray characteristics for diesel fuel from a multi-hole nozzle injector was performed yielding tip penetration length and spray cone angle for each of the spray plumes from a six hole injector. The main feature of the system used was that analysis of all the fuel plumes could occur at one time, as all the plumes were imaged on the same piece of film. Spray behavior was examined for two injection pressures (72 MPa and 122 MPa) and for ambient temperatures up to 523 K (250°C). The results in this paper show how the spray plumes behave as they leave each of the six holes of the injector. The characteristics of each hole differs during injection. The variations of spray cone angle and tip penetration length between holes are small, but significant. These variations in tip penetration and cone angle changed as the temperature of the chamber changed, but the overall characteristics of the spray plumes changed only slightly for the temperatures used in this paper.
Technical Paper

Advances in Accumulator Car Design

1997-08-06
972645
The use of a hydraulic drive system with accumulator energy storage has the potential of providing large gains in fuel economy of internal combustion engine passenger automobiles. The improvement occurs because of efficient regenerative braking and the practicality of decoupling the engine operation from the driving cycle demands. The concept under study uses an engine-driven pump supplying hydraulic power to individual wheel pump/motors (P/M's) and/or an accumulator. Available P/M's have high efficiencies (e.g., 95%) at the ideal point of operation, but the efficiency falls off considerably at combinations of pressure, speed, and displacement that are significantly away from ideal. In order to maximize the fuel economy of the automobile, it is necessary to provide the proper combination of components, system design, and control policies that operate the wheel P/M's as close as possible to their maximum efficiency under all types of driving and braking conditions.
Technical Paper

Modelling the Influence of Fuel Injection Parameters on Diesel Engine Emissions

1998-02-23
980789
Rate shaping of the fuel injection process is known to significantly impact emissions production in diesel engines. To demonstrate the ability of multidimensional engine modeling to quantify and explain the effect of rate shaping and injection duration, three injection profiles typical of common diesel fuel injection systems were investigated for three injection durations and injection timings. The present study uses an improved version of the KIVA-II engine simulation code employing the characteristic time combustion model, the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor spray atomization mechanisms, the extended Zeldovich thermal NOx production model, and a single species soot model.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Sprays from a Common Rail Injection System for Use in an HSDI Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980810
An experimental and numerical characterization has been conducted of a high-pressure common rail diesel fuel injection system. The experimental study was performed using a common rail system with the capability of producing multiple injections within a single cycle. The injector used in the experiments had a single guided multi-hole nozzle tip. The diesel sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber with optical access at ambient temperature. The gas density in the chamber was representative of the density in an HSDI diesel engine at the time of injection. Single, pilot, and multiple injection cases were studied at different rail pressures and injection durations. Images of the transient sprays were obtained with a high-speed digital camera. From these images spray tip penetration and cone angles were obtained directly. Also spray droplet sizes were derived from the images using a light extinction method (LEM).
Technical Paper

In Cylinder Augmented Mixing Through Controlled Gaseous Jet Injection

1995-10-01
952358
An investigation was performed on a direct injection diesel engine equipped with a gaseous injector to determine the effects of augmented mixing on emission characteristics. The gaseous injector introduced a jet of gas of particular composition in the cylinder during the latter portion of diesel combustion. This injector was controlled to inject the gas at specific engine timings and at various injection pressures. Engine experiments were done on a LABECO/TACOM single cylinder, direct injected, 1.2 liter, four stroke diesel engine. This engine was operated at 1500 rpm at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with simulated turbocharging. The fuel injection timing was changed for some cases to accommodate the gaseous injection. Exhaust particulate emissions were measured with a mini-dilution tunnel. All other emissions data were measured on a REGA 7000 Real-Time Exhaust Gas Analyzer Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) system.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Fuel Composition Effects on Combustion and Cold-Starting in Diesel Engines

1995-10-01
952425
A computer model developed for describing multicomponent fuel vaporization, and ignition in diesel engines has been applied in this study to understand cold-starting and the parameters that are of significant influence on this phenomena. This research utilizes recent improvements in spray vaporization and combustion models that have been implemented in the KIVA-II CFD code. Typical engine fuels are blends of various fuels species, i.e., multicomponent. Thus, the original single component fuel vaporization model in KIVA-II was replaced by a multicomponent fuel vaporization model (based on the model suggested by Jin and Borman). The modelhas been extended to model diesel sprays under typical diesel conditions, including the effect of fuel cetane number variation. Necessary modifications were carried out in the atomization and collision sub-models. The ignition model was also modified to account for fuel composition effects by modifying the Shell ignition model.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Engine Operating Parameters Using Neural Networks

2003-10-27
2003-01-3228
Neural networks are useful tools for optimization studies since they are very fast, so that while capturing the accuracy of multi-dimensional CFD calculations or experimental data, they can be run numerous times as required by many optimization techniques. This paper describes how a set of neural networks trained on a multi-dimensional CFD code to predict pressure, temperature, heat flux, torque and emissions, have been used by a genetic algorithm in combination with a hill-climbing type algorithm to optimize operating parameters of a diesel engine over the entire speed-torque map of the engine. The optimized parameters are mass of fuel injected per cycle, shape of the injection profile for dual split injection, start of injection, EGR level and boost pressure. These have been optimized for minimum emissions. Another set of neural networks have been trained to predict the optimized parameters, based on the speed-torque point of the engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Detailed Chemical Composition and Particulate Size Distributions of Diesel Exhaust

2003-05-19
2003-01-1794
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of fuel injection timing on detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) and regulated gaseous emissions in a modern heavy-duty D.I. diesel engine. These measurements were made for two different diesel fuels: No. 2 diesel (Fuel A) and ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B). A single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system was used in the experiments. PM measurements were made with an enhanced full-dilution tunnel system at the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison) [1, 2]. The engine was run under 2 selected modes (25% and 75% loads at 1200 rpm) of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition on Combustion and Detailed Chemical/Physical Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust

2003-05-19
2003-01-1899
An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of fuel composition on combustion, gaseous emissions, and detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine with the use of the enhanced full-dilution tunnel system of the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the UW-Madison. Detailed description of this system can be found in our previous reports [1,2]. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system. The operating conditions of the engine followed the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle. The fuels used in the current study include baseline No. 2 diesel (Fuel A: sulfur content = 352 ppm), ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B: sulfur content = 14 ppm), and Fisher-Tropsch (F-T) diesel (sulfur content = 0 ppm).
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