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Technical Paper

A Transient Heat Transfer System for Research Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0975
An ongoing goal of the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has been to expand and improve the ability of the single cylinder internal combustion research engine to represent its multi-cylinder engine counterpart. To date, the PCRL single cylinder engine test system is able to replicate both the rotational dynamics (SAE #2004-01-0305) and intake manifold dynamics (SAE #2006-01-1074) of a multi cylinder engine using a single cylinder research engine. Another area of interest is the replication of multi-cylinder engine cold start emissions data with a single-cylinder engine test system. For this replication to occur, the single-cylinder engine must experience heat transfer to the engine coolant as if it were part of a multi-cylinder engine, in addition to the other multi-cylinder engine transient effects.
Technical Paper

Integration of a Continuous Multi-Component Fuel Evaporation Model with an Improved G-Equation Combustion and Detailed Chemical Kinetics Model with Application to GDI Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0722
A continuous multi-component fuel evaporation model has been integrated with an improved G-equation combustion and detailed chemical kinetics model. The integrated code has been successfully used to simulate a gasoline direct injection engine. In the multi-component fuel model, the theory of continuous thermodynamics is used to model the properties and composition of multi-component fuels such as gasoline. In the improved G-equation combustion model a flamelet approach based on the G-equation is used that considers multi-component fuel effects. To precisely calculate the local and instantaneous residual which has a great effect on the laminar flame speed, a “transport equation residual” model is used. A Damkohler number criterion is used to determine the combustion mode in flame containing cells.
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

2008-04-14
2008-01-0047
Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Sparse Analytical Jacobian Chemistry Solver for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Simulations with Comprehensive Reaction Mechanisms

2012-09-24
2012-01-1974
The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions

1994-03-01
940523
The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of injection pressure and split injections on diesel engine performance and soot and NOx emissions. The code has been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system, a full-dilution tunnel for soot measurements, and gaseous emissions instrumentation.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Diesel Flame Imaging Compared with Numerical Computations

1995-02-01
950455
An image acquisition-and-processing camera system was developed for in-cylinder diagnostics of a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with an electronically-controlled common-rail fuel injection system that allowed both single and split (multiple) injections to be studied. The imaging system uses an endoscope to acquire luminous flame images from the combustion chamber and ensures minimum modification to the engine geometry. The system also includes an optical linkage, an image intensifier, a CID camera, a frame grabber, control circuitry and a computer. Experiments include both single and split injection cases at 90 MPa and 45 MPa injection pressures at 3/4 load and 1600 rev/min with simulated turbocharging. For the single injection at high injection pressure (90 MPa) the results show that the first luminous emissions from the ignition zone occur very close to the injector exit followed by rapid luminous flame spreading.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Sprays Using Diffraction-Based Droplet Sizing

1995-02-01
950458
The study of combustion in direct injection Diesel engines demands detailed understanding of the behavior of the injection. Understanding the injection involves characterizing the distribution of fuel particle sizes throughout the spray. This work studied the size distributions of sprays from commercial Diesel injectors under a series of conditions. A diffraction-based diagnostic obtained maps of local fuel droplet size information over the full spray field. Most quantitative techniques currently used in spray research provide quantitative time-ranging data at a single point in the spray field. Spatially resolved information proves more useful in studying transient sprays. The spatially resolved maps of particle size obtained in this experiment showed the reliability of the diagnostic, exhibited the transience of the fine structure of these sprays, and demonstrated the evolution of the sprays with time.
Technical Paper

An Analysis on Time Scale Separation for Engine Simulations with Detailed Chemistry

2011-09-11
2011-24-0028
The simulation of combustion chemistry in internal combustion engines is challenging due to the need to include detailed reaction mechanisms to describe the engine physics. Computational times needed for coupling full chemistry to CFD simulations are still too computationally demanding, even when distributed computer systems are exploited. For these reasons the present paper proposes a time scale separation approach for the integration of the chemistry differential equations and applies it in an engine CFD code. The time scale separation is achieved through the estimation of a characteristic time for each of the species and the introduction of a sampling timestep, wherein the chemistry is subcycled during the overall integration. This allows explicit integration of the system to be carried out, and the step size is governed by tolerance requirements.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of Soot and NOX Emissions by Means of the HCPC Concept: Complying with the Heavy Duty EURO 6 Limits without Aftertreatment System

2013-09-08
2013-24-0093
Due to concerns regarding pollutant and CO2 emissions, advanced combustion modes that can simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions and improve thermal efficiency have been widely investigated. The main characteristic of the new combustion strategies, such as HCCI and LTC, is that the formation of a homogenous mixture or a controllable stratified mixture is required prior to ignition. The major issue with these approaches is the lack of a direct method for the control of ignition timing and combustion rate, which can be only indirectly controlled using high EGR rates and/or lean mixtures. Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC) is based on the split-cycle principle. Intake and compression phases are performed in a reciprocating external compressor, which drives the air into the combustor cylinder during the combustion process, through a transfer duct. A transfer valve is positioned between the compressor cylinder and the transfer duct.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Performance of a Small L-Head Utility Engine Fueled with Homogeneous Propane/Air and Propane/Air/Nitrogen Mixture

1993-09-01
932444
The objective of this study was to observe and attempt to understand the effects of equivalence ratio and simulated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the exhaust emissions and performance of a L-head single cylinder utility engine. In order to isolate these effects and limit the confounding influences caused by poor fuel mixture preparation and/or vaporization produced by the carburetor/intake port combination, the engine was operated on a premixed propane/air mixture. To simulate the effects of EGR, a homogeneous mixture of propane, air, and nitrogen was used. Engine measurements were obtained at the operating conditions specified by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Raw Gas Method Test Procedure. Measurements included exhaust emissions levels of HC, CO, and NOx, and engine pressure data.
Technical Paper

Modeling Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines Using a G-equation Combustion Model Incorporating Detailed Chemical Kinetics

2007-04-16
2007-01-0165
In this paper, knock in a Ford single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine was modeled and investigated using the KIVA-3V code with a G-equation combustion model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The deflagrative turbulent flame propagation was described by the G-equation combustion model. A 22-species, 42-reaction iso-octane (iC8H18) mechanism was adopted to model the auto-ignition process of the gasoline/air/residual-gas mixture ahead of the flame front. The iso-octane mechanism was originally validated by ignition delay tests in a rapid compression machine. In this study, the mechanism was tested by comparing the simulated ignition delay time in a constant volume mesh with the values measured in a shock tube under different initial temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio conditions, and acceptable agreements were obtained.
Technical Paper

Global Optimization of a Two-Pulse Fuel Injection Strategy for a Diesel Engine Using Interpolation and a Gradient-Based Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0248
A global optimization method has been developed for an engine simulation code and utilized in the search of optimal fuel injection strategies. This method uses a Lagrange interpolation function which interpolates engine output data generated at the vertices and the intermediate points of the input parameters. This interpolation function is then used to find a global minimum over the entire parameter set, which in turn becomes the starting point of a CFD-based optimization. The CFD optimization is based on a steepest descent method with an adaptive cost function, where the line searches are performed with a fast-converging backtracking algorithm. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0197
Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

Lubrication Aspects of a Modified Hypocycloid Engine

1992-02-01
920380
The modified hypocycloid (MH) mechanism, which uses gears to produce straight line motion, has been proposed as an alternative to the slider-crank mechanism for internal combustion (IC) engines. Advantages of the MH mechanism over the slider-crank for an IC engine include the capability of perfect balancing with any number of cylinders and the absence of piston side loads. The elimination of piston side load has the potential for lower piston friction, reduced piston slap, and less susceptibility to cylinder liner cavitation. To evaluate the concept, an experimental single cylinder four-stroke engine which utilizes the MH mechanism is currently being built at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The MH engine has an increased number of friction interfaces compared to a conventional slider-crank engine due to additional bearings and the gear meshes. Thus, the lubrication of these components is an important issue in total MH engine friction.
Technical Paper

Modeling Combustion in Compression Ignition Homogeneous Charge Engines

1992-02-01
920512
The combustion mechanism in a Compression Ignition Homogeneous Charge (CIHC) engine was studied. Previous experiments done on a four-stroke CIHC engine were modeled using the KIVA-II code with modifications to the combustion, heat transfer, and crevice flow submodels. A laminar and turbulence characteristic time combustion model that has been used for spark-ignited engine studies was extended to allow predictions of ignition. The rate of conversion from one chemical species to another is modeled using a characteristic time which is the sum of a laminar (high temperature) chemistry time, an ignition (low temperature) chemistry time, and a turbulence mixing time. The ignition characteristic time was modeled using data from elementary initiation reactions and has the Arrhenius form. It was found to be possible to match all engine test cases reasonably well with one set of combustion model constants.
Technical Paper

Modeling Diesel Engine Spray Vaporization and Combustion

1992-02-01
920579
Diesel engine in-cylinder combustion processes have been studied using computational models with particular attention to spray development, vaporization, fuel/air mixture formation and combustion. A thermodynamic zero-dimensional cycle analysis program was used to determine initial conditions for the multidimensional calculations. A modified version of the time-dependent, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code KIVA-II was used for the computations, with a detailed treatment for the spray calculations and a simplified model for combustion. The calculations were used to obtain an understanding of the potential predictive capabilities of the models. It was found that there is a strong sensitivity of the results to numerical grid resolution. With proper grid resolution, the calculations were found to reproduce experimental data for non- vaporizing and vaporizing sprays. However, for vaporizing sprays with combustion, extremely fine grids are needed.
Technical Paper

Operating a Heavy-Duty Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engine with Gasoline for Low Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1442
A study of partially premixed combustion (PPC) with non-oxygenated 91 pump octane number1 (PON) commercially available gasoline was performed using a heavy-duty (HD) compression-ignition (CI) 2.44 l Caterpillar 3401E single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE). The experimental conditions selected were a net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 11.5 bar, an engine speed of 1300 rev/min, an intake temperature of 40°C with intake and exhaust pressures of 200 and 207 kPa, respectively. The baseline case for all studies presented had 0% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), used a dual injection strategy a -137 deg ATDC pilot SOI and a -6 deg ATDC main start-of-injection (SOI) timing with a 30/70% pilot/main fuel split for a total of 5.3 kg/h fueling (equating to approximately 50% load). Combustion and emissions characteristics were explored relative to the baseline case by sweeping main and pilot SOI timings, injection split fuel percentage, intake pressure, load and EGR levels.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Components Along with Temperature and Equivalence Ratio on the Combustion of n-Heptane Fuel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0951
Fundamental simulations in a quiescent cell under adiabatic conditions were made to understand the effect of temperature, equivalence ratio and the components of the recirculated exhaust gas, viz., CO2 and H2O, on the combustion of n-Heptane. Simulations were made in single phase in which evaporated n-Heptane was uniformly distributed in the domain. Computations were made for two different temperatures and four different EGR levels. CO2 or H2O or N2was used as EGR. It was found that the initiation of the main combustion process was primarily determined by two competing factors, i.e., the amount of initial OH concentration in the domain and the specific heat of the mixture. Further, initial OH concentration can be controlled by the manipulating the ambient temperature in the domain, and the specific heat capacity of the mixture via the mixture composition. In addition to these, the pre combustion and the subsequent post combustion can also be controlled via the equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling of Transient Engine Operations Using Data Generated by a CFD Code

2008-04-14
2008-01-0357
Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Intake and Cylinder Flow Modeling with a Dual-Valve Port

1993-03-01
930069
Intake port and cylinder flow have been modeled for a dual intake valve diesel engine. A block structured grid was used to represent the complex geometry of the intake port, valves, and cylinder. The calculations were made using a pre-release version of the KIVA-3 code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Both steady flow-bench and unsteady intake calculations were made. In the flow bench configuration, the valves were stationary in a fully open position and pressure boundary conditions were implemented at the domain inlet and outlet. Detailed structure of the in-cylinder flow field set up by the intake flow was studied. Three dimensional particle trace streamlines reveal a complex flow structure that is not readily described by global parameters such as swirl or tumble. Streamlines constrained to lie in planes normal to the cylinder axis show dual vortical structures, which originated at the valves, merging into a single structure downstream.
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