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Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

2008-04-14
2008-01-0047
Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Sparse Analytical Jacobian Chemistry Solver for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Simulations with Comprehensive Reaction Mechanisms

2012-09-24
2012-01-1974
The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions

1994-03-01
940523
The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of injection pressure and split injections on diesel engine performance and soot and NOx emissions. The code has been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system, a full-dilution tunnel for soot measurements, and gaseous emissions instrumentation.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Diesel Flame Imaging Compared with Numerical Computations

1995-02-01
950455
An image acquisition-and-processing camera system was developed for in-cylinder diagnostics of a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with an electronically-controlled common-rail fuel injection system that allowed both single and split (multiple) injections to be studied. The imaging system uses an endoscope to acquire luminous flame images from the combustion chamber and ensures minimum modification to the engine geometry. The system also includes an optical linkage, an image intensifier, a CID camera, a frame grabber, control circuitry and a computer. Experiments include both single and split injection cases at 90 MPa and 45 MPa injection pressures at 3/4 load and 1600 rev/min with simulated turbocharging. For the single injection at high injection pressure (90 MPa) the results show that the first luminous emissions from the ignition zone occur very close to the injector exit followed by rapid luminous flame spreading.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Sprays Using Diffraction-Based Droplet Sizing

1995-02-01
950458
The study of combustion in direct injection Diesel engines demands detailed understanding of the behavior of the injection. Understanding the injection involves characterizing the distribution of fuel particle sizes throughout the spray. This work studied the size distributions of sprays from commercial Diesel injectors under a series of conditions. A diffraction-based diagnostic obtained maps of local fuel droplet size information over the full spray field. Most quantitative techniques currently used in spray research provide quantitative time-ranging data at a single point in the spray field. Spatially resolved information proves more useful in studying transient sprays. The spatially resolved maps of particle size obtained in this experiment showed the reliability of the diagnostic, exhibited the transience of the fine structure of these sprays, and demonstrated the evolution of the sprays with time.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of the Ford AOD Automobile Transmission

1995-02-01
950899
A transmission system model for Ford Motor Company's automatic transmission (AOD) system used in the Lincoln Town Car has been developed using the free-body diagram method (Newtonian approach). This model is sophisticated enough to represent the dynamic behavior of the transmission system, yet simple enough to use as a real time computer simulation tool, and as an embedded model within a dynamic observer. The transmission system and torque converter models presented in this paper are part of a larger powertrain system model at the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Technical Paper

An Analysis on Time Scale Separation for Engine Simulations with Detailed Chemistry

2011-09-11
2011-24-0028
The simulation of combustion chemistry in internal combustion engines is challenging due to the need to include detailed reaction mechanisms to describe the engine physics. Computational times needed for coupling full chemistry to CFD simulations are still too computationally demanding, even when distributed computer systems are exploited. For these reasons the present paper proposes a time scale separation approach for the integration of the chemistry differential equations and applies it in an engine CFD code. The time scale separation is achieved through the estimation of a characteristic time for each of the species and the introduction of a sampling timestep, wherein the chemistry is subcycled during the overall integration. This allows explicit integration of the system to be carried out, and the step size is governed by tolerance requirements.
Technical Paper

A Modular HMMWV Dynamic Powertrain System Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-0740
A dynamic powertrain system model of the High Mobility Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) was created in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Simulink graphical programming software was used to create the model. This dynamic model includes a Torsen differential model and a Hyrda-matic 4L80-E automatic transmission model as well as several other powertrain component models developed in the PCRL. Several component inertias and shaft stiffnesses are included in the dynamic model. The concepts of modularity, flexibility, and user-friendliness were emphasized during model development so that the system model would be a useful design tool. Simulation results from the model are shown.
Technical Paper

On Simulating Sloshing in Vehicle Dynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-1110
We present an approach in which we use simulation to capture the two-way coupling between the dynamics of a vehicle and that of a fluid that sloshes in a tank attached to the vehicle. The simulation is carried out in and builds on support provided by two modules: Chrono::FSI (Fluid-Solid Interaction) and Chrono::Vehicle. The dynamics of the fluid phase is governed by the mass and momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations, which are discretized in space via a Lagrangian approach called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The vehicle dynamics is the solution of a set of differential algebraic equations of motion. All equations are discretized in time via a half-implicit symplectic Euler method. This solution approach is general - it allows for fully three dimensional (3D) motion and nonlinear transients. We demonstrate the solution in conjunction with the simulation of a vehicle model that performs a constant radius turn and double lane change maneuver.
Technical Paper

Modeling Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines Using a G-equation Combustion Model Incorporating Detailed Chemical Kinetics

2007-04-16
2007-01-0165
In this paper, knock in a Ford single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine was modeled and investigated using the KIVA-3V code with a G-equation combustion model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The deflagrative turbulent flame propagation was described by the G-equation combustion model. A 22-species, 42-reaction iso-octane (iC8H18) mechanism was adopted to model the auto-ignition process of the gasoline/air/residual-gas mixture ahead of the flame front. The iso-octane mechanism was originally validated by ignition delay tests in a rapid compression machine. In this study, the mechanism was tested by comparing the simulated ignition delay time in a constant volume mesh with the values measured in a shock tube under different initial temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio conditions, and acceptable agreements were obtained.
Technical Paper

Global Optimization of a Two-Pulse Fuel Injection Strategy for a Diesel Engine Using Interpolation and a Gradient-Based Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0248
A global optimization method has been developed for an engine simulation code and utilized in the search of optimal fuel injection strategies. This method uses a Lagrange interpolation function which interpolates engine output data generated at the vertices and the intermediate points of the input parameters. This interpolation function is then used to find a global minimum over the entire parameter set, which in turn becomes the starting point of a CFD-based optimization. The CFD optimization is based on a steepest descent method with an adaptive cost function, where the line searches are performed with a fast-converging backtracking algorithm. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0197
Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Aromatic Structure and Content on Direct Injection Diesel Engine Particulates

1992-02-01
920110
A single cylinder, Cummins NH, direct-injection, diesel engine has been operated in order to evaluate the effects of aromatic content and aromatic structure on diesel engine particulates. Results from three fuels are shown. The first fuel, a low sulfur Chevron diesel fuel was used as a base fuel for comparison. The other fuels consisted of the base fuel and 10% by volume of 1-2-3-4 tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) a single-ring aromatic and naphthalene, a double-ring aromatic. The fuels were chosen to vary aromatic content and structure while minimizing differences in boiling points and cetane number. Measurements included exhaust particulates using a mini-dilution tunnel, exhaust emissions including THC, CO2, NO/NOx, O2, injection timing, two-color radiation, soluble organic fraction, and cylinder pressure. Particulate measurements were found to be sensitive to temperature and flow conditions in the mini-dilution tunnel and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Modeling Diesel Engine Spray Vaporization and Combustion

1992-02-01
920579
Diesel engine in-cylinder combustion processes have been studied using computational models with particular attention to spray development, vaporization, fuel/air mixture formation and combustion. A thermodynamic zero-dimensional cycle analysis program was used to determine initial conditions for the multidimensional calculations. A modified version of the time-dependent, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code KIVA-II was used for the computations, with a detailed treatment for the spray calculations and a simplified model for combustion. The calculations were used to obtain an understanding of the potential predictive capabilities of the models. It was found that there is a strong sensitivity of the results to numerical grid resolution. With proper grid resolution, the calculations were found to reproduce experimental data for non- vaporizing and vaporizing sprays. However, for vaporizing sprays with combustion, extremely fine grids are needed.
Technical Paper

Operating a Heavy-Duty Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engine with Gasoline for Low Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1442
A study of partially premixed combustion (PPC) with non-oxygenated 91 pump octane number1 (PON) commercially available gasoline was performed using a heavy-duty (HD) compression-ignition (CI) 2.44 l Caterpillar 3401E single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE). The experimental conditions selected were a net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 11.5 bar, an engine speed of 1300 rev/min, an intake temperature of 40°C with intake and exhaust pressures of 200 and 207 kPa, respectively. The baseline case for all studies presented had 0% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), used a dual injection strategy a -137 deg ATDC pilot SOI and a -6 deg ATDC main start-of-injection (SOI) timing with a 30/70% pilot/main fuel split for a total of 5.3 kg/h fueling (equating to approximately 50% load). Combustion and emissions characteristics were explored relative to the baseline case by sweeping main and pilot SOI timings, injection split fuel percentage, intake pressure, load and EGR levels.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Components Along with Temperature and Equivalence Ratio on the Combustion of n-Heptane Fuel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0951
Fundamental simulations in a quiescent cell under adiabatic conditions were made to understand the effect of temperature, equivalence ratio and the components of the recirculated exhaust gas, viz., CO2 and H2O, on the combustion of n-Heptane. Simulations were made in single phase in which evaporated n-Heptane was uniformly distributed in the domain. Computations were made for two different temperatures and four different EGR levels. CO2 or H2O or N2was used as EGR. It was found that the initiation of the main combustion process was primarily determined by two competing factors, i.e., the amount of initial OH concentration in the domain and the specific heat of the mixture. Further, initial OH concentration can be controlled by the manipulating the ambient temperature in the domain, and the specific heat capacity of the mixture via the mixture composition. In addition to these, the pre combustion and the subsequent post combustion can also be controlled via the equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling of Transient Engine Operations Using Data Generated by a CFD Code

2008-04-14
2008-01-0357
Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Intake and Cylinder Flow Modeling with a Dual-Valve Port

1993-03-01
930069
Intake port and cylinder flow have been modeled for a dual intake valve diesel engine. A block structured grid was used to represent the complex geometry of the intake port, valves, and cylinder. The calculations were made using a pre-release version of the KIVA-3 code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Both steady flow-bench and unsteady intake calculations were made. In the flow bench configuration, the valves were stationary in a fully open position and pressure boundary conditions were implemented at the domain inlet and outlet. Detailed structure of the in-cylinder flow field set up by the intake flow was studied. Three dimensional particle trace streamlines reveal a complex flow structure that is not readily described by global parameters such as swirl or tumble. Streamlines constrained to lie in planes normal to the cylinder axis show dual vortical structures, which originated at the valves, merging into a single structure downstream.
Technical Paper

Application of Schlieren Optical Techniques for the Measurement of Gas Temperature and Turbulent Diffusivity in a Diesel Engine

1993-03-01
930869
A new technique which is based on optoacoustic phenomena has been developed for measuring in-cylinder gas temperature and turbulent diffusivity. In the experiments, a high energy Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam was focused to cause local ionization of air at a point in the combustion chamber. This initiates a shock wave and creates a hot spot. The local temperature and turbulent diffusivity are determined by monitoring the shock propagation and the hot spot growth, respectively, with a schlieren photography system. In order to assess the validity and accuracy of the measurements, the technique was also applied to a turbulent jet. The temperature measurements were found to be accurate to within 3%. Results from the turbulent jet measurements also showed that the growth rate of the hot spot diameter can be used to estimate the turbulent diffusivity. In-cylinder gas temperature measurements were made in a motored single cylinder Caterpillar diesel engine, modified for optical access.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Split Injection on Fuel Distribution in an Engine-Fed Combustion Chamber

1993-03-01
930864
This research focused on the effects of split injection on fuel spray behavior in a diesel environment. It was done in a special designed engine-fed combustion chamber (swirl ratio of 5) with full field optical access through a quartz window. The simulated engine combustion chamber used a special backwards spraying injector (105°). The electronically controlled injector could control the size and position of it's two injections. Both injections were through the same nozzle and it produced very rapid injections (1.5 ms) with a maximum injection pressure of 130 MPa. Experimental data included: rate of injection, injector pressure, spray plume images, tip penetration, liquid and vapor fuel distributions, combustion pressure, and rate of pressure rise. From 105° forward scatter images, tip penetration was observed to be very rapid and reached a plateau at 25 mm.
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