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Video

Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Video

OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
Video

Worldwide OBD

2012-01-30
OBD system requirements were first developed by the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Commission. New OBD requirements should be as consistent as possible with existing requirements to maximize reliability and to minimize system complexity, proliferation of configurations, and consumer cost. New OBD requirements from around the world are briefly reviewed and most are consistent with the original U.S. and European requirements. Worldwide OBD requirements are being further harmonized under the United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP29). Presenter David H. Ferris, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Advanced Diesel Combustion

2007-07-23
2007-01-1945
The applicability of several popular diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement techniques to low temperature combustion is examined. The instruments' performance in measuring low levels of PM from advanced diesel combustion is evaluated. Preliminary emissions optimization of a high-speed light-duty diesel engine was performed for two conventional and two advanced low temperature combustion engine cases. A low PM (<0.2 g/kg_fuel) and NOx (<0.07 g/kg_fuel) advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and early injection timing was chosen as a baseline. The three other cases were selected by varying engine load, injection timing, injection pressure, and EGR mass fraction. All engine conditions were run with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. An extensive characterization of PM from these engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

A Decoupled Model of Detailed Fluid Mechanics Followed by Detailed Chemical Kinetics for Prediction of Iso-Octane HCCI Combustion

2001-09-24
2001-01-3612
We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. The methodology judiciously uses a fluid mechanics code followed by a chemical kinetics code to achieve great reduction in the computational requirements; to a level that can be handled with current computers. In previous papers, our sequential, multi-zone methodology has been applied to HCCI combustion of short-chain hydrocarbons (natural gas and propane). Applying the same procedure to long-chain hydrocarbons (iso-octane) results in unacceptably long computational time. In this paper, we show how the computational time can be made acceptable by developing a segregated solver. This reduces the run time of a ten-zone problem by an order of magnitude and thus makes it much more practical to make combustion studies of long-chain hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Direct Injection-Gasoline Premixed Charge Compression Ignited Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0419
The causes of Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from a premixed compression ignited engine were investigated for both homogeneous and stratified charge conditions. A fast response Flame Ionization Detector (fast FID) was used to provide cycle-resolved UHC exhaust emission measurements. These fast FID UHC measurements were coupled with numerical flow simulation results to provide quantitative and qualitative insight into the sources of UHC emissions. The combined results were used to evaluate the effects of engine load, local gas temperatures, fuel stratification, and crevice quenching on UHC emissions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Direct Injection-Gasoline for Premixed Compression Ignited Combustion Phasing Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-0418
A direct injection-gasoline (DI-G) system was applied to a heavy-duty diesel-type engine to study the effects of charge stratification on the performance of premixed compression ignited combustion. The effects of the fuel injection parameters on combustion phasing were of primary interest. The simultaneous effects of the fuel stratification on Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions were also measured. Engine tests were conducted with altered injection parameters covering the entire load range of normally aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) combustion. Combustion phasing tests were also conducted at several engine speeds to evaluate its effects on a fuel stratification strategy.
Technical Paper

Evaporating Spray Concentration Measurementsfrom Small and Medium Bore Diesel Injectors

2002-03-04
2002-01-0219
Vapor concentration measurements were performed for two unit injectors typically found in small- and medium-bore applications under evaporating conditions similar to those experienced in Diesel engines. Ambient gas temperatures of 800 and 1000 K and an ambient density of 15 kg/m3 were investigated using a constant volume combustion-type spray chamber. The exciplex laserinduced fluorescence technique with TMPD/naphthalene doped into the fuel was used to quantitatively determine the vapor-phase concentration and liquid-phase extent. The vapor-phase concentration was quantified using a previously developed method that includes corrections for the temperature dependence of the TMPD fluorescence, laser sheet absorption, and the laser sheet intensity profile. The effect of increasing ambient temperature (1000 vs. 800 K) was significant on intact liquid length, and on the spray-spreading angle in the early portion of the injection period.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Hybrid-Electric Split-Parallel Crossover Sports Utility Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1068
The University of Wisconsin - Madison Hybrid Vehicle Team has designed, fabricated, tested and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2006 Challenge X competition. This multi-year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Trade-offs in fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were weighed to establish Wisconsin's Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, utilizes a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9 L CIDI engine coupled to GM's 6-speed F40 transmission. The rear axle is powered by a 65 kW Ballard induction motor/gearbox powered from a 44-module (317 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc., nickel-metal hydride hybrid battery pack. It includes a newly developed proprietary battery management algorithm which broadcasts the battery's state of charge onto the CAN network.
Technical Paper

Detailed Diesel Exhaust Particulate Characterization and DPF Regeneration Behavior Measurements for Two Different Regeneration Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1063
Three distinct types of diesel particulate matter (PM) are generated in selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The three types of PM are trapped using typical Cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF) with different washcoat formulations and a commercial Silicon-Carbide DPF. Two systems, an external electric furnace and an in-situ burner, were used for regeneration. Furnace regeneration experiments allow the collected PM to be classified into two categories depending on oxidation mechanism: PM that is affected by the catalyst and PM that is oxidized by a purely thermal mechanism. The two PM categories prove to contribute differently to pressure drop and transient filtration efficiency during in-situ regeneration.
Technical Paper

Effects of DPF Washcoat Variations on DPF Active Regeneration Characteristics

2007-09-16
2007-24-0092
Three Cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF) with variations in the washcoat† (bare, washcoat-only, and catalyzed washcoat) were filled with equal amounts of PM (∼2 g/l) from a single steady-state engine operating condition (30% load, 1800 rpm). Two regeneration systems were used: an electrical furnace to extract the kinetic parameters by performing Temperature Programmed Oxidation (TPO) experiments and an inline burner to study how DPF washcoat variations affect active regeneration performance. Detailed emissions measurements were performed upstream and downstream of the DPF during the filtration and regeneration processes to quantify DPF filtration and regeneration performance. These measurements included gaseous emission, PM mass concentration, and particle size distribution.
Technical Paper

Submerged Electrical Discharges for Water Decontamination and Disinfection

2007-07-09
2007-01-3175
A modular and scalable Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor was developed, which uses atmospheric-pressure electrical discharges under water to generate highly reactive species to break down organic contaminants and microorganisms. Key benefits of this novel technology include: (i) extremely high efficiency in both decontamination and disinfection; (ii) operating continuously at ambient temperature and pressure; (iii) reducing demands on the containment vessel; and (iv) requiring no consumables. This plasma based technology was developed to replace the catalytic reactor being used in the planned International Space Station Water Processor Assembly.
Technical Paper

Initial Estimation of the Piston Ring Pack Contribution to Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4014
The contribution to the engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from fuel that escapes the main combustion event in piston ring crevices was estimated for an air-cooled, V-twin utility engine. The engine was run with a homogeneous pre-vaporized mixture system that avoids the presence of liquid films in the cylinder, and their resulting contribution to the HC emissions. A simplified ring pack gas flow model was used to estimate the ring pack contribution to HC emissions; the model was tested against the experimentally measured blowby. At high load conditions the model shows that the ring pack returns to the cylinder a mass of HC that exceeds that observed in the exhaust, and thus, is the dominant contributor to HC emissions. At light loads, however, the model predicts less HC mass returned from the ring pack than is observed in the exhaust. Time-resolved HC measurements were performed and used to assess the effect of combustion quality on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4250
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Piston-Liner Crevice Geometry Effect on HCCI Combustion by Multi-Zone Analysis

2002-10-21
2002-01-2869
A multi-zone model has been developed that accurately predicts HCCI combustion and emissions. The multi-zone methodology is based on the observation that turbulence does not play a direct role on HCCI combustion. Instead, chemical kinetics dominates the process, with hotter zones reacting first, and then colder zones reacting in rapid succession. Here, the multi-zone model has been applied to analyze the effect of piston crevice geometry on HCCI combustion and emissions. Three different pistons of varying crevice size were analyzed. Crevice sizes were 0.26, 1.3 and 2.1 mm, while a constant compression ratio was maintained (17:1). The results show that the multi-zone model can predict pressure traces and heat release rates with good accuracy. Combustion efficiency is also predicted with good accuracy for all cases, with a maximum difference of 5% between experimental and numerical results.
Technical Paper

Late-Cycle Turbulence Generation in Swirl-Supported, Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0891
Cycle-resolved analysis of velocity data obtained in the re-entrant bowl of a fired high-;speed, direct-injection diesel engine, demonstrates an unambiguous, approximately 100% increase in late-cycle turbulence levels over the levels measured during motored operation. Model predictions of the flow field, obtained employing RNG k-ε turbulence modeling in KIVA-3V, do not capture this increased turbulence. A combined experimental and computational approach is taken to identify the source of this turbulence. The results indicate that the dominant source of the increased turbulence is associated with the formation of an unstable distribution of mean angular momentum, characterized by a negative radial gradient. The importance of this source of flow turbulence has not previously been recognized for engine flows. The enhanced late-cycle turbulence is found to be very sensitive to the flow swirl level.
Technical Paper

Air Flow Characteristics Surrounding Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2002-03-04
2002-01-0499
Airflow characteristics surrounding evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber under temperatures around 1100 K were investigated using a 6-hole injector and a single-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The normal velocities crossing the control surface toward the spray plume for single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. The velocities tangential to the control surface toward the injector tip for the single-hole injection sprays were lower than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in tangential velocities near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas was accelerated by the spray wall impingement, both for non-evaporating and evaporating sprays.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Spray and Combustion Chamber Wall Impingement in Large Bore Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0496
The Diesel engine is a commercially attractive powerplant, however it is noted to have significant specific output of harmful emissions under some operating conditions. One possible solution for reduction of the harmful emissions from the Diesel engine is greater control over the fuel injection event. To gain further understanding of liquid phase Diesel fuel injection spray characteristics, a 2.44 liter displacement, 4 stroke engine was modified for optical access and fitted with a Caterpillar Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injection (HEUI) system. The data collection system consisted of a high repetition rate diode pumped Nd:YAG laser frequency doubled to 532 nm for visible illumination and a Kodak High Speed Motion Analyzer for recording fuel spray images. The engine was motored under various inlet conditions to create an engine combustion chamber environment typical of those found in commercial engines of similar per cylinder displacement class.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and the Number of Injector Holes on the Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2001-03-05
2001-01-0532
The effect of ambient gas density and the number of injector holes on the characteristics of airflow surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The positive normal velocities across the control surface of single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in velocities tangential to the control surface near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas is accelerated by spray wall impingement.
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