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Technical Paper

Measurement of Diesel Spray Impingement and Fuel Film Characteristics Using Refractive Index Matching Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0485
The fuel film thickness resulting from diesel fuel spray impingement was measured in a chamber at conditions representative of early injection timings used for low temperature diesel combustion. The adhered fuel volume and the radial distribution of the film thickness are presented. Fuel was injected normal to the impingement surface at ambient temperatures of 353 K, 426 K and 500 K, with densities of 10 kg/m3 and 25 kg/m3. Two injectors, with nozzle diameters of 100 μm and 120 μm, were investigated. The results show that the fuel film volume was strongly affected by the ambient temperature, but was minimally affected by the ambient density. The peak fuel film thickness and the film radius were found to increase with decreased temperature. The fuel film was found to be circular in shape, with an inner region of nearly constant thickness. The major difference observed with temperature was a decrease in the radial extent of the film.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Direct Injection-Gasoline for Premixed Compression Ignited Combustion Phasing Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-0418
A direct injection-gasoline (DI-G) system was applied to a heavy-duty diesel-type engine to study the effects of charge stratification on the performance of premixed compression ignited combustion. The effects of the fuel injection parameters on combustion phasing were of primary interest. The simultaneous effects of the fuel stratification on Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions were also measured. Engine tests were conducted with altered injection parameters covering the entire load range of normally aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) combustion. Combustion phasing tests were also conducted at several engine speeds to evaluate its effects on a fuel stratification strategy.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Spray and Combustion Chamber Wall Impingement in Large Bore Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0496
The Diesel engine is a commercially attractive powerplant, however it is noted to have significant specific output of harmful emissions under some operating conditions. One possible solution for reduction of the harmful emissions from the Diesel engine is greater control over the fuel injection event. To gain further understanding of liquid phase Diesel fuel injection spray characteristics, a 2.44 liter displacement, 4 stroke engine was modified for optical access and fitted with a Caterpillar Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injection (HEUI) system. The data collection system consisted of a high repetition rate diode pumped Nd:YAG laser frequency doubled to 532 nm for visible illumination and a Kodak High Speed Motion Analyzer for recording fuel spray images. The engine was motored under various inlet conditions to create an engine combustion chamber environment typical of those found in commercial engines of similar per cylinder displacement class.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Vaporizing Continuous Multi-Component Fuel Sprays in a Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1231
Vaporization models for continuous multi-component liquid sprays and liquid wall films are presented using a continuous thermodynamics formulation. The models were implemented in the KIVA3V-Release 2.0 code. The models are first applied to clarify the characteristics of vaporizing continuous multi-component liquid wall films and liquid drops, and then applied to numerically analyze a practical continuous multi-component fuel - gasoline behavior in a 4-valve port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engine under warm conditions. Corresponding computations with single-component fuels are also performed and presented for comparison purposes. As compared to the results of its single-component counterpart, the vaporizing continuous multi-component fuel drop displays a larger vaporization rate initially and a smaller vaporization rate as it becomes more and more dominated by heavy species.
Technical Paper

Integration of Hybrid-Electric Strategy to Enhance Clean Snowmobile Performance

2006-11-13
2006-32-0048
The University of Wisconsin-Madison Snowmobile Team designed and constructed a hybrid-electric snowmobile for the 2005 Society of Automotive Engineers' Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Built on a 2003 cross-country touring chassis, this machine features a 784 cc fuel-injected four-stroke engine in parallel with a 48 V electric golf cart motor. The 12 kg electric motor increases powertrain torque up to 25% during acceleration and recharges the snowmobile's battery pack during steady-state operation. Air pollution from the gasoline engine is reduced to levels far below current best available technology in the snowmobile industry. The four-stroke engine's closed-loop EFI system maintains stoichiometric combustion while dual three-way catalysts reduce NOx, HC and CO emissions by up to 94% from stock. In addition to the use of three way catalysts, the fuel injection strategy has been modified to further reduce engine emissions from the levels measured in the CSC 2004 competition.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0197
Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Asynchronous Fuel Injection System in Diesel Engines by Means of a Micro-Genetic Algorithm and an Adaptive Gradient Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0925
Optimal fuel injection strategies are obtained with a micro-genetic algorithm and an adaptive gradient method for a nonroad, medium-speed DI diesel engine equipped with a multi-orifice, asynchronous fuel injection system. The gradient optimization utilizes a fast-converging backtracking algorithm and an adaptive cost function which is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The micro-genetic algorithm uses parameter combinations of the best two individuals in each generation until a local convergence is achieved, and then generates a random population to continue the global search. The optimizations have been performed for a two pulse fuel injection strategy where the optimization parameters are the injection timings and the nozzle orifice diameters.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Corrosion Inhibitors on Powertrain Intake Valve Deposits

2011-04-12
2011-01-0908
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries. The impact of these inhibitors on spark ignited fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the additive concentrations to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel; and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the CIs impact the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation. Commercially available corrosion inhibitor packages for both gasoline and ethanol blended fuels, specifically E85 fuels, were studied for their chemical compositions, and their impact on valves for a port fuel injection (PFI) engine.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Combustion Simulations of Spray-Guided SIDI Engine using Arrhenius Combustion with Spark-Energy Deposition Model

2012-04-16
2012-01-0147
An Arrhenius combustion model (chemically controlled model) with a spark-energy deposition model having a moving spherical ignition source in the Converge CFD code is validated with a single-cylinder spray-guided SIDI engine at idle-like lean-burn operating conditions with both single- and double-pulse fuel injection. It was found that a fine mesh is required for accurate solving of "laminar-flame" like reaction front propagation. A reduced chemistry mechanism for iso-octane is used as gasoline surrogate. The effects of spark advance were studied by the simulation and experiment. The results show that this modeling approach can provide reasonable predictions for the spray-guided SIDI engine with single- and double-pulse injections.
Technical Paper

Development of the Combustion System for the General Motors Fifth Generation “Small Block” Engine Family

2013-04-08
2013-01-1732
The fifth generation of General Motor's “Small Block” 90-degree V engine family has been developed with a totally new combustion system. This system employs direct fuel injection (DI) and carefully architected in-cylinder flow field development in order to significantly improve all aspects of combustion system performance. Efficiency improvements stem from increased compression ratio, greatly improved dilution tolerance, and excellent knock resistance. The asymmetric, 2-valve (2V) layout of the “Small Block” engine presented unique challenges in developing the combustion system, but also offered unusual opportunities for an elegant solution while retaining the traditional “Small Block” attributes of packaging efficiency and power density.
Technical Paper

Global Optimization of a Two-Pulse Fuel Injection Strategy for a Diesel Engine Using Interpolation and a Gradient-Based Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0248
A global optimization method has been developed for an engine simulation code and utilized in the search of optimal fuel injection strategies. This method uses a Lagrange interpolation function which interpolates engine output data generated at the vertices and the intermediate points of the input parameters. This interpolation function is then used to find a global minimum over the entire parameter set, which in turn becomes the starting point of a CFD-based optimization. The CFD optimization is based on a steepest descent method with an adaptive cost function, where the line searches are performed with a fast-converging backtracking algorithm. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Engine Speed on the Combustion Process and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
962056
Previous studies have shown that air motion affects the combustion process and therefore also the emissions in a DI diesel engine. Experimental studies indicate that higher engine speeds enhance the turbulence and this improves air and fuel mixing. However, there are few studies that address fundamental combustion related factors and possible limitations associated with very high speed engine operation. In this study, operation over a large range of engine speeds was simulated by using a multi-dimensional computer code to study the effect of speed on emissions, engine power, engine and exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that at higher engine speeds fuel is consumed in a much shorter time period by the enhanced air and fuel mixing. The shorter combustion duration provides much less available time for soot and NOx formations. In addition, the enhanced air/fuel mixing decreases soot and NOx by reducing the extent of the fuel rich regions.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effects on Fuel Sprays from a Multi-Hole Nozzle Injector

1996-10-01
962005
A study of fuel spray characteristics for diesel fuel from a multi-hole nozzle injector was performed yielding tip penetration length and spray cone angle for each of the spray plumes from a six hole injector. The main feature of the system used was that analysis of all the fuel plumes could occur at one time, as all the plumes were imaged on the same piece of film. Spray behavior was examined for two injection pressures (72 MPa and 122 MPa) and for ambient temperatures up to 523 K (250°C). The results in this paper show how the spray plumes behave as they leave each of the six holes of the injector. The characteristics of each hole differs during injection. The variations of spray cone angle and tip penetration length between holes are small, but significant. These variations in tip penetration and cone angle changed as the temperature of the chamber changed, but the overall characteristics of the spray plumes changed only slightly for the temperatures used in this paper.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing on Air-Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970625
Multidimensional modeling is used to study air-fuel mixing in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the start of fuel injection on gas/spray interactions, wall wetting, fuel vaporization rate and air-fuel ratio distributions in this paper. It was found that the in-cylinder gas/spray interactions vary with fuel injection timing which directly impacts spray characteristics such as tip penetration and spray/wall impingement and air-fuel mixing. It was also found that, compared with a non-spray case, the mixture temperature at the end of the compression stroke decreases substantially in spray cases due to in-cylinder fuel vaporization. The computed trapped-mass and total heat-gain from the cylinder walls during the induction and compression processes were also shown to be increased in spray cases.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement and Modeling of Liquid Fuel Spray Penetration in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1997-05-01
971591
Liquid fuel penetration was measured using an endoscopebased imaging system in an operating single-cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine with simulated turbocharging. Sprays were imaged via the elastic backscatter technique without significantly altering the engine geometry. Light loads (or pilot injections) were also studied because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes can be isolated since they are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in a full injection case. The pilot injections included cases with three different fuel amounts (10%, 15% and 20% of the fuel injected in the baseline case, i.e., 75% load and 1600 rev/min) with different start-of-injection timings. Maximum liquid penetration lengths beyond which the fuel is completely vaporized were observed for all the cases studied. The maximum lengths varied from 23 mm to 28 mm for the different start-of-injection timings.
Technical Paper

Development of Novel Direct-injection Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber Designs Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

1997-05-01
971594
A, three-dimensional CFD code, based on the KIVA code, is used to explore alternatives to conventional DI diesel engine designs for reducing NOx and soot emissions without sacrificing engine performance. The effects of combustion chamber design and fuel spray orientation are investigated using a new proposed GAMMA engine concept, and two new multiple injector combustion system (MICS) designs which utilize multiple injectors to increase gas motion and enhance fuel/air mixing in the combustion chamber. From these computational studies, it is found that both soot and nitrous oxide emissions can be significantly reduced without the need for more conventional emission control strategies such as EGR or ultra high injection pressure. The results suggest that CFD models can be a useful tool not only for understanding combustion and emissions production, but also for investigating new design concepts.
Technical Paper

Air Entrainment in a High Pressure Diesel Spray

1997-05-01
971620
This paper presents some experimental results of air velocity measurements near high pressure diesel sprays. The measurements were made using a moderately high pressure (90 MPa) common rail injector in a pressurized spray chamber. The chamber was operated at ambient temperature (25°C) and was pressurized with Argon to produce a chamber gas density of about 27 kg/m3, similar to densities found in a large turbocharged diesel near TDC. The gas phase was tagged using water droplets doped with Stilbene 420, with an estimated droplet size of 18 μm. The atomized water-Stilbene droplets were illuminated with the third harmonic of a pair of Nd:YAG lasers which caused the Stilbene to fluoresce at about 420 nm. To reduce the competing fluorescence from the injected fuel, the injector was fueled with Jet-A fuel. Using the two lasers, double exposures of the small droplets were recorded on film. The laser pulse lengths were about 6 ns, and typical times between pulses were 100 μs.
Technical Paper

Development of Micro-Diesel Injector Nozzles via MEMS Technology and Initial Results for Diesel Sprays

1999-10-25
1999-01-3645
We have developed and used micro-machined injector nozzles with commercially produced diesel injection systems that have the capability to improve the spray characteristics in DI diesel engines. The availability of a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) processing sequence supported the construction of micro-diesel injector nozzles, and micro-systems technology was also employed in our macro-instrumentation. Fourteen different circular plates (nickel-iron alloy) were fabricated with deep X-ray lithography and electroplating technology. Five plates that have a single orifice were fabricated to investigate the effect of orifice diameter on spray characteristics; i.e., 40 to 260 microns. The spacing between multiple orifices was also varied; e.g., two plates that each had 41 orifices and 169 orifices, respectively, with a diameter of 40 microns. Finally, three plates with non-circular orifices were also made to examine the effect of orifice shape on spray characteristics.
Journal Article

Heavy-Duty RCCI Operation Using Natural Gas and Diesel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0379
Many recent studies have shown that the Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy can achieve high efficiency with low emissions. However, it has also been revealed that RCCI combustion is difficult at high loads due to its premixed nature. To operate at moderate to high loads with gasoline/diesel dual fuel, high amounts of EGR or an ultra low compression ratio have shown to be required. Considering that both of these approaches inherently lower thermodynamic efficiency, in this study natural gas was utilized as a replacement for gasoline as the low-reactivity fuel. Due to the lower reactivity (i.e., higher octane number) of natural gas compared to gasoline, it was hypothesized to be a better fuel for RCCI combustion, in which a large reactivity gradient between the two fuels is beneficial in controlling the maximum pressure rise rate.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Load Limits and Emissions of a Naturally-Aspirated Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0686
Cost and robustness are key factors in the design of diesel engines for low power density applications. Although compression ignition engines can produce very high power density output with turbocharging, naturally aspirated (NA) engines have advantages in terms of reduced cost and avoidance of system complexity. This work explores the use of direct injection (DI) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in NA engines using experimental data from a single-cylinder research diesel engine. The engine was operated with a fixed atmospheric intake manifold pressure over a map of speed, air-to-fuel ratio, EGR, fuel injection pressure and injection timing. Conventional gaseous engine-out emissions were measured along with high speed cylinder pressure data to show the load limits and resulting emissions of the NA-DI engine studied. Well known reductions in NOX with increasing levels of EGR were confirmed with a corresponding loss in peak power output.
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