Refine Your Search



Search Results

Technical Paper

Design and Construction of a High-Bandwidth Hydrostatic Dynamometer

A hydrostatic dynamometer capable of accurately controlling the speed and torque of an engine has been designed and constructed. The thrust of this work is not only to build a better dynamometer, it is the first step in creating a system for laboratory simulation of the actual load environment of engines and powertrains. This paper presents the design, construction, and evaluation of a hydrostatic dynamometer. The evaluation includes speed and torque limits, and bandwidth of the dynamometer. Also, the dynamometer is compared with those in common use, and the feasibility of accurately reproducing the engine or powertrain load environments are assessed. This is the first phase of a development program; future research is discussed.
Technical Paper

Simplified Engine Combustion Diagnostics Using “Synthetic” Variables

This paper presents a diagnostics methodology that has applications to internal combustion engines as well as other dynamic devices. Included is an overview of the theoretical foundation of the approach, discussions on its application to internal combustion engine diagnostics, and experimental engine data showing the application of this methodology. Also included are the recent developments addressing issues of the effect of motoring compression and expansion work on crankshaft speed fluctuations and the resulting torque estimation. The methodology consists of a hard-wired nonlinear to linear transformation of engine variables that allow all subsequent diagnostics and control calculations to use linear mathematics, which significantly simplifies the size and complexity of the engine control and diagnostics strategy and code.
Technical Paper

Determination of Flame-Front Equivalence Ratio During Stratified Combustion

Combustion under stratified operating conditions in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was investigated using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of the fuel distribution (via 3-pentanone doped into the fuel) and the combustion products (via OH, which occurs naturally). The simultaneous images allow direct determination of the flame front location under highly stratified conditions where the flame, or product, location is not uniquely identified by the absence of fuel. The 3-pentanone images were quantified, and an edge detection algorithm was developed and applied to the OH data to identify the flame front position. The result was the compilation of local flame-front equivalence ratio probability density functions (PDFs) for engine operating conditions at 600 and 1200 rpm and engine loads varying from equivalence ratios of 0.89 to 0.32 with an unthrottled intake. Homogeneous conditions were used to verify the integrity of the method.
Technical Paper

Evaporating Spray Concentration Measurementsfrom Small and Medium Bore Diesel Injectors

Vapor concentration measurements were performed for two unit injectors typically found in small- and medium-bore applications under evaporating conditions similar to those experienced in Diesel engines. Ambient gas temperatures of 800 and 1000 K and an ambient density of 15 kg/m3 were investigated using a constant volume combustion-type spray chamber. The exciplex laserinduced fluorescence technique with TMPD/naphthalene doped into the fuel was used to quantitatively determine the vapor-phase concentration and liquid-phase extent. The vapor-phase concentration was quantified using a previously developed method that includes corrections for the temperature dependence of the TMPD fluorescence, laser sheet absorption, and the laser sheet intensity profile. The effect of increasing ambient temperature (1000 vs. 800 K) was significant on intact liquid length, and on the spray-spreading angle in the early portion of the injection period.
Technical Paper

Future Developments in Forage Harvesting Machinery and Processing

Forage harvesting, processing and handling equipment research is currently underway which will improve commodity quality, produce “value -added” products from forages, reduce energy and labor requirements of the equipment and improve forage marketability. Technologies are described which could increase forage quality and value by removing it from the field sooner after it is mowed to minimize the risk of weather damage. Mechanisms and management strategies for reducing the labor and energy required for field processing and for improving the marketability of forages are also described.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Testing of Hydraulic Pump/Motor Systems

Regenerative testing methods can be used to allow the testing of hydraulic pumps and motors at significantly higher power and flow levels than that of the power supply used. This method can also increase the accuracy of system efficiency measurements. The increase in accuracy is realized because only the power added to compensate for the system losses needs to be measured with great accuracy. Typically, for the operation points of interest this will be a much smaller quantity than the overall power of the system. Knowing that the error in flow measurements is a function of the quantity measured, the benefit of measuring the losses becomes clear. An additional, distinct advantage of regenerative testing is that no dynamometer or load is needed. This results in a much simpler test setup. This paper documents the development of such a test program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Diesel Spray Impingement and Fuel Film Characteristics Using Refractive Index Matching Method

The fuel film thickness resulting from diesel fuel spray impingement was measured in a chamber at conditions representative of early injection timings used for low temperature diesel combustion. The adhered fuel volume and the radial distribution of the film thickness are presented. Fuel was injected normal to the impingement surface at ambient temperatures of 353 K, 426 K and 500 K, with densities of 10 kg/m3 and 25 kg/m3. Two injectors, with nozzle diameters of 100 μm and 120 μm, were investigated. The results show that the fuel film volume was strongly affected by the ambient temperature, but was minimally affected by the ambient density. The peak fuel film thickness and the film radius were found to increase with decreased temperature. The fuel film was found to be circular in shape, with an inner region of nearly constant thickness. The major difference observed with temperature was a decrease in the radial extent of the film.
Technical Paper

Using Dynamic Modular Diesel Engine Models To Understand System Interactions and Performance

This paper reviews the engine modeling program in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, focuses on simulation results obtained from a complete modular turbocharged diesel engine dynamic model developed in this lab, and suggests ways that dynamic engine system models can be used in the design process. It examines the dynamic responses and interactions between various components in the engine system, looks at how these components affect the overall performance of the system in transient and steady state operation.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixing Rate Measurements and CFD Analyses

Gas-phase in-cylinder mixing was examined by two different methods. The first method for observing mixing involved planar Mie scattering measurements of the instantaneous number density of silicon oil droplets which were introduced to the in-cylinder flow. The local value of the number density was assumed to be representative of the local gas concentration. Because the objective was to observe the rate in which gas concentration gradients change, to provide gradients in number density, droplets were admitted into the engine through only one of the two intake ports. Air only flowed through the other port. Three different techniques were used in analyzing the droplet images to determine the spatially dependent particle number density. Direct counting, a filtering technique, and autocorrelation were used and compared. Further, numerical experiments were performed with the autocorrelation method to check its effectiveness for determination of particle number density.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation Effects on Ignition and Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

Planar instantaneous fuel concentration measurements were made by laser-induced fluorescence of 3-pentanone in the spark gap just prior to ignition in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine operating at a light load, highly stratified condition. The distribution of the average equivalence ratio in a circle of 1.9 mm diameter centered on the spark plug showed that a large fraction of the cycles had an equivalence ratio below the lean limit, yet acceptable combustion was achieved in those cycles. Further, weak correlation was found between the local average equivalence ratio near the spark plug and the time required to achieved a 100 kPa pressure rise above the motoring pressure, as well as other parameters which characterize the early stages of combustion. The cause for this behavior is assessed to be mixture motion during the spark discharge which continually convects fresh mixture through the spark gap during breakdown.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Mixture Stratification on Combustion in a Constant-Volume Combustion Vessel

The role of mixture stratification on combustion rate has been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel in which mixtures of different equivalence ratios can be added in a spatially and temporally controlled fashion. The experiments were performed in a regime of low fluid motion to avoid the complicating effects of turbulence generated by the injection of different masses of fluid. Different mixture combinations were investigated while maintaining a constant overall equivalence ratio and initial pressure. The results indicate that the highest combustion rate for an overall lean mixture is obtained when all of the fuel is contained in a stoichiometric mixture in the vicinity of the ignition source. This is the result of the high burning velocity of these mixtures, and the complete oxidation which releases the full chemical energy.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Simulation of the M1A1 Abrams Using Modular Model Components

Powertrain simulation is becoming an increasingly valuable tool to evaluate new technologies proposed for future military vehicles. The powertrain of the M1A1 Abrams tank is currently being modeled in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This powertrain model is to be integrated with other component models in an effort to produce a high fidelity simulation of the entire vehicle.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of the Commercial Plant Biotechnology Facility

The demand for highly flexible manipulation of plant growth generations, modification of specific plant processes, and genetically engineered crop varieties in a controlled environment has led to the development of a Commercial Plant Biotechnology Facility (CPBF). The CPBF is a quad-middeck locker playload to be mounted in the EXPRESS Rack that will be installed in the International Space Station (ISS). The CPBF integrates proven ASTROCULTURE” technologies, state-of-the-art control software, and fault tolerance and recovery technologies together to increase overall system efficiency, reliability, robustness, flexibility, and user friendliness. The CPBF provides a large plant growing volume for the support of commercial plant biotechnology studies and/or applications for long time plant research in a reduced gravity environment.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Modeling of Thermal Flows in an Air-Cooled Engine

Control of the flow of thermal energy in an air-cooled engine is important to the overall performance of the engine because of potential effects on engine performance, durability, design, and emissions. A methodology is being developed for the assessment of thermal flows in air-cooled engines, which includes the use of cycle simulation and in-cylinder heat flux measurements. The mechanism for the combination of cycle simulation, the measurement of in-cylinder heat flux and wall temperatures, and comparison of predicted and measured heat flux in the methodology is presented. The methodology consists of both simulation and experimental phases. To begin, a one-dimensional gas dynamics code (WAVE) has been used in conjunction with a detailed in-cylinder flow and combustion model (IRIS) in order to simulate engine operation in a variety of operating conditions. The methods used to apply the model to the air-cooled engine case are described in detail.
Technical Paper

Effects of Mixture Preparation Characteristics on Four-Stroke Utility Engine Emissions and Performance

A laboratory-based fuel mixture system capable of delivering a range of fuel/air mixtures has been used to observe the effects of differing mixture characteristics on engine combustion through measurement and analysis of incylinder pressure and exhaust emissions. Fuel air mixtures studied can be classified into four different types: 1) Completely homogeneous fuel/air mixtures, where the fuel has been vaporized and mixed with the air prior to entrance into the normal engine induction system, 2) liquid fuel that is atomized and introduced with the air to the normal engine induction system, 3) liquid fuel that is atomized, and partially prevaporized but the air/fuel charge remains stratified up to introduction to the induction system, and 4) the standard fuel metering system. All tests reported here were conducted under wide open throttle conditions. A four-stroke, spark-ignited, single-cylinder, overhead valve-type engine was used for all tests.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Neural Network Accuracy for Engine Simulations

Neural networks have been used for engine computations in the recent past. One reason for using neural networks is to capture the accuracy of multi-dimensional CFD calculations or experimental data while saving computational time, so that system simulations can be performed within a reasonable time frame. This paper describes three methods to improve upon neural network predictions. Improvement is demonstrated for in-cylinder pressure predictions in particular. The first method incorporates a physical combustion model within the transfer function of the neural network, so that the network predictions incorporate physical relationships as well as mathematical models to fit the data. The second method shows how partitioning the data into different regimes based on different physical processes, and training different networks for different regimes, improves the accuracy of predictions.
Technical Paper

Adapting Farm Equipment for Workers with Disabilities

Farm workers experience a very high incidence of injuries leading to physical and cognitive (strokes, TBI) disabilities. Since 1991, the AgrAbility Project 2 and its staff have provided direct assistance and education to many U.S. farmers and farm workers. If farmers, ranchers or farm workers who become disabled continue to be employed in agriculture, often their agricultural operation must be modified and/or agricultural machinery must be modified or adaptive equipment purchased to meet their new needs. Some common tractor modifications include operator lifts, hand controls, added/modified steps and handrails, automated hitches, and custom seating. Some modifications are commercially available but others are done on an individual need basis. AgrAbility staff would welcome the opportunity to work closer with farm equipment manufacturers to create modifications that would make farming and ranching easier and safer for all.
Technical Paper

PIV Measurements of In-Cylinder Flow in a Four-Stroke Utility Engine and Correlation with Steady Flow Results

Large-scale flows in internal combustion engines directly affect combustion duration and emissions production. These benefits are significant given increasingly stringent emissions and fuel economy requirements. Recent efforts by engine manufacturers to improve in-cylinder flows have focused on the design of specially shaped intake ports. Utility engine manufacturers are limited to simple intake port geometries to reduce the complexity of casting and cost of manufacturing. These constraints create unique flow physics in the engine cylinder in comparison to automotive engines. An experimental study of intake-generated flows was conducted in a four-stroke spark-ignition utility engine. Steady flow and in-cylinder flow measurements were made using three simple intake port geometries at three port orientations. Steady flow measurements were performed to characterize the swirl and tumble-generating capability of the intake ports.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Detailed Chemical Composition and Particulate Size Distributions of Diesel Exhaust

An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of fuel injection timing on detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) and regulated gaseous emissions in a modern heavy-duty D.I. diesel engine. These measurements were made for two different diesel fuels: No. 2 diesel (Fuel A) and ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B). A single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system was used in the experiments. PM measurements were made with an enhanced full-dilution tunnel system at the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison) [1, 2]. The engine was run under 2 selected modes (25% and 75% loads at 1200 rpm) of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.