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Technical Paper

Development of a charge motion controlled combustion system for DI SI engines and its vehicle application to EU-4 emission regulations

2000-06-12
2000-05-0058
The development of new passenger car powertrains with gasoline direct- injection engines is facing new requirements which result from the need of different operational modes with stratified and homogeneous air-fuel mixture. Moreover, the exhaust aftertreatment system causes a discontinuous operation with lean-burn absorption periods followed by short rich spikes for catalyst regeneration. Recent work on combustion system development has shown, that gasoline direct injection can create significant fuel economy benefits. Charge motion controlled combustion systems have proven to be of advantage in terms of low raw emissions compared to wall-guided concepts. Based on an initial single-cylinder development phase, a multi-cylinder engine was realized with excellent fuel economy, low raw emissions and operational robustness. Finally, the new engine''s potential has been demonstrated in a mid-class vehicle.
Technical Paper

Future Power Plants For Cars

2001-10-01
2001-01-3192
Environmental concern demands that emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles have to improve considerably in the next 10 years. New technologies for gasoline engines, downsizing with high boosting, direct injection and fully variable valve train systems, are being developed. For Diesel engines, improved components including piezobased injectors and particle filters are expected. In the drive train new starter-generator systems as well as automated manual transmissions are being developed. In parallel alternative fuels are investigated and the use of hybrid drives and fuel cells are developed. This paper reports the progress made in the recent years and gives a comparative assessment on the different technologies with a prediction of the introduction dates and volumes into the market.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Concept for SULEV

2001-03-05
2001-01-1313
Today, SULEV legislation represents the most stringent emission standard for vehicles with combustion engines, and it will be introduced starting by Model Year 2003. In order to meet such standards, even higher effort is required for the development of the exhaust gas emission concept of SI engines. Beyond a facelift of the combustion system, exhaust gas aftertreatment, and the engine management system, new approaches are striven for. The principle keys are well known: low HC feed gas, high thermal load for quick light-off, exhaust system with low heat capacity and highly effective exhaust gas aftertreatment.
Technical Paper

New CNG Concepts for Passenger Cars: High Torque Engines with Superior Fuel Consumption

2003-06-23
2003-01-2264
Since the CO2 emissions of passenger car traffic and their greenhouse potential are in the public interest, natural gas (CNG) is discussed as an attractive alternative fuel. The engine concepts that have been applied to date are mainly based upon common gasoline engine technology. In addition, in mono-fuel applications, it is made use of an increased compression ratio -thanks to the RON (Research Octane Number) potential of CNG-, which allows for thermodynamic benefits. This paper presents advanced engine concepts that make further use of the potentials linked to CNG. Above all, the improved knock tolerance, which can be particularly utilized in turbocharged engine concepts. For bi-fuel (CNG/gasoline) power trains, the realization of variable compression ratio is of special interest. Moreover, lean burn technology is a perfect match for CNG engines. Fuel economy and emission level are evaluated basing on test bench and vehicle investigations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Particle Size Distribution in the Cylinder of a Common Rail DI Diesel Engine During Combustion and Expansion

2000-06-19
2000-01-1999
In the recent years diesel engine developers and manufacturers achieved a great progress in reducing the most important diesel engine pollutants, NOX and particulates. But nevertheless big efforts in diesel engine development are necessary to meet with the more stringent future emission regulations. To improve the knowledge about particle formation and emission an insight in the cylinder is necessary. By using the fast gas sampling technique samples from the cylinder were taken as a function of crank angle and analyzed regarding the soot particle size distribution and the particle mass. The particle size distribution was measured by a conventional SMPS. Under steady state conditions the influence of aromatic and oxygen content in the fuel on in-cylinder particle size distribution and particle mass inside a modern 4V-CR-DI-diesel-engine were determined. After injection and ignition, mainly small soot particles were formed which grow and in the later combustion phase coagulate.
Technical Paper

Future of Combustion Engines

2006-10-16
2006-21-0024
Increasing shortages of energy resources as well as emission legislation is increasing the pressure to develop more efficient, environmentally friendly propulsion systems for vehicles. Due to its more than 125 years of history with permanent improvements, the internal combustion engine (ICE) has reached a very high development status in terms of efficiency and emissions, but also drivability, handling and comfort. Therefore, the IC engine will be the dominant propulsion system for future generations. This paper gives a survey on the present technical status and future prospects of internal combustion engines, both CI and SI engines, also including alternative fuels. In addition a brief overview of the potential of currently intensely discussed hybrid concepts is given.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Cyclic Fluctuations in a DISI Engine by Means of Advanced Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence Measurements

2006-10-16
2006-01-3378
Cyclic fluctuations of the in-cylinder processes in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine may strongly affect the engine operation causing misfires or variations in the indicated mean effective pressure (imep). Particularly misfires prevent compliance with current or future exhaust emission legislations. Nevertheless, the origin of cyclic fluctuations is not well understood since fluctuations of in-cylinder air flow, fuel injection and wall interaction have to be considered. This paper focusses on a detailed experimental analysis of the origin of cyclic fluctuations in a DISI engine with an air guided combustion process by means of advanced Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF) measurements. It reveals that cycle-to-cycle variations primarily originate from the air/fuel ratio at the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Oil Aeration in Combustion Engines - Analysis and Optimization

2001-03-05
2001-01-1074
Like all technical fluids, lubricants are able to solve gases. While solved gas is a neutral part of the lubricant, dissolved gas has an influence especially on the compressibility behavior. The effects of oil aeration on engine drive causes malfunctions of several components. A successful optimization of the oil circulation concerning the oil aeration presupposes a safe and reproducible measuring procedure. The FEV has developed a measurement apparatus according to the principle of the volume measurement which allows a simple but efficient oil aeration measurement.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Application of a 4-Cylinder Tumble DISI Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0735
SI engines with gasoline direct injection are currently the focus of development for almost all car manufacturers. After the introduction of DISI engines, first to the Japanese market and after a short time delay also in Europe, a broad variety of technical solutions for efficient stratified concepts can be stated. The targets of the development activities in this field are defined by legislation and customer's demands. The potential reduction of fuel consumption with stratified operation has to be combined with a further improvement of the full load potential of the DISI engine. A substantial part of the development activities are the fulfillment of current and future emission standards. Therefore, in order to realize a highly efficient lean operation, new technologies and strategies in the field of exhaust gas aftertreatment and vehicle application are required.
Technical Paper

Complex Air Path Management Systems and Necessary Controller Structures for Future High Dynamic Requirements

2009-05-13
2009-01-1616
The future worldwide emission regulations will request a drastic decrease of Diesel engine tailpipe emissions. Depending on the planned application and the real official regulations, a further strong decrease of engine out emissions is necessary, even though the utilized exhaust after-treatment systems are very powerful. To reduce NOx emissions internally, the external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is known as the most effective way. Due to the continuously increasing requirements regarding specific power, dynamic behavior and low emissions, future air path systems have to fulfill higher requirements and, consequently, become more and more complex, e.g. arrangements with a 2-stage turbo charging or 2-stage EGR system with different stages of cooling performance.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels for Future Advanced Diesel Combustion Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1811
The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. The Institute for Combustion Engines at the RWTH Aachen University carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. To enable optimum engine performance a range of different hydrocarbons having different fuel properties like cetane number, boiling temperature and different molecular compositions have been investigated. Paraffines and naphthenes were selected in order to better understand the effects of molecular composition and chain length on emissions and performance of an engine that was already optimized for advanced combustion performance. The diesel single-cylinder research engine used in this study will be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Emissions and Performance of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0488
Increased demand for highly fuel efficient propulsion systems drives the engine development community to develop advanced technologies allowing improving the overall thermal efficiency while maintaining low emission levels. In addition to improving the thermal efficiencies of the internal combustion engine itself the developments of fuels that allow improved combustion as well as lower the emissions footprint has intensified recently. This paper will describe the effects of five different fuel types with significantly differing fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty HSDI diesel engine. The fuels cetane number ranges between 26 and 76. These fuels feature significantly differing boiling characteristics as well as heating values. The fuel selection also contains one pure biodiesel (SME - Soy Methyl Ester). This study was conducted in part load and full load operating points using a state of the art HSDI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 1: Impact of Engine Hardware on HCCI Combustion

2008-10-06
2008-01-2405
Two single-cylinder diesel engines were optimised for advanced combustion performance by means of practical and cumulative hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 5 and 6 emissions limits and beyond. These enhancements included high fuel injection pressures, high EGR levels and charge cooling, increased swirl, and a fixed combustion phasing, providing low engine-out emissions of NOx and PM with engine efficiencies equivalent to today's diesel engines. These combustion conditions approach those of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), especially at the lower part-load operating points. Four fuels exhibiting a range of ignition quality, volatility, and aromatics contents were used to evaluate the performance of these hardware enhancements on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels.
Technical Paper

Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 2: Impact of Fuel Properties on HCCI Combustion

2008-10-06
2008-01-2404
A broad range of diesel, kerosene, and gasoline-like fuels has been tested in a single-cylinder diesel engine optimized for advanced combustion performance. These fuels were selected in order to better understand the effects of ignition quality, volatility, and molecular composition on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels. Low-level biofuel blends, both biodiesel (FAME) and ethanol, were included in the fuel set in order to test for short-term advantages or disadvantages. The diesel engine optimized in Part 1 of this study included cumulative engine hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond, in part by operating under conditions of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), at least over some portions of the speed and load map.
Technical Paper

LOTUS: A Co-operation for Low Temperature Urea-Based Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

2004-03-08
2004-01-1294
The European research co-operation Lotus is presented. The main objectives of the project were i) to show the potential for a urea-based SCR system to comply with the EU standard of years 2005 and 2008 for heavy-duty Diesel engines for different driving conditions with optimal fuel consumption, ii) to reach 95 % conversion of NOx at steady state at full load on a Euro III engine, iii) to reach 75 % NOx reduction for exhaust temperatures between 200-300°C, and 85 % average NOx reduction between 200-500°C. The energy content of the consumed urea should not exceed 1.0 %, calculated as specific fuel consumption. These targets were met in May 2003 and the Lotus SCR system fulfilled the Euro V NOx legislative objectives for year 2008.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Boost Pressure and EGR Rate Control Development for HD Truck Engines with VGT

2002-03-04
2002-01-0964
Future HD Diesel engine technology is facing a combination of both extremely low exhaust emission standards (US 2002/2004, EURO IV and later US 2007, EURO V) and new engine test procedures such as the European Transient Cycle (ETC) in Europe and the Not-to-Exceed Area (NTE) in the US). Customers furthermore require increased engine performance, improved efficiency, and long-term durability. In order to achieve all targets simultaneously, future HD Diesel engines must have improved fuel injection and combustion systems and utilize suitable technologies such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), variable geometry turbine turbocharger systems (VGT) and exhaust gas after-treatment systems. Future systems require precision controlled EGR in combination with a VGT-turbocharger during transient operation. This will require new strategies and calibration for the Electronic Engine Control Unit (ECU).
Technical Paper

Cooled EGR - A Must or an Option for 2002/04

2002-03-04
2002-01-0962
The introduction of the new emission standards in 2002/04 for heavy-duty diesel engines requires a substantial reduction of the NOx emissions while the particulate emissions remain on a constant level. The application of cooled EGR appears to be the most common approach in order to achieve the required target, although other means such as advanced combustion systems and the application of emission control devices to reduce NOx emissions have to be taken into account as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of such alternative solutions in comparison with cooled EGR to meet the upcoming emission standards.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Combination of Fuel Properties for a DI-Diesel Engine Under Partly Homogeneous Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1685
Partly homogeneous combustion (PHC) can assist the reduction of the engine-out emissions but its influence is limited by using conventional diesel fuel. To verify whether alternatively designed fuels can help to improve the PHC performance, the impact of different fuel properties in combination with engine control levers have been studied. Based on single cylinder heavy duty direct injection diesel engine (DIDE) test results with different diesel and diesel-like fuels, operating under partly homogeneous combustion conditions, the impact of the combination of the fuel properties were investigated. The fuel matrix was designed such that the fuel properties varied in sufficiently large ranges, in order to be able to detect the impact of the properties at the selected operating points. A statistical principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied to the fuel matrix to specify the interrelationship between the fuel properties, as well as to derive the most independent fuel properties.
Technical Paper

A Low NVH Range-Extender Application with a Small V-2 Engine - Based on a New Vibration Compensation System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0081
The interest in electric propulsion of vehicles has increased in recent years and is being discussed extensively by experts as well as the public. Up to now the driving range and the utilization of pure electric vehicles are still limited in comparison to conventional vehicles due to the limited capacity and the long charging times of today's batteries. This is a challenge to customer acceptance of a pure electric vehicle, even for a city car application. A Range Extender concept could achieve the desired customer acceptance, but should not impact the “electric driving” experience, and should not cause further significant increases in the manufacturing and purchasing cost. The V2 engine concept presented in this paper is particularly suited to a low cost, modular vehicle concept. Advantages regarding packaging can be realized with the use of two generators in combination with the V2 engine.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Study on the Impact of Diesel Fuel Sulfur Content on the Performance of DeNOX Catalysts and the Influence of DeNOX Catalysts on Particle Size and Number

2000-06-19
2000-01-1877
A vehicle investigation programme was initiated to evaluate the influence of diesel fuel sulfur content on the performance of a DeNOx catalyst for NOx control. The programme was conducted with a passive DeNOx catalyst, selected for its good NOx reduction performance and two specially prepared fuels with different sulfur contents. Regulated emissions were measured and analysed during the course of the programme. The NOx conversion efficiency of the DeNOx catalyst increased from 14 to 26% over the new European test cycle when the sulfur content of the diesel fuel was reduced from 49 to 6 wt.-ppm. In addition the number and size of particles produced using 6 wt.-ppm sulfur fuel were measured by two different techniques: mobility diameter by SMPS and aerodynamic diameter by impactor. The influence of the assumed density of the particulate on the apparent diameters measured by the two techniques is discussed.
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