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Technical Paper

Power Steering Pump with Enhanced Cold Start Priming

2001-04-30
2001-01-1422
The objective of the present work was to improve the cold start NVH performance of an automotive power steering pump under low temperature conditions. This objective was accomplished through the use experimental study and measurement. The satisfactory operation of a fixed displacement vane pump in cold temperatures depends on a number of factors including; (1) filling characteristics, (2) the inlet conditions to the pump, (3) the fluid, and (4) the ability of the vanes to maintain contact with the cam surface. In this investigation, factor (4) was chosen for investigation. A unique outlet orifice was designed and tested at three different operating ambient temperatures, -19 °C, -29 °C, and -40 °C. Maximum “noise” duration was measured as the maximum duration of fluid borne pump outlet pressure oscillations greater the 345 kPa peak-to-peak. The results show that noise duration can reduced by as much as 50% at -40 °C.
Technical Paper

R134A Suction Line Heat Exchanger in Different Configurations of Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems

2001-05-14
2001-01-1694
A suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) transfers heat from the condenser outlet to the suction gas. In a TXV (thermostatic expansion valve) system, the performance improvement with a 60 to 80 % effective SLHX is expected to be on the order of 8 to 10 % for capacity, and 5 to 7 % for COP for high outdoor air temperatures of 43ºC. In a FOT (fixed orifice tube) system, the performance improvement was calculated to be about 10 to 15 %. The calculated improvements have been verified experimentally within a few percent.
Technical Paper

Automotive HVAC Flow Noise Prediction Models

2001-04-30
2001-01-1498
Flow noise from automotive HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems is one of the major considerations of occupant comfort. The noise generated at high blower speed is a major contributor to the vehicle interior noise. This paper reviews automotive HVAC air rush noise prediction models for estimating register, buck (air handling subsystem) and vehicle noise levels. The vehicle noise prediction method correlates well with measured noise levels at driver right ear location: with a standard deviation of 1.31 dB where standard deviation is the difference between measured and predicted noise levels for a sample size of 10 vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements through Improved Automatic Transmission Warmup - Stand Alone Oil to Air (OTA) Transmission Cooling Strategy with Thermostatic Cold Flow Bypass Valve

2001-05-14
2001-01-1760
The stand alone oil to air (OTA) transmission cooling strategy with thermostatic cold flow bypass valve has been shown to be an effective means of improving the warmup of an automatic transmission. Improving the system warmup rate of an automatic transmission significantly improves its efficiency by reducing losses resulting from extremely viscous transmission fluid and can allow for calibration changes that improve overall transmission performance. Improved transmission efficiency in turn allows for improved engine efficiency and performance. The improvements obtained from increased transmission and engine efficiency result in an overall increase in vehicle fuel economy. Fuel economy and consumption are important parameters considered by the vehicle manufacturer and the customer. Fuel economy can be considered as important as reliability and durability.
Technical Paper

Water Condensate Retention and “Wet” Fin Performance in Automotive Evaporators

2001-03-05
2001-01-1252
Water condensate retained inside an automotive evaporator has remained as one of the primary sources of unpleasant “odors”, which in turn can drive up the warranty cost for automotive manufacturers. The “wet” evaporator fin can also underperform due to the presence of condensate blocking the air passage. Moreover, condensate retention can be a potential factor of freezing up evaporators. Thus, an evaporator fin must be designed such that it can shed and drain water condensate as well as provide an excellent heat transfer capability. While the importance of water retention is well known, there seems lacking of a comprehensive way to evaluate the water retention characteristics of a particular product. In this work, attempts were made to answer four questions: (1) What is the mechanism that controls water condensate retention characteristics in an automotive evaporator? (2) Can different water retention evaluation methods reveal the same characteristics?
Technical Paper

Stability Control of Combination Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-0138
This paper discusses the development of combination vehicle stability program (CVSP) at Visteon. It will describe why stability control is needed for combination vehicles and how the vehicle stability can be improved. We propose and evaluate controller structures and design methods for CVSP. These include driver's intent identification, combination vehicle status estimation and control, and fault detection / tolerance. In this paper, the braking and steering dynamics of car-trailer and tractor-semitrailer combinations, and the brake systems which should be used extensively to increase the stability of combination vehicles are presented. Also our development platform is introduced and the combination vehicle simulation results are presented. The definition of combination vehicles in this paper includes car-trailer and commercial tractor-semitrailer combinations since their vehicle dynamics are based on the same equations of motion.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Effects of Body Attachment Stiffness on Steering Column In-Vehicle Modes

2001-03-05
2001-01-0041
This paper presents an unambiguous and intuitive method for identification of steering column resonant (SCR) mode of vibration. One simple but overlooked technique to determine the SCR mode in-vehicle is to provide local stiffnesses of the body locations where the Instrument Panel (IP) attaches, to the IP suppliers to be used in their design and development. This paper describes how this technique is useful in predicting the first few important in-vehicle steering column modes for different classes of vehicles, with examples presented in each class. The results obtained from such analyses are compared against those from direct in-buck simulations. This technique is not limited to its application in developing IP systems, but can easily be extended to include other systems such as seats, fuel tanks, etc. Also it is shown that a design optimization analysis may be performed using these attachment stiffnesses as design variables resulting in a system level solution.
Technical Paper

Portable NVH Dynamometers

2003-05-05
2003-01-1682
Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) characteristics have become a key differentiator between “Good” vehicles and “Best-In-Class” vehicles. While all OEM's and most Tier 1 suppliers have on-site in-ground chassis dynamometers, a need was identified to design, develop and bring to market, a fully capable portable NVH full vehicle chassis system. The original concept entailed a device, which could be brought to the customer's location, be fully self contained, requiring no external power, and provide data acquisition using transducers that would not contact the vehicle. With traditional instrumentation taking several hours to install, non-contacting lasers would be used to provide significant timesaving, and prevent any possible damage to the vehicle from pinched wires. The new methodology should provide data acquisition in as little as 20 minutes. Analysis would be accomplished immediately following testing, with hard copies available before the next vehicle was ready to run.
Technical Paper

EVOP Design of Experiments

2003-03-03
2003-01-1015
Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) experimental design using Sequential Simplex method is an effective and robust means for determining the ideal process parameter (factor) settings to achieve optimum output (response) results. EVOP is the methodology of using on-line experimental design. Small perturbations to the process are made within allowable control plan limits, to minimize any product quality issues while obtaining information for improvement on the process. It is often the case in high volume production where issues exist, however off-line experimentation is not an option due to production time, the threat of quality issues and costs. EVOP leverages production time to arrive at the optimum solution while continuing to process saleable product, thus substantially reducing the cost of the analysis.
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0873
Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
Technical Paper

International Product User Research: Concurrent Studies Comparing Touch Screen Feedback in Europe and North America

2009-04-20
2009-01-0779
This paper describes two studies; each conducted concurrently in North America and Europe to assess subjective impressions and simulated driving task performance using a touch screen interface with different types of auditory and haptic feedback. The first study investigated subjective impressions of four types of touch screen feedback in a static laboratory setting. The second study investigated the influence of the same four touch screen feedback types on simulated driving task performance using the lane change test (LCT). Results of the first study revealed significant similarities and differences in subjective impressions between respondents in each of the two regions studied. Results of the second study revealed differences in task performance that suggest distinct participant strategies in each of the two regions studied.
Technical Paper

Production Solutions for Utilization of Both R1234yf and R134a in a Single Global Platform

2009-04-20
2009-01-0172
As global automobile manufacturers prepare for the phase-out of R134a in Europe, they must address the issue of using the new refrigerant for European sales only or launching the product worldwide. Several factors play into this decision, including cost, service, risk, customer satisfaction, capacity, efficiency, etc. This research effort addresses the minimal vehicle-level hardware differences necessary to provide a European solution of R1234yf while continuing to install R134a into vehicles for the rest of the world. It is anticipated that the same compressor, lubricant and condenser; most fluid transport lines; and in most cases the evaporator can be common between the two systems.
Technical Paper

Lean Principles in Supply Chain Management for the Automotive Aftermarket

2009-04-20
2009-01-0263
The automotive aftermarket represents a challenge for supply chain management when compared to traditional practices in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) supply chain. This paper presents a case study for a Tier One automotive supplier’s challenges with inventory carrying costs, backorder risk, and supplier relationships for a rear seat entertainment system in the automotive aftermarket. It will also address the lean principles used to improve the business and increase material planning analyst productivity. A call for OEMs to examine their business practices is also included.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine with Different Fuels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0325
This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of the mixing and combustion of ethanol and gasoline in a single-cylinder 3-valve direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The numerical simulations are conducted with the KIVA code with global reaction models. However, an ignition delay model mitigates some of the deficiencies of the global one-step reaction model and is implemented via a two-dimensional look-up table, which was created using available detailed kinetics models. Simulations demonstrate the problems faced by ethanol operated engines and indicate that some of the strategies used for emission control and downsizing of gasoline engines can be employed for enhancing the combustion efficiency of ethanol operated engines.
Journal Article

A New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

2013-04-08
2013-01-0850
Accurate evaluation of vehicles' transient total power requirement helps achieving further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency. When operated, the air-conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle, therefore accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation models, such as "Autonomie," have been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. However, the load from the A/C system on the engine or on the energy storage system has not always been modeled in sufficient detail. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software MATLAB/Simulink® is frequently used by vehicle controls engineers to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls.
Journal Article

Assessment of Automatic Volume Leveling for Automotive Sound Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-0162
This paper presents an assessment of competing algorithms for normalizing volume levels between tracks and/or sources in an automotive infotainment system. Portable media players such as smartphones and iPod® devices are extremely popular for listening to music collections or streaming content from the Internet. The lack of normalization is a source of dissatisfaction if the user experiences significant changes in audio level between tracks. Several commercially available algorithms exist to solve this problem. This research includes a double-blind listening test comparing an audio sample processed with the different leveling algorithms to an unprocessed reference. The listener preference rating is recorded and results indicate which algorithm is preferred.
Journal Article

Ensuring Audio Signal Quality in Automotive Infotainment Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-0163
In automotive infotainment systems, multiple types of digital audio signals are usually present. Some come from internal sources, such as a CD or USB stick, and some come from external sources, such as an internet stream or digital radio. These sources usually have different sample-rates, and may also be different from one or more system sample-rates. Managing and transporting these signals throughout the system over different sample-rate domains require detailed upfront architecture analysis and correct system design to ensure signal quality is maintained to the desired level. Incorrect design can add significant user-perceivable noise and distortion. This paper examines the key analysis factors, the effects of poor design and the approaches for achieving robust signal handling and ensuring desired signal quality.
Technical Paper

Compressor Body Temperature and Lubrication

2013-04-08
2013-01-1501
The paper addresses compressor body temperature (crankcase) importance to the vehicle AC system long-term durability. Majority of OEM vehicle test evaluation is to see if AC system can pass compressor discharge temperature and discharge pressure targets. Most OEMs adopt 130°C max compressor discharge temperature and 2350 kpag head pressure as the target. From the field, although some of the compressor failure results from a high compression ratio, and compressor discharge temperature that are caused by the poor front end airflow, etc., high percentage compressor failed systems exhibit not too high compression ratio and compressor discharge temperature, but having the trace of high temperature in the shaft area, gasket area, etc. With introducing more and more variable swash plate compressor applications, OEMs start to see more and more compressor failures that are not related to a high compressor discharge temperature but the trace of high compressor body temperature.
Technical Paper

Blind Spot Monitoring by a Single Camera

2009-04-20
2009-01-1291
A practical and low cost Blind Spot Monitoring system is proposed. By using a single camera, the range and azimuth position of a vehicle in a blind spot are measured. The algorithm is based on the proposed RWA (Range Window Algorithm). The camera is installed on the door mirror and monitoring the side and rear of the host vehicle. The algorithm processes the image and identifies range and azimuth angle of the vehicle in the adjacent lane. This algorithm is applied to real situations. The 388 images including several kinds of vehicles are analyzed. The detection rate is 86% and the range accuracy is 1.6[m]. The maximum detection range is about 30[m].
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
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