Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Power Steering Pump with Enhanced Cold Start Priming

2001-04-30
2001-01-1422
The objective of the present work was to improve the cold start NVH performance of an automotive power steering pump under low temperature conditions. This objective was accomplished through the use experimental study and measurement. The satisfactory operation of a fixed displacement vane pump in cold temperatures depends on a number of factors including; (1) filling characteristics, (2) the inlet conditions to the pump, (3) the fluid, and (4) the ability of the vanes to maintain contact with the cam surface. In this investigation, factor (4) was chosen for investigation. A unique outlet orifice was designed and tested at three different operating ambient temperatures, -19 °C, -29 °C, and -40 °C. Maximum “noise” duration was measured as the maximum duration of fluid borne pump outlet pressure oscillations greater the 345 kPa peak-to-peak. The results show that noise duration can reduced by as much as 50% at -40 °C.
Technical Paper

R134A Suction Line Heat Exchanger in Different Configurations of Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems

2001-05-14
2001-01-1694
A suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) transfers heat from the condenser outlet to the suction gas. In a TXV (thermostatic expansion valve) system, the performance improvement with a 60 to 80 % effective SLHX is expected to be on the order of 8 to 10 % for capacity, and 5 to 7 % for COP for high outdoor air temperatures of 43ºC. In a FOT (fixed orifice tube) system, the performance improvement was calculated to be about 10 to 15 %. The calculated improvements have been verified experimentally within a few percent.
Technical Paper

Production Solutions for Utilization of Both R1234yf and R134a in a Single Global Platform

2009-04-20
2009-01-0172
As global automobile manufacturers prepare for the phase-out of R134a in Europe, they must address the issue of using the new refrigerant for European sales only or launching the product worldwide. Several factors play into this decision, including cost, service, risk, customer satisfaction, capacity, efficiency, etc. This research effort addresses the minimal vehicle-level hardware differences necessary to provide a European solution of R1234yf while continuing to install R134a into vehicles for the rest of the world. It is anticipated that the same compressor, lubricant and condenser; most fluid transport lines; and in most cases the evaporator can be common between the two systems.
Technical Paper

Compressor Body Temperature and Lubrication

2013-04-08
2013-01-1501
The paper addresses compressor body temperature (crankcase) importance to the vehicle AC system long-term durability. Majority of OEM vehicle test evaluation is to see if AC system can pass compressor discharge temperature and discharge pressure targets. Most OEMs adopt 130°C max compressor discharge temperature and 2350 kpag head pressure as the target. From the field, although some of the compressor failure results from a high compression ratio, and compressor discharge temperature that are caused by the poor front end airflow, etc., high percentage compressor failed systems exhibit not too high compression ratio and compressor discharge temperature, but having the trace of high temperature in the shaft area, gasket area, etc. With introducing more and more variable swash plate compressor applications, OEMs start to see more and more compressor failures that are not related to a high compressor discharge temperature but the trace of high compressor body temperature.
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Prediction of Air Induction Systems Using Filter Seal Modeling and Coupled Acoustic-Structural Simulation Techniques

2007-04-16
2007-01-0253
In this paper, an analytical procedure for prediction of shell radiated noise of air induction systems (AIS) due to engine acoustic excitation, without a prototype and physical measurement, is presented. A set of modeling and simulation techniques are introduced to address the challenges to the analytical radiated noise prediction of AIS products. A filter seal model is developed to simulate the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of air cleaner boxes. A finite element model (FEM) of the AIS assembly is established by incorporating the AIS structure, the proposed filter seal model and its acoustic cavity model. The coupled acoustic-structural FEM of the AIS assembly is then employed to compute the velocity frequency response of the AIS structure with respect to the air-borne acoustic excitations.
Technical Paper

A Filter Seal Model for Point Mobility Prediction of Air Induction Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-1209
Virtual design validation of an air induction system (AIS) requires a proper finite element (FE) assembly model for various simulation based design tasks. The effect of the urethane air filter seal within an AIS assembly, however, still poses a technical challenge to the modeling of structural dynamic behaviors of the AIS product. In this paper, a filter seal model and its modeling approach for AIS assemblies are introduced, by utilizing the feature finite elements and empiric test data. A bushing element is used to model the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of the urethane seal, as a function of seal orientation, preloading, temperature and excitation frequency, which are quantified based on the test data and empiric formula. Point mobility is used to character dynamic behaviors of an AIS structure under given loadings, as a transfer function in frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Multibody Dynamic Simulation of Steering Gear Systems With Three-Dimensional Surface Contacts

2006-02-14
2006-01-1960
In an effort to understand steering systems performance and properties at the microscopic level, we developed Multibody simulations that include multiple three-dimensional gear surfaces that are in a dynamic state of contact and separation. These validated simulations capture the dynamics of high-speed impact of gears traveling small distances of 50 microns in less than 10 milliseconds. We exploited newly developed analytic, numeric, and computer tools to gain insight into steering gear forces, specifically, the mechanism behind the inception of mechanical knock in steering gear. The results provided a three dimensional geometric view of the sequence of events, in terms of gear surfaces in motion, their sudden contact, and subsequent force generation that lead to steering gear mechanical knock. First we briefly present results that show the sequence of events that lead to knock.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Tool for Modeling Driveline Systems

2000-12-04
2000-01-3525
In order to facilitate the modeling of vehicle drivelines in ADAMS, an ADAMS/View driveline tool was developed with the aid of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc (MDI). Known as Visteon Axle & Driveline Simulation-Dynamics (VADSIM-DYNA) this tool is used to supply customers with driveline models for use in their full vehicle modeling as well as for predicting forces in the driveline. Of specific interest is a method for calculating the mesh point of a hypoid gear set using the geometry of the ring and pinion gears, and a custom force statement for calculation of the mesh point reactions at the center of gravity for both the pinion and ring gears. With the introduction of ADAMS/Driveline, The comapny has worked with MDI to implement VADSIM-DYNA into the base product. With the aid of VADSIM-DYNA the ability to provide customers with ADAMS models of driveline components and systems has been greatly enhanced.
Technical Paper

Application of DOE Methods to RPM-Domain Data for Hydraulic Steering Pump NVH Improvement

2003-05-05
2003-01-1431
The present work demonstrates the application of Design of Experiments (DOE) statistical methods to the design and optimization of a hydraulic steering pump for NVH performance. DOE methods were applied to RPM-domain data to examine the effect of several different factors, as well as the interactions between these factors, on pump NVH. Whereas most DOE analyses typically consider only a single response variable, the present work considered multiple response variables. Specifically, pump NVH performance curves for several pump rotational orders over a range of shaft speeds were analyzed. Thus, it was possible to determine the effect of the factors in question over the entire speed range of pump operation, rather than a single speed or setting. Statistical methods were applied to determine which factors and interactions had a significant effect on pump NVH. These factors were used to construct an empirical mathematical prediction model for NVH performance.
Technical Paper

Power Steering Pump Sound Quality and Vibration - Test Stand Development

2003-05-05
2003-01-1662
The quietness of the interior of automobiles is perceived by consumers as a measure of quality and luxury. Great strides have been achieved in isolating interiors from noise sources. As noise is reduced, in particular wind and power train noise, other noise sources become evident. Noise reduction efforts are now focused on components like power steering pumps. To understand the contribution of power steering pumps a world-class noise and vibration test stand was developed. This paper describes the development of the test stand as well as it's objective to understand and improve the sound quality of power steering pumps.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fuel Efficient Multipurpose 75W-90 Gear Lubricant

2003-10-27
2003-01-1992
Automotive gear oil development has expanded beyond the historical requirements of emphasizing wear protection to encompass modern needs for fuel economy and limited slip frictional properties. This paper describes the development process of a new generation, fuel efficient gear lubricant for use in light duty vehicles. A systematic formulation approach was used, encompassing fluid viscometrics and additive optimization. Performance testing in both laboratory and vehicle tests is described. Though standard GL-5 tests were used to confirm oxidation, wear and corrosion performance, emphasis is given to those methods used for optimizing fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Overview of Automotive Plastic Parts Molds Development of in Brazil

2003-11-18
2003-01-3565
In Brazil the market for plastic parts molds, in last few years had become very competitive, with several Vehicle Operations and a big number of a different models, and with today total market volume it means low volumes productions for each model. This market demands for good toolshops and at the same time a big pressure to reduce investments, one of the most important. Plastic components usage in the car, is increasing overtime, with new applications for Exterior, interior and powertrain, requiring new technologies for Injection molding processing and making molds to be more complex. The development of plastic parts in Brazil has its own characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. In fact a big and heterogeneous market. This paper intends to present an analysis of development of plastic parts in Brazil, considering the development of mold tooling locally, focusing the automotive market.
Technical Paper

R134a Heat Pump for Improved Passenger Comfort

2004-03-08
2004-01-1379
As powertrains continue to get more efficient, less waste heat is available for warming the passenger compartment. Although several supplemental heating devices are currently on the market, including electric heaters, viscous heaters, and fuel operated heaters, they each have shortcomings related to cost, capacity, efficiency, and/or environmental concerns[1]. In an attempt to provide superior time-to-comfort in a cost, weight, package efficient, and environmentally friendly manner, an R134a heat pump (HP) system was developed. Several technical issues were overcome while developing this system. Production vehicles have been retrofitted to incorporate the R134a heat pump system and tested in a climatic wind tunnel. Test results for a -18°C warm-up test were compared to baseline data, showing significant improvements in average discharge air and breath level temperatures.
Technical Paper

Multi-Target Modelling for Embedded Software Development for Automotive Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0269
Manual ‘porting” of source code is often required in order to “reuse” control software in different applications with different target hardware. This process is not cost effective. Maintaining multiple “versions” of the same software also causes problems. This paper describes a way in which multiple target source code can be generated from a single model. A custom data class is developed so that it can be used to define both signal and parameter data types necessary for data dictionary-driven models. This capability allows a single model to be used to generate code for multiple target hardware architectures. A software development process using a generic model to support multiple hardware targets is compared with the hand porting process (e.g. floating-point to/from fixed-point). Auto code generation from a sample multi-target feature model will be presented. The efficiency of the auto code will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Improved Hydraulic Power Steering Pump Design Using Computer Tools

2005-04-11
2005-01-1269
A hydraulic steering pump system will be considered in this report. The objective is to improve the design of a specific power steering pump using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The first part of this report deals with a pump oil seal leak. The thermal and fluid environments have been simulated. A variable fluid viscosity is used, showing a 15-20% increase in peak temperature. Potential improvements in product design have been suggested. The second part deals with using computer tools to reduce redundant testing. This includes use of parametric approach towards optimization. A rotating grid approach (basic moving mesh technique) is used.
Technical Paper

Simple Application of DOE Methods to Reduce Whistle Noise in a HPAS Pump Relief Valve

2005-05-16
2005-01-2468
The present work demonstrates the application of Design of Experiments (DOE) statistical methods to the design and the improvement of a hydraulic steering pump noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance in relief. DOE methods were applied to subjective ratings to examine the effect of several different factors, as well as the interactions between these factors on pump relief NVH. Specifically, the DOE was applied to the geometry of the cross ports on a hydraulic relief valve to improve “whistle” noise in the pump. Statistical methods were applied to determine which factors and interactions had a significant effect on pump whistle. These factors were used to produce a more robust cross port configuration reducing whistle noise. Lastly, the final configuration was experimentally verified on the test apparatus and subjectively confirmed in vehicle-level testing.
Technical Paper

Design Evaluations On IRS Axle System NVH Through Analytical Studies

2005-05-16
2005-01-2289
Axle whine is an important driveline NVH issue that originates in the hypoid gear sets due to transmitted error excitations. Improving gear quality to reduce the transmitted error has a cost penalty, as well as practical manufacturing limitations. On the other hand, axle system dynamics play a significant role in the system response to gear excitations and in transmissibility from gears to the structure. Analytical tools can be used to tune axle system dynamics in order to alleviate noise and vibration issues. Analytical results can be utilized to evaluate design alternatives, reduce the number of prototypes, thus to reduce product development time. However, analytical results need to be verified and correlated with test results. In this paper, dynamic behavior of a driveline system is investigated. The finite element model is validated at both component and system levels using frequency response functions and mode shapes.
Technical Paper

Multivariate Statistical Methods for the Analysis of NVH Data

2005-05-16
2005-01-2518
The present work discusses the application of multivariate statistical methods for the analysis of NVH data. Unlike conventional statistical methods which generally consider single-value, or univariate data, multivariate methods enable the user to examine multiple response variables and their interactions simultaneously. This characteristic is particularly useful in the examination of NVH data, where multiple measurements are typically used to assess NVH performance. In this work, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to examine the NVH data from a benchmarking study of hydraulic steering pumps. A total of twelve NVH measurements for each of 99 pump samples were taken. These measurements included steering pump orders and overall levels for vibration and sound pressure level at two microphone locations. Application of the PCA method made it possible to examine the entire set of data at once.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Model of Automotive Air Conditioning Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1884
A dynamic computer model of automotive air conditioning systems was developed. The model uses simulation software for the coding of 1-D heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid flow, and control valves. The same software is used to model 3-D solid dynamics associated with mechanical mechanisms of the compressor. The dynamics of the entire AC system is thus simulated within the same software environment. The results will show the models potential applications in component and system design, calibration and control.
Technical Paper

Interior Fittings – A Global View

2003-03-03
2003-01-1175
In today's global economy, the automotive design engineer's responsibilities are made more complex by the differences between regulatory requirements of the various global markets. This paper compares instrument panel head impact requirements of FMVSS 201 with its European counterparts, ECE 21, and EEC/74/60, Interior Fittings. It describes the similarities and differences between these regulations and explains the unique requirements for each market. It then compares processes for development and validation testing in both markets. It also covers related topics like self-certification, witness testing, radii, projections, and interior compartment doors. The cockpit design engineer will gain an understanding of the factors involved in ensuring that their design fully meets the requirements of the subject regulations.
X