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Technical Paper

Investigating Cleaning Procedures for OEM Engine Air Intake Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1431
Most new passenger vehicles on the road today are equipped with a disposable OEM engine intake filter made of cellulose paper or synthetic non-woven media. Engine intake filters have an expected and recommended service life (by OEMs) of approximately 45K to 75K kilometers under normal driving conditions [ref. 2, 3, 4 & 5]. Majority of air filter element manufacturers do not recommend any type of cleaning to be performed on their OEM products. However, cleaning OEM and aftermarket air filters is common for end-customers in areas such as Asia, Middle East and South America. Vehicle owners in some regions would like to service and clean their own air filter elements in an effort to reduce vehicle operating costs. As a result, a number of OEMs selling passenger vehicles in these regions are requesting their suppliers explore solutions and the effects of whether cleaning air filter elements is appropriate for proper engine operation.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations & Characterization Test Methods for Activated Carbon Foam Hydrocarbon Traps in Automotive Air Induction Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1429
As OEMs race to build their sales fleets to meet ever more stringent California Air Resources Board (CARB) mobile source evaporative emissions requirements, new technologies are emerging to control pollution. Evaporative emissions emanating from sources up-stream in the induction flow and venting through the ducts of the engine air induction system (EIS) need to be controlled in order classify a salable vehicle as a Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) in the state of California. As other states explore adopting California's pollution control standards, demand for emissions control measures in the induction system is expected to increase. This paper documents some of the considerations of designing an adsorbent evaporative emissions device in to a 2007 production passenger car for the North American and Asian markets. This new evaporative emissions device will be permanently installed in the vehicle's air cleaner cover without requiring service for 150K miles (expected vehicle life).
Technical Paper

Control Method of Dual Motor-Based Steer-by-Wire System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1149
This paper describes a front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuator motors on the rack and pinion assembly to move the road wheels. Dual actuators are used to provide actuator redundancy and to enhance the fault tolerance capability. When one actuator faults or fails, the other actuator is designed to work independently and maintain full system performance. The paper emphasizes control method to implement the motion control for the front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuators on the common load. The proposed dual servo synchronization motion control implements the angle tracking for the road wheel reference input by controlling two actuators synchronously and cooperatively. It includes two servo feedback control loops to track the common reference input. The angular position error between two feedback loops is compensated using a synchronized compensator.
Technical Paper

Towards Development of Thermal Standards for the Design of LED Lamps

2007-04-16
2007-01-1037
Even though the use of LED's in automotive industry is continuously increasing, the test standards used for the thermal design of the lamps do not address the unique needs of LED based lamps. The challenge becomes more significant because LED's are semiconductor devices with lower maximum operating temperatures and photometric properties that depend on temperature. This paper presents sunload test results and lamp thermal data measured on vehicles undergoing simulated driving conditions in a lab environment. The data clearly indicates substantial differences in the measured data versus the test conditions to which the lamps are designed today. It is recommended to modify test standards that the lamps must meet to more closely emulate the field conditions.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing Systems at Visteon

2004-03-08
2004-01-1240
This paper discusses our experiences on the implementation and benefits of using the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) systems for Powertrain control system software verification and validation. The Visteon HIL system integrated with several off-the-shelf diagnostics and calibration tools is briefly explained. Further, discussions on test automation sequence control and failure insertion are outlined The capabilities and advantages of using HIL for unit level software testing, open loop and closed-loop system testing, fault insertion and test automation are described. HIL also facilitates Software and Hardware Interface validation testing with low-level driver and platform software. This paper attempts to show the experiences with and capabilities of these HIL systems.
Technical Paper

Optimal Design of Roller One Way Clutch for Starter Drives

2004-03-08
2004-01-1151
The starter drive clutch is a one way roller clutch and a key component in a starter motor that is used to crank internal combustion engines. The starter drive clutch transmits torque from an electrical motor to a ring gear mounted on a cranking shaft in an engine thus cranks the engine. The clutch also prevents the whole starter from damage caused by extremely high load and/or extremely high speed applied to the starter pinion from the engine. Drive slippage and barrel cracking are two major failure modes for the starter drive[1]. Insufficient torque capacity results in drive slippage while excessive high hoop stress on the clutch barrel ring causes barrel crack. To eliminate drive slippage failure, the clutch should be designed with high torque capacity. High torque capacity, however, is a cause of high hoop stress on the barrel that may result in the cracked barrel failure. Higher torque capacity and lower hoop stress are two completely opposite design directions.
Technical Paper

Blind Spot Monitoring by a Single Camera

2009-04-20
2009-01-1291
A practical and low cost Blind Spot Monitoring system is proposed. By using a single camera, the range and azimuth position of a vehicle in a blind spot are measured. The algorithm is based on the proposed RWA (Range Window Algorithm). The camera is installed on the door mirror and monitoring the side and rear of the host vehicle. The algorithm processes the image and identifies range and azimuth angle of the vehicle in the adjacent lane. This algorithm is applied to real situations. The 388 images including several kinds of vehicles are analyzed. The detection rate is 86% and the range accuracy is 1.6[m]. The maximum detection range is about 30[m].
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0873
Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
Journal Article

Ensuring Audio Signal Quality in Automotive Infotainment Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-0163
In automotive infotainment systems, multiple types of digital audio signals are usually present. Some come from internal sources, such as a CD or USB stick, and some come from external sources, such as an internet stream or digital radio. These sources usually have different sample-rates, and may also be different from one or more system sample-rates. Managing and transporting these signals throughout the system over different sample-rate domains require detailed upfront architecture analysis and correct system design to ensure signal quality is maintained to the desired level. Incorrect design can add significant user-perceivable noise and distortion. This paper examines the key analysis factors, the effects of poor design and the approaches for achieving robust signal handling and ensuring desired signal quality.
Journal Article

Assessment of Automatic Volume Leveling for Automotive Sound Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-0162
This paper presents an assessment of competing algorithms for normalizing volume levels between tracks and/or sources in an automotive infotainment system. Portable media players such as smartphones and iPod® devices are extremely popular for listening to music collections or streaming content from the Internet. The lack of normalization is a source of dissatisfaction if the user experiences significant changes in audio level between tracks. Several commercially available algorithms exist to solve this problem. This research includes a double-blind listening test comparing an audio sample processed with the different leveling algorithms to an unprocessed reference. The listener preference rating is recorded and results indicate which algorithm is preferred.
Journal Article

Connected Car Architecture and Virtualization

2016-04-05
2016-01-0081
Connectivity has become an essential need for daily device users. With the car projected to be the “ultimate mobile device”, connectivity modules will eventually be mainstream in every car. Network providers are expanding their infrastructure and technology to accommodate the connected cars. Besides making voice and emergency calls the connected car will be sharing data with telematics service providers, back end systems and other vehicles. This trend will increase vehicle modules, complexity, entry points and vulnerabilities. This paper will present the current connected car architectures. The paper will present current architectural issues of the connected car and its vulnerabilities. The paper will present a new proposed architecture for the future connected car that enhances efficiency and security.
Technical Paper

Development of a Canning Method for Catalytic Converters using Ultra Thin Wall Substrates

2004-03-08
2004-01-0144
There are benefits of using ultra thin wall (UTW) substrates (i.e., 900/2, 400/4, etc) in lowering cost and emission level. However, the more fragile mechanical characteristics of the UTW present a challenge to design and manufacture of robust catalytic converters. This paper describes a method of canning trial, where a combined Design of Experiment / Monte-Carlo analysis method was used, to develop and validate a canning method for ultra thin wall substrates. Canning trials were conducted in two stages-- Prototype Canning Trial and Production Canning Trial. In Prototype Canning Trial, the root cause of substrate failure was identified and a model for predicting substrate failure was established. Key factors affecting scrap rate and gap capability were identified and predictions were performed on scrap rate and gap capability with the allowed variations in the key factors. The results provided guidelines in designing production line and process control.
Technical Paper

An Approach for the Optical Design of an LED Fog Lamp

2004-03-08
2004-01-0226
Traditionally fog lamps use halogen filament light sources. With the emergence of high brightness white LEDs, it is now possible to develop automotive forward lighting systems with LED light sources. Six LEDs are shown to be sufficient for the implementation of a European fog lamp using a faceted reflector optical approach. Each reflector together with the LED light source forms a modular element. The optical parameters of two different lamp designs are compared and correlation between the simulation and prototype measurements is shown. Further, additional forward lighting functions can be implemented through the use of additional elements.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Life Cycle Development for Electronic Throttle Control Software using Model-Based/Auto-Code Technology

2004-03-08
2004-01-0276
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate our success in taking advantage of model-based development tools and auto-code technology to accelerate the typical life cycle development of powertrain software. In particular, we applied the technology as a clean sheet approach to Visteon's third generation Electronic Throttle Control system. In the process of applying model-based development and 100% auto-code, we identified various pitfalls and created solutions to overcome the gap between technology and development process during each phase of the entire software development life cycle. We will share our lessons learned during the requirement, design, implementation, and validation stages.
Technical Paper

On the Use of BEA with Engine Simulation as an Input to Predict Air Induction Inlet Noise

2005-05-16
2005-01-2350
Engine air induction noise can play a significant role in the reduction of vehicle interior noise levels and tuning interior sound quality. Given the need to reduce prototyping and testing costs, it is important to gain an understanding of the level and frequency structure of the noise radiating from the open inlet of the air induction system. Engine simulation used independently can predict inlet noise; however, its utility is limited to systems that are largely one-dimensional. Systems that exhibit a three-dimensional nature, such as the wave dynamics in an engine air cleaner, require a more intensive approach. Boundary Element Analysis (BEA) has been demonstrated to be a tool that can be used to predict the frequency response of ducted systems and is particularly useful in highly three-dimensional systems.
Technical Paper

Control Software Interface for Managing System Requirements

2004-03-08
2004-01-0363
Not all software tools are created equal and not all software tools are created to perform the same tasks. Therefore, different software tools are used to perform different tasks. However, being able to share the information between the different software tools, without having to manually re-enter (duplicate) any of the information, can save a lot of time and improve the quality of the product. The control software interface presented in this paper, allows system engineers to exchange data between software tools in an efficient manner which maximizes each tools capabilities and ultimately reduces development time and improves the quality of the product.
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Prediction of Air Induction Systems Using Filter Seal Modeling and Coupled Acoustic-Structural Simulation Techniques

2007-04-16
2007-01-0253
In this paper, an analytical procedure for prediction of shell radiated noise of air induction systems (AIS) due to engine acoustic excitation, without a prototype and physical measurement, is presented. A set of modeling and simulation techniques are introduced to address the challenges to the analytical radiated noise prediction of AIS products. A filter seal model is developed to simulate the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of air cleaner boxes. A finite element model (FEM) of the AIS assembly is established by incorporating the AIS structure, the proposed filter seal model and its acoustic cavity model. The coupled acoustic-structural FEM of the AIS assembly is then employed to compute the velocity frequency response of the AIS structure with respect to the air-borne acoustic excitations.
Technical Paper

A Filter Seal Model for Point Mobility Prediction of Air Induction Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-1209
Virtual design validation of an air induction system (AIS) requires a proper finite element (FE) assembly model for various simulation based design tasks. The effect of the urethane air filter seal within an AIS assembly, however, still poses a technical challenge to the modeling of structural dynamic behaviors of the AIS product. In this paper, a filter seal model and its modeling approach for AIS assemblies are introduced, by utilizing the feature finite elements and empiric test data. A bushing element is used to model the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of the urethane seal, as a function of seal orientation, preloading, temperature and excitation frequency, which are quantified based on the test data and empiric formula. Point mobility is used to character dynamic behaviors of an AIS structure under given loadings, as a transfer function in frequency domain.
Technical Paper

A Table Update Method for Adaptive Knock Control

2006-04-03
2006-01-0607
Knock correction is the spark angle retard applied to the optimum ignition timing to eliminate knock. In adaptive knock control, this amount of spark retard at an operating point (i.e. Speed, load) is stored in a speed/load characteristic map. It will be reused when the engine is operated in this range once more. In this paper, a method to learn the knock correction values into a speed/load characteristic map is described. This method proportionally distributes the knock correction into the characteristic map according to the distance between the speed/load of these nodes and the current operating point. The distributed knock correction value is filtered and accumulated in its adjacent nodes. Simulation examples demonstrate that the retrieved values from the map by the proposed method are smoother than those produced by the method of [2][3]. The mathematical basis for this method is developed. The one and two independent variable cases are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1767
The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
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