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Technical Paper

Stability Control of Combination Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-0138
This paper discusses the development of combination vehicle stability program (CVSP) at Visteon. It will describe why stability control is needed for combination vehicles and how the vehicle stability can be improved. We propose and evaluate controller structures and design methods for CVSP. These include driver's intent identification, combination vehicle status estimation and control, and fault detection / tolerance. In this paper, the braking and steering dynamics of car-trailer and tractor-semitrailer combinations, and the brake systems which should be used extensively to increase the stability of combination vehicles are presented. Also our development platform is introduced and the combination vehicle simulation results are presented. The definition of combination vehicles in this paper includes car-trailer and commercial tractor-semitrailer combinations since their vehicle dynamics are based on the same equations of motion.
Technical Paper

EVOP Design of Experiments

2003-03-03
2003-01-1015
Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) experimental design using Sequential Simplex method is an effective and robust means for determining the ideal process parameter (factor) settings to achieve optimum output (response) results. EVOP is the methodology of using on-line experimental design. Small perturbations to the process are made within allowable control plan limits, to minimize any product quality issues while obtaining information for improvement on the process. It is often the case in high volume production where issues exist, however off-line experimentation is not an option due to production time, the threat of quality issues and costs. EVOP leverages production time to arrive at the optimum solution while continuing to process saleable product, thus substantially reducing the cost of the analysis.
Technical Paper

A Scalable Engine Management System Architecture for Motorcycle/Small-Vehicle Application

2008-09-09
2008-32-0054
This paper gives an overview of a scalable engine management system architecture for motorcycle and other small engine based vehicle applications. The system can accommodate any engine sizes and up to four cylinders. The architecture incorporates advanced functionalities such as oxygen sensing, closed loop fueling, wall-wetting compensation, purge control, start & idle control and deceleration fuel cut-off. Additionally, a number of vehicle-related controls are integrated in the system. Diagnostic and safety related features have also been incorporated with limp-home capability. The software architecture is compatible with different hardware solutions. The system has been implemented in several OEM vehicles around the globe and meets EURO-3 emission requirements.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1767
The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Alternative for Computing Algorithm Detection Thresholds

2006-04-03
2006-01-0009
Commonly, a significant event is detected when a normally stable engine parameter (ex. sensor voltage, sensor current, air flow, pedal position, fuel level, tire pressure, engine acceleration, etc.) transiently exceeds a calibrated detection threshold. Many implementations of detection thresholds rely on multi-input lookup tables or functions and are complex and difficult to calibrate. An approach is presented to minimize threshold calibration effort and complexity, while improving detection performance, by dynamically computing thresholds on-line based on current real-time data. Determining engine synchronization without a camshaft position sensor is presented as an illustrative application.
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Prediction of Air Induction Systems Using Filter Seal Modeling and Coupled Acoustic-Structural Simulation Techniques

2007-04-16
2007-01-0253
In this paper, an analytical procedure for prediction of shell radiated noise of air induction systems (AIS) due to engine acoustic excitation, without a prototype and physical measurement, is presented. A set of modeling and simulation techniques are introduced to address the challenges to the analytical radiated noise prediction of AIS products. A filter seal model is developed to simulate the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of air cleaner boxes. A finite element model (FEM) of the AIS assembly is established by incorporating the AIS structure, the proposed filter seal model and its acoustic cavity model. The coupled acoustic-structural FEM of the AIS assembly is then employed to compute the velocity frequency response of the AIS structure with respect to the air-borne acoustic excitations.
Technical Paper

Investigating Cleaning Procedures for OEM Engine Air Intake Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1431
Most new passenger vehicles on the road today are equipped with a disposable OEM engine intake filter made of cellulose paper or synthetic non-woven media. Engine intake filters have an expected and recommended service life (by OEMs) of approximately 45K to 75K kilometers under normal driving conditions [ref. 2, 3, 4 & 5]. Majority of air filter element manufacturers do not recommend any type of cleaning to be performed on their OEM products. However, cleaning OEM and aftermarket air filters is common for end-customers in areas such as Asia, Middle East and South America. Vehicle owners in some regions would like to service and clean their own air filter elements in an effort to reduce vehicle operating costs. As a result, a number of OEMs selling passenger vehicles in these regions are requesting their suppliers explore solutions and the effects of whether cleaning air filter elements is appropriate for proper engine operation.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations & Characterization Test Methods for Activated Carbon Foam Hydrocarbon Traps in Automotive Air Induction Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1429
As OEMs race to build their sales fleets to meet ever more stringent California Air Resources Board (CARB) mobile source evaporative emissions requirements, new technologies are emerging to control pollution. Evaporative emissions emanating from sources up-stream in the induction flow and venting through the ducts of the engine air induction system (EIS) need to be controlled in order classify a salable vehicle as a Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) in the state of California. As other states explore adopting California's pollution control standards, demand for emissions control measures in the induction system is expected to increase. This paper documents some of the considerations of designing an adsorbent evaporative emissions device in to a 2007 production passenger car for the North American and Asian markets. This new evaporative emissions device will be permanently installed in the vehicle's air cleaner cover without requiring service for 150K miles (expected vehicle life).
Technical Paper

A Filter Seal Model for Point Mobility Prediction of Air Induction Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-1209
Virtual design validation of an air induction system (AIS) requires a proper finite element (FE) assembly model for various simulation based design tasks. The effect of the urethane air filter seal within an AIS assembly, however, still poses a technical challenge to the modeling of structural dynamic behaviors of the AIS product. In this paper, a filter seal model and its modeling approach for AIS assemblies are introduced, by utilizing the feature finite elements and empiric test data. A bushing element is used to model the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of the urethane seal, as a function of seal orientation, preloading, temperature and excitation frequency, which are quantified based on the test data and empiric formula. Point mobility is used to character dynamic behaviors of an AIS structure under given loadings, as a transfer function in frequency domain.
Technical Paper

A Table Update Method for Adaptive Knock Control

2006-04-03
2006-01-0607
Knock correction is the spark angle retard applied to the optimum ignition timing to eliminate knock. In adaptive knock control, this amount of spark retard at an operating point (i.e. Speed, load) is stored in a speed/load characteristic map. It will be reused when the engine is operated in this range once more. In this paper, a method to learn the knock correction values into a speed/load characteristic map is described. This method proportionally distributes the knock correction into the characteristic map according to the distance between the speed/load of these nodes and the current operating point. The distributed knock correction value is filtered and accumulated in its adjacent nodes. Simulation examples demonstrate that the retrieved values from the map by the proposed method are smoother than those produced by the method of [2][3]. The mathematical basis for this method is developed. The one and two independent variable cases are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Fuel Rail Pressure Relief

2006-04-03
2006-01-0626
A major source of engine-off evaporative hydrocarbon emissions is fuel injector leakage. Methods and devices to relieve fuel rail pressure after key-off, and thus reduce leakage are introduced. Impact on fuel manifold re-pressurization is considered. The basic principles governing this behavior: fuel thermal expansion, fuel vapor pressure, and dissolved gasses in liquid are elaborated. Fuel pressure relief data is shown.
Technical Paper

A High Speed Flow Visualization Study of Fuel Spray Pattern Effect on Mixture Formation in a Low Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1411
In developing a direct injection gasoline engine, the in-cylinder fuel air mixing is key to good performance and emissions. High speed visualization in an optically accessible single cylinder engine for direct injection gasoline engine applications is an effective tool to reveal the fuel spray pattern effect on mixture formation The fuel injectors in this study employ the unique multi-hole turbulence nozzles in a PFI-like (Port Fuel Injection) fuel system architecture specifically developed as a Low Pressure Direct Injection (LPDI) fuel injection system. In this study, three injector sprays with a narrow 40° spray angle, a 60°spray angle with 5°offset angle, and a wide 80° spray angle with 10° offset angle were evaluated. Image processing algorithms were developed to analyze the nature of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing and the extent of fuel spray impingement on the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Modeling and Radiated Noise Prediction for Plastic Air-Intake Manifolds

2003-05-05
2003-01-1448
Reliable prediction of the radiated noise due to the air pressure pulsation inside air-intake manifolds (AIM) is of significant interest in the automotive industry. A practical methodology to model plastic AIMs and a prediction process to compute the radiated noise are presented in this paper. The measured pressure at the engine inlet valve of an AIM is applied as excitation on an acoustic boundary element model of the AIM in order to perform a frequency response analysis. The measured air pressure pulsation is obtained in the crank-angle domain. This pressure is read into MATLAB and transformed into the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform. The normal modes of the structure are computed in ABAQUS and a coupled analysis in SYSNOISE is launched to couple the boundary element model and the finite element model of the structure. The computed surface vibration constitutes the excitation for an acoustic uncoupled boundary element analysis.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Robust Design of Heat Sinks for Automotive Electronics Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0685
The increasing power requirement for automotive electronics (radios, etc.), combined with ever-shrinking size and weight allowances, is creating a greater need for optimization and robust design of heat sinks. Not only does a heat sink directly affect the overall performance and reliability of a specific electronics application, but a well-designed, optimized heat sink can have other benefits - such as eliminating the requirement for special fans, reducing weight of the application, eliminating additional heat sink support structures, etc. Optimizing heat sink efficiency and thermal performance offers a challenge, due to the many competing design requirements. These requirements include effecting greater temperature reductions, accommodating vehicle packaging requirements and size limitations, generating a uniform heat distribution, etc., and all the while reducing the heat sink cost.
Technical Paper

MBT Timing Detection and its Closed-Loop Control Using In-Cylinder Pressure Signal

2003-10-27
2003-01-3266
MBT timing for an internal combustion engine is also called minimum spark timing for best torque or the spark timing for maximum brake torque. Unless engine spark timing is limited by engine knock or emission requirements at a certain operational condition, there exists an MBT timing that yields the maximum work for a given air-to-fuel mixture. Traditionally, MBT timing for a particular engine is determined by conducting a spark sweep process that requires a substantial amount of time to obtain an MBT calibration. Recently, on-line MBT timing detection schemes have been proposed based upon cylinder pressure or ionization signals using peak cylinder pressure location, 50 percent fuel mass fraction burn location, pressure ratio, and so on. Because these criteria are solely based upon data correlation and observation, both of them may change at different engine operational conditions. Therefore, calibration is still required for each MBT detection scheme.
Technical Paper

CAE Virtual Test of Air Intake Manifolds Using Coupled Vibration and Pressure Pulsation Loads

2005-04-11
2005-01-1071
A coupled vibration and pressure loading procedure has been developed to perform a CAE virtual test for engine air intake manifolds. The CAE virtual test simulates the same physical test configuration and environments, such as the base acceleration vibration excitation and pressure pulsation loads, as well as temperature conditions, for design validation (DV) test of air intake manifolds. The original vibration and pressure load data, measured with respect to the engine speed rpm, are first converted to their respective vibration and pressure power spectrum density (PSD) profiles in frequency domain, based on the duty cycle specification. The final accelerated vibration excitation and pressure PSD load profiles for design validation are derived based on the key life test (KLT) duration and reliability requirements, using the equivalent fatigue damage technique.
Technical Paper

MBT Timing Detection and its Closed-Loop Control Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2004-10-25
2004-01-2976
Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing for an internal combustion engine is the minimum advance of spark timing for best torque. Traditionally, MBT timing is an open loop feedforward control whose values are experimentally determined by conducting spark sweeps at different speed, load points and at different environmental operating conditions. Almost every calibration point needs a spark sweep to see if the engine can be operated at the MBT timing condition. If not, a certain degree of safety margin is needed to avoid pre-ignition or knock during engine operation. Open-loop spark mapping usually requires a tremendous amount of effort and time to achieve a satisfactory calibration. This paper shows that MBT timing can be achieved by regulating a composite feedback measure derived from the in-cylinder ionization signal referenced to a top dead center crank angle position. A PI (proportional and integral) controller is used to illustrate closed-loop control of MBT timing.
Technical Paper

IC Engine Retard Ignition Timing Limit Detection and Control using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2004-10-25
2004-01-2977
Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. However, the usable range of ignition timing is often limited by knock in the advance direction and by combustion instability (partial burn and misfire) in the retard direction. This paper details a retard limit management system utilizing ionization signals in order to maintain the desired combustion quality and prevent the occurrence of misfire without using fixed limits. In-cylinder ionization signals are processed to derive a metric for combustion quality and closeness of combustion to partial burn/misfire limit, which is used to provide a limiting value for the baseline ignition timing in the retard direction. For normal operations, this assures that the combustion variability is kept within an acceptable range.
Technical Paper

On the Use of BEA with Engine Simulation as an Input to Predict Air Induction Inlet Noise

2005-05-16
2005-01-2350
Engine air induction noise can play a significant role in the reduction of vehicle interior noise levels and tuning interior sound quality. Given the need to reduce prototyping and testing costs, it is important to gain an understanding of the level and frequency structure of the noise radiating from the open inlet of the air induction system. Engine simulation used independently can predict inlet noise; however, its utility is limited to systems that are largely one-dimensional. Systems that exhibit a three-dimensional nature, such as the wave dynamics in an engine air cleaner, require a more intensive approach. Boundary Element Analysis (BEA) has been demonstrated to be a tool that can be used to predict the frequency response of ducted systems and is particularly useful in highly three-dimensional systems.
Technical Paper

Performance and Benefits of Zero Maintenance Air Induction Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1139
Engine air filtration technologies currently used in air induction systems typically utilize pleated paper or felt type air filters. These air filter designs have been used for many years in panels, cylindrical or round (pancake type) type air cleaners. Pleated air filters are specifically designed to be serviceable and hence their performance is inherently limited by vehicle under-hood packaging and manufacturing constraints. Due to these constraints, majority of air cleaner designs are not optimized for engine filtration and air flow management under the hood. Studies show that use of low performing serviceable aftermarket air filters significantly affect the performance and durability of engine air cleaners [9]. High mileage studies confirm that engine durability, service issues, warranty field returns and customer satisfaction was affected by use of aftermarket filter brands.
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