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Technical Paper

Stability Control of Combination Vehicle

This paper discusses the development of combination vehicle stability program (CVSP) at Visteon. It will describe why stability control is needed for combination vehicles and how the vehicle stability can be improved. We propose and evaluate controller structures and design methods for CVSP. These include driver's intent identification, combination vehicle status estimation and control, and fault detection / tolerance. In this paper, the braking and steering dynamics of car-trailer and tractor-semitrailer combinations, and the brake systems which should be used extensively to increase the stability of combination vehicles are presented. Also our development platform is introduced and the combination vehicle simulation results are presented. The definition of combination vehicles in this paper includes car-trailer and commercial tractor-semitrailer combinations since their vehicle dynamics are based on the same equations of motion.
Technical Paper

Development of a Steer-by-Wire System for the GM Sequel

Steer-by-wire systems (SBW) offer the potential to enhance steering functionality by enabling features such as automatic lane keeping, park assist, variable steer ratio, and advanced vehicle dynamics control. The lack of a steering intermediate shaft significantly enhances vehicle architectural flexibility. These potential benefits led GM to include steer-by-wire technology in its next generation fuel cell demonstration vehicle, called “Sequel.” The Sequel's steer-by-wire system consists of front and rear electromechanical actuators, a torque feedback emulator for the steering wheel, and a distributed electronic control system. Redundancy of sensors, actuators, controllers, and power allows the system to be fault-tolerant. Control is provided by multiple ECU's that are linked by a fault-tolerant communication system called FlexRay. In this paper, we describe the objectives for fault tolerance and performance that were established for the Sequel.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Tool for Modeling Driveline Systems

In order to facilitate the modeling of vehicle drivelines in ADAMS, an ADAMS/View driveline tool was developed with the aid of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc (MDI). Known as Visteon Axle & Driveline Simulation-Dynamics (VADSIM-DYNA) this tool is used to supply customers with driveline models for use in their full vehicle modeling as well as for predicting forces in the driveline. Of specific interest is a method for calculating the mesh point of a hypoid gear set using the geometry of the ring and pinion gears, and a custom force statement for calculation of the mesh point reactions at the center of gravity for both the pinion and ring gears. With the introduction of ADAMS/Driveline, The comapny has worked with MDI to implement VADSIM-DYNA into the base product. With the aid of VADSIM-DYNA the ability to provide customers with ADAMS models of driveline components and systems has been greatly enhanced.
Technical Paper

A Unique Approach to All-Wheel Drive Vehicle Dynamics Model Simulation and Correlation

Experimental correlation is essential in the development of analytical simulation models. A methodology for correlating an All-Wheel Drive (AWD) minivan, created with ADAMS/Pre is presented in this paper. The paper is developed in three parts. Presented first are detailed component and system level, static and dynamic tests, including tire tests that were performed for inputs to the model. Then, the static correlation of the model, in particular, the front and rear suspension kinematics and compliance correlation are presented. Finally the dynamic correlation of the model, for the constant radius test and the swept steer test, is discussed. The paper concludes with some observations on AWD modeling.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Control Algorithm for a Yaw Stability Management System

Generalized predictive control (GPC) is a discrete time control strategy proposed by Clark et al [1]. The controller tries to predict the future output of a system or plant and then takes control action at present time based on future output error. Such a predictive control algorithm is presented in this paper for yaw stability management of an automobile. Most of the existing literature on the yaw stability management systems lacks the insight into the yaw rate error growth when the automobile is in a understeer or oversteer condition on a low friction coefficient surface in a handling maneuver. Simulation results show that the predictive feature of the proposed controller provides an effective way to control the yaw stability of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fuel Efficient Multipurpose 75W-90 Gear Lubricant

Automotive gear oil development has expanded beyond the historical requirements of emphasizing wear protection to encompass modern needs for fuel economy and limited slip frictional properties. This paper describes the development process of a new generation, fuel efficient gear lubricant for use in light duty vehicles. A systematic formulation approach was used, encompassing fluid viscometrics and additive optimization. Performance testing in both laboratory and vehicle tests is described. Though standard GL-5 tests were used to confirm oxidation, wear and corrosion performance, emphasis is given to those methods used for optimizing fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Vibration Assessment of a Slip-in-Tube Propshaft Through Correlated Analytical Model

Analytical methods are used extensively in the automotive industry to validate the feasibility of component and assembly designs and their dynamic behavior. Correlation of analytical models with test data is an important step in this process. This paper discusses the Finite Element model of an innovative Slip-in-Tube Propshaft design. The Slip-in-Tube joint (slip joint) poses challenges for its dynamic simulation. This paper discusses the methods of simulating the joint and correlating it to experimental results. Also, the Noise and Vibration (NVH) characteristics of the Slip-in-Tube Propshaft design. In this paper, a Finite Element model of the proposed propshaft is developed using shell and beam element formulations. Each model is verified to optimize the feasibility of using accurate and computationally efficient elements for the dynamic analysis.
Technical Paper

Robustness Considerations in the Design of a Stabilizer Bar System

Modern automobiles utilize stabilizer bars to increase vehicle roll stiffness. Stabilizer bars are laterally mounted torsional springs which resist vertical displacement of the wheels relative to one another. A stabilizer bar is constructed in such a way that it will meet package constraints and fatigue requirements. In order to design a robust stabilizer bar, Taguchi's “Design of Experiment method” is used. The objective of this paper is to develop a robust stabilizer bar design that will maximize the fatigue life and the roll stiffness while minimizing weight. This study is based on results obtained by CAE analysis.
Technical Paper

DSS, The Driver Stability System of Visteon

This paper introduces the Driver Stability System (DSS) at Visteon. DSS is a new active comfort / safety system for automobiles which controls the seat bolsters independently in real time to enhance the lateral support of the occupants. Under turning maneuvers, DSS reacts to the vehicle dynamics to provide an increased contact area between the occupants and their seats, allowing optimal occupant location with respect to such variables as steering wheel angle, lateral acceleration, yaw rate, and vehicle velocity. The lateral force compensation is directly coupled to the dynamic movement of vehicle chassis and the change of road profile. The system consists of the seat bolster assembly including DC motors, wheel speed sensors, steering wheel sensor, lateral accelerometer, yaw rate sensor, and electronic control unit (ECU). This paper also discusses the control concept of DSS and its realistic controller structure.
Technical Paper

Bushing Characteristics of Stabilizer Bars

A stabilizer bar in a suspension system is useful for preventing excessive rolls in vehicle maneuvers like cornering. Stabilizer bars are supported with bushings by either a frame or a subframe. To prevent the axial movement of the stabilizer bar within the bushing, features like add on collars, upset rings, grippy flats etc. are used on the stabilizer bar. At Visteon Corporation, several new stabilizer bar - bushing systems are developed where such axial movement is prevented by the use of compressive force. Relative merits of different stabilizer bar - bushing systems are compared in terms of roll stiffness and maximum stress on the bar through the use of finite elements.
Technical Paper

Driver Steering Performance Using Joystick vs. Steering Wheel Controls

A fixed-base driving simulator with a 14-degree of freedom vehicle dynamics model was used to compare the lane tracking performance of test subjects using a joystick steering controller to that using a conventional steering wheel. Three driving situations were studied: a) straight-line highway driving, b) winding road driving (country road), and c) evasive maneuvering - a double lane change event. In addition, three different joystick force-feedback settings were evaluated: i) linear force feedback, ii) non-linear, speed sensitive force feedback and iii) no force feedback. A conventional steering wheel with typical passenger car force feedback tuning was used for all of the driving events for comparison.