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Technical Paper

Thermal Analysis of an Electric Machine for a Hybrid Vehicle

A twenty-five kilowatt (peak power for one minute), permanent magnet electric machine for a hybrid electric vehicle application was designed and tested. The electric machine is located in the clutch housing of an automatically shifted manual transmission and is subjected to 120 °C continuous ambient temperatures. The package constraints and duty cycle requirements resulted in an extremely challenging thermal design for an electric machine. The losses in the machine were predicted using models based on first principles and the heat transfer in the machine was modeled using computational fluid dynamics. The simulations were compared to test results over a variety of operating conditions and the results were used to validate the models. Parametric studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of potting materials and cooling topologies.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection for a Large Displacement Air-Cooled V-Twin Motorcycle Engine Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signals

To obtain the maximum output power and fuel economy from an internal combustion engine, it is often necessary to detect engine knock and operate the engine at its knock limit. This paper presents the ability to detect knock using in-cylinder ionization signals on a large displacement, air-cooled, “V” twin motorcycle engine over the engine operational map. The knock detection ability of three different sensors is compared: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure sensor, and ionization sensor. The test data shows that the ionization sensor is able to detect knock better than the production knock sensor when there is high mechanical noise present in the engine.
Technical Paper

Power Steering Pump Sound Quality and Vibration - Test Stand Development

The quietness of the interior of automobiles is perceived by consumers as a measure of quality and luxury. Great strides have been achieved in isolating interiors from noise sources. As noise is reduced, in particular wind and power train noise, other noise sources become evident. Noise reduction efforts are now focused on components like power steering pumps. To understand the contribution of power steering pumps a world-class noise and vibration test stand was developed. This paper describes the development of the test stand as well as it's objective to understand and improve the sound quality of power steering pumps.
Technical Paper

Correlation Study of Exhaust Manifold - Lab Test Results vs Customer Fleet Results

The purpose of this study is to develop specifically a correlation between Exhaust Manifold Cracking Laboratory Test results and 150,000 mile customer fleet usage test results. The study shows that the exhaust manifold design meets the reliability requirements of 10 years or 150,000 miles, given 90th percentile customer usage without an evidence of cracking or audible leaks. This correlation between the Lab Test and the customer Fleet results has been expressed as an acceleration factor. An acceleration factor is the ratio of how much quicker the engine dynamometer test ( i.e. Lab Test ) can accumulate the effect of customer usage over time versus the customers themselves. The acceleration factor is provided for useful life time period of 10 years or 150,000 miles. The recommended acceleration factor, determined in this study, is 38 to 1, comparing the engine dynamometer test ( i.e. Lab Test ) results to 150,000 mile modular truck customer fleet field results.
Technical Paper

Statistical Modeling of Fatigue Crack Growth in Wing Skin Fastener Holes

Estimation and prediction of residual life and reliability are serious concerns in life cycle management for aging structures. Laboratory testing replicating fatigue loading for a typical military aircraft wing skin was undertaken. Specimens were tested until their fatigue life expended reached 100% of the component fatigue life. Then, scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify the size and location of fatigue cracks within the high stress regions of simulated fastener holes. Distributions for crack size, nearest neighbor distances, and spatial location were characterized statistically in order to estimate residual life and to provide input for life cycle management. Insights into crack initiation and growth are also provided.
Technical Paper

A Reusable Control System Architecture for Hybrid Powertrains

System integration is the path to successful entry of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology into the marketplace. A modular solution capable of meeting varying customer requirements is needed. The controller must possess a flexible hierarchical architecture that insures cross-platform compatibility and provides adaptability for various engine, motor, transmission, and battery configurations. A hybrid powertrain supervisory controller (PSC) has been designed for an advanced parallel-type HEV prototype, which uses a continuously variable transmission (CVT). The controller schedules torque commands for the engine and motor and chooses the transmission ratio to meet driver demanded acceleration. The controller is organized around a state machine, which determines how best to employ powertrain components to satisfy the driver while maximizing fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Instrument Clusters for Electric Vehicles

Environmental concerns and changes in regulations around the world are turning mass-production electric vehicles (EVs) a reality. While the average driver is very familiar with the instruments available for the current internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), the same does not hold for EVs. They require unique gages and tell-tales (also known as warning lights), tailored to their architecture, operating modes and intended use. This paper makes a comparison of the instruments used in ICEVs and EVs, suggesting a minimum set and standardization of the associated symbols.
Technical Paper

Development of a Steer-by-Wire System for the GM Sequel

Steer-by-wire systems (SBW) offer the potential to enhance steering functionality by enabling features such as automatic lane keeping, park assist, variable steer ratio, and advanced vehicle dynamics control. The lack of a steering intermediate shaft significantly enhances vehicle architectural flexibility. These potential benefits led GM to include steer-by-wire technology in its next generation fuel cell demonstration vehicle, called “Sequel.” The Sequel's steer-by-wire system consists of front and rear electromechanical actuators, a torque feedback emulator for the steering wheel, and a distributed electronic control system. Redundancy of sensors, actuators, controllers, and power allows the system to be fault-tolerant. Control is provided by multiple ECU's that are linked by a fault-tolerant communication system called FlexRay. In this paper, we describe the objectives for fault tolerance and performance that were established for the Sequel.
Technical Paper

Target Tracking by a Single Camera Based on Range-Window Algorithm and Pattern Matching

An algorithm, which determines the range of a preceding vehicle by a single image, had been proposed. It uses a “Range-Window Algorithm”. Here in order to realize higher robustness and stability, the pattern matching is incorporated into the algorithm. A single camera system using this algorithm has an advantage over the high cost of stereo cameras, millimeter wave radar and non-robust mechanical scanning in some laser radars. And it also provides lateral position of the vehicle. The algorithm uses several portions of a captured image, namely windows. Each window is corresponding to a predetermined range and has the fixed physical width and height. In each window, the size and position of objects in the image are estimated through the ratio between the widths of the objects and the window, and a score is given to each object. The object having the highest score is determined as the best object. The range of the window corresponding to the best object becomes an estimated range.