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Technical Paper

Water Condensate Retention and “Wet” Fin Performance in Automotive Evaporators

2001-03-05
2001-01-1252
Water condensate retained inside an automotive evaporator has remained as one of the primary sources of unpleasant “odors”, which in turn can drive up the warranty cost for automotive manufacturers. The “wet” evaporator fin can also underperform due to the presence of condensate blocking the air passage. Moreover, condensate retention can be a potential factor of freezing up evaporators. Thus, an evaporator fin must be designed such that it can shed and drain water condensate as well as provide an excellent heat transfer capability. While the importance of water retention is well known, there seems lacking of a comprehensive way to evaluate the water retention characteristics of a particular product. In this work, attempts were made to answer four questions: (1) What is the mechanism that controls water condensate retention characteristics in an automotive evaporator? (2) Can different water retention evaluation methods reveal the same characteristics?
Technical Paper

Stability Control of Combination Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-0138
This paper discusses the development of combination vehicle stability program (CVSP) at Visteon. It will describe why stability control is needed for combination vehicles and how the vehicle stability can be improved. We propose and evaluate controller structures and design methods for CVSP. These include driver's intent identification, combination vehicle status estimation and control, and fault detection / tolerance. In this paper, the braking and steering dynamics of car-trailer and tractor-semitrailer combinations, and the brake systems which should be used extensively to increase the stability of combination vehicles are presented. Also our development platform is introduced and the combination vehicle simulation results are presented. The definition of combination vehicles in this paper includes car-trailer and commercial tractor-semitrailer combinations since their vehicle dynamics are based on the same equations of motion.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Effects of Body Attachment Stiffness on Steering Column In-Vehicle Modes

2001-03-05
2001-01-0041
This paper presents an unambiguous and intuitive method for identification of steering column resonant (SCR) mode of vibration. One simple but overlooked technique to determine the SCR mode in-vehicle is to provide local stiffnesses of the body locations where the Instrument Panel (IP) attaches, to the IP suppliers to be used in their design and development. This paper describes how this technique is useful in predicting the first few important in-vehicle steering column modes for different classes of vehicles, with examples presented in each class. The results obtained from such analyses are compared against those from direct in-buck simulations. This technique is not limited to its application in developing IP systems, but can easily be extended to include other systems such as seats, fuel tanks, etc. Also it is shown that a design optimization analysis may be performed using these attachment stiffnesses as design variables resulting in a system level solution.
Technical Paper

EVOP Design of Experiments

2003-03-03
2003-01-1015
Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) experimental design using Sequential Simplex method is an effective and robust means for determining the ideal process parameter (factor) settings to achieve optimum output (response) results. EVOP is the methodology of using on-line experimental design. Small perturbations to the process are made within allowable control plan limits, to minimize any product quality issues while obtaining information for improvement on the process. It is often the case in high volume production where issues exist, however off-line experimentation is not an option due to production time, the threat of quality issues and costs. EVOP leverages production time to arrive at the optimum solution while continuing to process saleable product, thus substantially reducing the cost of the analysis.
Technical Paper

International Product User Research: Concurrent Studies Comparing Touch Screen Feedback in Europe and North America

2009-04-20
2009-01-0779
This paper describes two studies; each conducted concurrently in North America and Europe to assess subjective impressions and simulated driving task performance using a touch screen interface with different types of auditory and haptic feedback. The first study investigated subjective impressions of four types of touch screen feedback in a static laboratory setting. The second study investigated the influence of the same four touch screen feedback types on simulated driving task performance using the lane change test (LCT). Results of the first study revealed significant similarities and differences in subjective impressions between respondents in each of the two regions studied. Results of the second study revealed differences in task performance that suggest distinct participant strategies in each of the two regions studied.
Technical Paper

Production Solutions for Utilization of Both R1234yf and R134a in a Single Global Platform

2009-04-20
2009-01-0172
As global automobile manufacturers prepare for the phase-out of R134a in Europe, they must address the issue of using the new refrigerant for European sales only or launching the product worldwide. Several factors play into this decision, including cost, service, risk, customer satisfaction, capacity, efficiency, etc. This research effort addresses the minimal vehicle-level hardware differences necessary to provide a European solution of R1234yf while continuing to install R134a into vehicles for the rest of the world. It is anticipated that the same compressor, lubricant and condenser; most fluid transport lines; and in most cases the evaporator can be common between the two systems.
Technical Paper

Lean Principles in Supply Chain Management for the Automotive Aftermarket

2009-04-20
2009-01-0263
The automotive aftermarket represents a challenge for supply chain management when compared to traditional practices in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) supply chain. This paper presents a case study for a Tier One automotive supplier’s challenges with inventory carrying costs, backorder risk, and supplier relationships for a rear seat entertainment system in the automotive aftermarket. It will also address the lean principles used to improve the business and increase material planning analyst productivity. A call for OEMs to examine their business practices is also included.
Technical Paper

Test Strategy for Linux based Platforms using Open Source Tools

2016-04-05
2016-01-0053
Today open source software is widely used in different domains like Desktop systems, Consumer electronics (smart phones, TV, washing machines, camera, printers, smart watches), Automotive, Automation etc. With the increased involvement of the open source software in the different domains including the safety critical ones, there has been a requirement of the well-defined test strategy to test and verify such systems. Currently there are multiple open source tools and frameworks to choose from. The paper describes the various open source test strategies and tools available to qualify such systems, their features, maintenance, community support, advantages and disadvantages. Target audience would be the software engineers, program managers, using an open source stack for the product development.
Technical Paper

Key Aspects of Electronics Automotive Components Testing

2013-10-07
2013-36-0569
Electronics components are estimated to be between 9 to 15 % of a total vehicle cost, and this trend will remain strong for the next years. The amount of electronics content in a vehicle has grown steadily since 1970's, and as a result, development challenges such as testing and validation are a key aspect of its overall development costs. Testing costs can amount easily to US$ 500 k in medium complex automotive parts of a vehicle (e.g. instrument cluster) depending on a specific OEM customer demand, and this on top of limited regional laboratory capacity can also lead to increased testing time. The goal of this paper is to outline key aspects of electronics in vehicle components testing, including overall costs and timing, and propose a lean approach to optimize such costs & timing. The key aspects of such optimization include not only resources, but also laboratories and upfront OEM customer planning.
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Prediction of Air Induction Systems Using Filter Seal Modeling and Coupled Acoustic-Structural Simulation Techniques

2007-04-16
2007-01-0253
In this paper, an analytical procedure for prediction of shell radiated noise of air induction systems (AIS) due to engine acoustic excitation, without a prototype and physical measurement, is presented. A set of modeling and simulation techniques are introduced to address the challenges to the analytical radiated noise prediction of AIS products. A filter seal model is developed to simulate the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of air cleaner boxes. A finite element model (FEM) of the AIS assembly is established by incorporating the AIS structure, the proposed filter seal model and its acoustic cavity model. The coupled acoustic-structural FEM of the AIS assembly is then employed to compute the velocity frequency response of the AIS structure with respect to the air-borne acoustic excitations.
Technical Paper

The Difficulties to Implement a Product Development Process

2007-11-28
2007-01-2779
The target of all product development engineering departments is to design products efficiently. To do that the organizations needs a solid development process that drives the product development team to achieve the performance, cost, quality, reliability and manufacturability objectives. If the objective and the way to achieve it are so clear, why is the implementation of a “product development” process not easy? The answer lies in the way the process is implemented. In most organizations is so dramatic and painful because the upper management team is not engaged to promote these changes. The concepts and benefits of these changes are not fully comprehended by the engineers and their support staff.
Technical Paper

Broadband Noise Source Models as Aeroacoustic Tools in Designing Low NVH HVAC Ducts

2006-04-03
2006-01-1192
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an integral part of product development at Visteon Climate Systems with a validated set of CFD tools for airflow and thermal management processes. As we increasingly build CAE capabilities to design not only thermal comfort, but quiet systems, developing noise prediction capabilities becomes a high priority. Two Broadband Noise Source (BNS) models will be presented, namely Proudman's model for quadrupole source and Curle's boundary layer model for dipole source. Both models are derived from Lighthill's acoustic analogy which is based on the Navier-Stokes equations. BNS models provide aeroacoustic tools that are effective in screening air handling systems with higher noise levels and identifying components or surfaces that generate most of the noise, hence providing opportunities for early design changes. In this paper, BNS models were used as aeroacoustic design tools to redesign an automotive HVAC center duct with high levels of NVH.
Technical Paper

Automotive Axle Simulation and Correlation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1255
Up to date, computer aided engineering (CAE) has been used in improvement of design quality and reduction of cost and delivery time. Although it has been widely accepted as a standard product development tool by the engineering community, CAE still faces many challenges in improving simulation process efficiency through process integration and automation, and simulation accuracy by analytical model/physical testing correlation. CAE engineers are constantly improving the accuracy of their analytical models through test correlation to deliver higher confidence for their analysis result. Although laboratory testing has provided an effective way to accelerate product development, analytical simulation of the lab test has been used frequently to further reduce the development cost and time throughout many industries. This paper presents a case study of CAE correlation of a finite element (FE) model of an automotive beam axle assembly in a laboratory test environment.
Technical Paper

Software Validation a Vital Activity for a Mature Product Development Organization

2005-11-22
2005-01-4168
Software is today one of the most important components of electronic products. The capture and validation of the requirements makes a difference if the product will fulfill the customer's expectations or generate enormous frustration. The correct implementation of software validation makes the Product Development Organization more mature and reliable. Software validation is an opportunity for the product development team to identify if the requirements and customer expectations were achieved. It is also used to identify the risks and possible improvements to the product. Software testing is one element of a brooder topic that is often referred to as verification and validation (V&V). Verification refers to the set of activities that ensure that software correctly implements a specific function. Validation refers to a different set of activities that ensure that the software that has been built is traceable to customer requirements.
Technical Paper

Heat Simulation in Lighting

2007-04-16
2007-01-1388
During last 10-15 years we could have seen quite big changes in automotive lighting. The most important changes are: a) plastic materials mostly removed metal and glass material from lighting products raised heat issue of plastics materials b) escalation of competition between lighting suppliers (globalization, merging, …) decrease of time and cost for development of the new product as much as possible
Technical Paper

Design Parameter Tradeoffs for LED Headlamp Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0871
High-power LEDs and LED headlamps have become a serious consideration for the automotive industry. White LEDs have achieved the required performance for initial automotive headlamp applications. However tradeoffs among several attributes such as efficiency, cost, weight and performance profoundly affect LED headlamp development and need to be addressed by vehicle manufacturers, lamp set makers and LED source suppliers in order for LED headlamps to be effective. The solutions to these tradeoffs relates to the behavior of the LED sources, the thermo-mechanical integration of LEDs in a headlamp environment and input from the vehicle manufacturer regarding styling and packaging for an LED headlamp on the respective targeted vehicles.
Technical Paper

High Efficient LED Headlamp Design-Styling versus Light Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0874
First LED headlamps will be released into the market in 2007. Special permissions allow this introduction although the official regulation is still under discussion in ECE. The LED technology for front lighting has entered into a new phase from theoretical, prototype status to real and practical applications. Additionally in Europe the legislation, which is under preparation, defines LED modules with one or more LED chips in a row which should be replaceable. With this boundary conditions headlamp suppliers needs to balance between an attractive and innovative styling, demanded by car manufacturers and the light performance to gurantee good visibility at night. The paper describes the methods how to design an LED headlamp with high efficiency by keeping in mind the parameters: packaging, weight, styling and light perfromance. Results with specific design proposals are shown.
Technical Paper

Electronics Environmental Testing in Perspective - A Fresh Approach

2003-03-03
2003-01-1360
A major part of product development is to validate robustness to the environment (e.g. temperature, vibration, EMC). Although much time and expense is spent doing so, using traditional approaches often leads to “feel good” results since the product “passes”. Such a false sense of security is misleading since such validation methods can have serious deficiencies. Presented is a Design Assurance process (Accelerated Stress Assurance Plan - ASAP) to validate modules that addresses these deficiencies. It places major emphasis on the analysis and development stages. It does not require large sample sizes, and overall test time and facilities is reduced (30-50% possible).. Just as for electronic modules, new and major changes to IC's need a shorter validation process. As an example, a relatively fast procedure for the production and application release of improved molding compounds for IC's is presented.
Technical Paper

CAE Virtual Door Slam Test for Plastic Trim Components

2003-03-03
2003-01-1209
Visteon has developed a CAE procedure to qualify plastic door trim assemblies under the vehicle door slam Key Life Test (KLT) environments. The CAE Virtual Door Slam Test (VDST) procedure simulates the environment of a whole door structural assembly, as a hinged in-vehicle door slam configuration. It predicts the durability life of a plastic door trim sub-assembly, in terms of the number of slam cycles, based on the simulated stresses and plastic material fatigue damage model, at each critical location. The basic theory, FEA methods and techniques employed by the VDST procedure are briefly described in this paper. Door trim project examples are presented to illustrate the practical applications and their results, as well as the correlation with the physical door slam KLTs.
Technical Paper

Occupant Knee Impact Simulations: A Parametric Study

2003-03-03
2003-01-1168
Occupant knee impact simulations are performed in the automotive industry as an integrated design process during the course of instrument panel (IP) development. All major automakers have different categories of dynamic testing methods as part of their design process in validating their designs against the FMVSS 208 requirement. This has given rise to a corresponding number of knee impact simulations performed at various stages of product development. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of various types of these knee impact simulations. Only the knee load requirement portion of the FMVSS208 is considered in this paper.
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