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Technical Paper

Water Condensate Retention and “Wet” Fin Performance in Automotive Evaporators

Water condensate retained inside an automotive evaporator has remained as one of the primary sources of unpleasant “odors”, which in turn can drive up the warranty cost for automotive manufacturers. The “wet” evaporator fin can also underperform due to the presence of condensate blocking the air passage. Moreover, condensate retention can be a potential factor of freezing up evaporators. Thus, an evaporator fin must be designed such that it can shed and drain water condensate as well as provide an excellent heat transfer capability. While the importance of water retention is well known, there seems lacking of a comprehensive way to evaluate the water retention characteristics of a particular product. In this work, attempts were made to answer four questions: (1) What is the mechanism that controls water condensate retention characteristics in an automotive evaporator? (2) Can different water retention evaluation methods reveal the same characteristics?
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine with Different Fuels

This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of the mixing and combustion of ethanol and gasoline in a single-cylinder 3-valve direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The numerical simulations are conducted with the KIVA code with global reaction models. However, an ignition delay model mitigates some of the deficiencies of the global one-step reaction model and is implemented via a two-dimensional look-up table, which was created using available detailed kinetics models. Simulations demonstrate the problems faced by ethanol operated engines and indicate that some of the strategies used for emission control and downsizing of gasoline engines can be employed for enhancing the combustion efficiency of ethanol operated engines.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations & Characterization Test Methods for Activated Carbon Foam Hydrocarbon Traps in Automotive Air Induction Systems

As OEMs race to build their sales fleets to meet ever more stringent California Air Resources Board (CARB) mobile source evaporative emissions requirements, new technologies are emerging to control pollution. Evaporative emissions emanating from sources up-stream in the induction flow and venting through the ducts of the engine air induction system (EIS) need to be controlled in order classify a salable vehicle as a Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) in the state of California. As other states explore adopting California's pollution control standards, demand for emissions control measures in the induction system is expected to increase. This paper documents some of the considerations of designing an adsorbent evaporative emissions device in to a 2007 production passenger car for the North American and Asian markets. This new evaporative emissions device will be permanently installed in the vehicle's air cleaner cover without requiring service for 150K miles (expected vehicle life).
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Maximum Dilution Limit Control using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

This paper presents a combustion stability index derived from an in-cylinder ionization signal to control the engine maximum EGR limit. Different from the existing approaches that use the ionization signal values to gauge how much EGR was added during the combustion, the proposed method concentrates on using the ionization signal duration and its stochastic properties to evaluate the end result of EGR on combustion stability. When the duration index or indexes are higher than pre-determined values, the EGR limit is set. The dynamometer engine test results have shown promise for closed loop EGR control of spark ignition engines.
Technical Paper

Broadband Noise Source Models as Aeroacoustic Tools in Designing Low NVH HVAC Ducts

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an integral part of product development at Visteon Climate Systems with a validated set of CFD tools for airflow and thermal management processes. As we increasingly build CAE capabilities to design not only thermal comfort, but quiet systems, developing noise prediction capabilities becomes a high priority. Two Broadband Noise Source (BNS) models will be presented, namely Proudman's model for quadrupole source and Curle's boundary layer model for dipole source. Both models are derived from Lighthill's acoustic analogy which is based on the Navier-Stokes equations. BNS models provide aeroacoustic tools that are effective in screening air handling systems with higher noise levels and identifying components or surfaces that generate most of the noise, hence providing opportunities for early design changes. In this paper, BNS models were used as aeroacoustic design tools to redesign an automotive HVAC center duct with high levels of NVH.
Technical Paper

Fuel Rail Pressure Relief

A major source of engine-off evaporative hydrocarbon emissions is fuel injector leakage. Methods and devices to relieve fuel rail pressure after key-off, and thus reduce leakage are introduced. Impact on fuel manifold re-pressurization is considered. The basic principles governing this behavior: fuel thermal expansion, fuel vapor pressure, and dissolved gasses in liquid are elaborated. Fuel pressure relief data is shown.
Technical Paper

Electronics Environmental Testing in Perspective - A Fresh Approach

A major part of product development is to validate robustness to the environment (e.g. temperature, vibration, EMC). Although much time and expense is spent doing so, using traditional approaches often leads to “feel good” results since the product “passes”. Such a false sense of security is misleading since such validation methods can have serious deficiencies. Presented is a Design Assurance process (Accelerated Stress Assurance Plan - ASAP) to validate modules that addresses these deficiencies. It places major emphasis on the analysis and development stages. It does not require large sample sizes, and overall test time and facilities is reduced (30-50% possible).. Just as for electronic modules, new and major changes to IC's need a shorter validation process. As an example, a relatively fast procedure for the production and application release of improved molding compounds for IC's is presented.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Modeling and Radiated Noise Prediction for Plastic Air-Intake Manifolds

Reliable prediction of the radiated noise due to the air pressure pulsation inside air-intake manifolds (AIM) is of significant interest in the automotive industry. A practical methodology to model plastic AIMs and a prediction process to compute the radiated noise are presented in this paper. The measured pressure at the engine inlet valve of an AIM is applied as excitation on an acoustic boundary element model of the AIM in order to perform a frequency response analysis. The measured air pressure pulsation is obtained in the crank-angle domain. This pressure is read into MATLAB and transformed into the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform. The normal modes of the structure are computed in ABAQUS and a coupled analysis in SYSNOISE is launched to couple the boundary element model and the finite element model of the structure. The computed surface vibration constitutes the excitation for an acoustic uncoupled boundary element analysis.
Technical Paper

Inaudible Knock and Partial-Burn Detection Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. Maximizing engine power and fuel economy is limited by engine knock for a given air-to-fuel charge. Therefore, the ability to detect engine knock and run the engine at its knock limit is a key for the best power and fuel economy. This paper shows inaudible knock detection ability using in-cylinder ionization signals over the entire engine speed and load map. This is especially important at high engine speed and high EGR rates. The knock detection ability is compared between three sensors: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure and ionization sensors. The test data shows that the ionization signals can be used to detect inaudible engine knock while the conventional knock sensor cannot under some engine operational conditions.
Technical Paper

MBT Timing Detection and its Closed-Loop Control Using In-Cylinder Pressure Signal

MBT timing for an internal combustion engine is also called minimum spark timing for best torque or the spark timing for maximum brake torque. Unless engine spark timing is limited by engine knock or emission requirements at a certain operational condition, there exists an MBT timing that yields the maximum work for a given air-to-fuel mixture. Traditionally, MBT timing for a particular engine is determined by conducting a spark sweep process that requires a substantial amount of time to obtain an MBT calibration. Recently, on-line MBT timing detection schemes have been proposed based upon cylinder pressure or ionization signals using peak cylinder pressure location, 50 percent fuel mass fraction burn location, pressure ratio, and so on. Because these criteria are solely based upon data correlation and observation, both of them may change at different engine operational conditions. Therefore, calibration is still required for each MBT detection scheme.
Technical Paper

CAE Virtual Test of Air Intake Manifolds Using Coupled Vibration and Pressure Pulsation Loads

A coupled vibration and pressure loading procedure has been developed to perform a CAE virtual test for engine air intake manifolds. The CAE virtual test simulates the same physical test configuration and environments, such as the base acceleration vibration excitation and pressure pulsation loads, as well as temperature conditions, for design validation (DV) test of air intake manifolds. The original vibration and pressure load data, measured with respect to the engine speed rpm, are first converted to their respective vibration and pressure power spectrum density (PSD) profiles in frequency domain, based on the duty cycle specification. The final accelerated vibration excitation and pressure PSD load profiles for design validation are derived based on the key life test (KLT) duration and reliability requirements, using the equivalent fatigue damage technique.
Technical Paper

Requirements Setting, Optimization and “Best Fit” Application of AIS Hydrocarbon Adsorption Devices for Engine Evaporative Emissions Breathing Loss Control

To control engine intake evaporative emissions, or “breathing losses”, functions of both Fuel Vapor Storage and Air Induction Systems must be understood. The merging of these diverse systems results in a functional requirements set that is very broad in scope. Several known devices for controlling engine evaporative emissions breathing losses are reviewed and compared. Experimental methods of measuring and estimating hydrocarbon adsorption, approximated by n-butane, are shown, some utilizing scaled laboratory sample units. HC capture efficiency, capacity, flow losses and other performance characteristics of the various devices are then optimally matched to the numerous system needs. Thus, emission control requirements are met, while cost and deleterious effects are minimized, resulting in high level optimal systems.
Technical Paper

IC Engine Retard Ignition Timing Limit Detection and Control using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. However, the usable range of ignition timing is often limited by knock in the advance direction and by combustion instability (partial burn and misfire) in the retard direction. This paper details a retard limit management system utilizing ionization signals in order to maintain the desired combustion quality and prevent the occurrence of misfire without using fixed limits. In-cylinder ionization signals are processed to derive a metric for combustion quality and closeness of combustion to partial burn/misfire limit, which is used to provide a limiting value for the baseline ignition timing in the retard direction. For normal operations, this assures that the combustion variability is kept within an acceptable range.
Technical Paper

Fully Recyclable Olefinic Instrument Panels

Recycled resins can meet performance requirements on products which were initially designed for virgin materials. Olefinic instrument panel (I/P) scrap is being recycled from the Mazda Tribute and the Ford Escape into glove box bins. As a result, a quality part is being supplied to the customer and Visteon's Saline Plant has realized both increased plant operating efficiencies and landfill cost avoidance. The development process is described including: plant regrind sources, part molding and testing.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Strength of Catalytic Converter Ultra Thin Wall Substrates

Application of Ultra Thin Wall (UTW) ceramic substrates in the catalytic converter system requires the canner and component manufacturers to better understand the root cause and physics behind substrate breakage during the canning process. For this purpose, a ceramic substrate strength study for shoebox design has been conducted within Visteon Corporation. Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machined top and bottom fixtures, with identical inner surfaces as shoebox converter upper and lower shells, were used to crush mat wrapped substrates. Thin film pressure sensor technology enables the recording of substrate surface pressure during the compression process. Shell rib, washcoat, canning speed and cell density effects on substrate failure have been experimentally investigated. The development of a mathematical model helps to identify a better indicator to evaluate the substrate strength in the canning process and establish the strength for uncoated & coated substrates.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Pressure Pulsations in a Gasoline Injection System and Development of an Effective Damping Technology

In today's search for a better fuel economy and lower emissions, it is essential to precisely control the injected fuel quantity, as demanded by the engine load, into each of the engine cylinders. In fuel injection systems, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of the injectors can cause uneven injected fuel amounts between cylinders. In order to develop effective techniques to reduce these pressure pulsations, it is crucial to have a good understanding of the dynamic characteristics of such fuel injection systems. This paper presents the benefits of using simulation as a tool to analyze the dynamic behaviors of a V8 gasoline injection system. The fuel system modeling, based on a one-dimensional (1D) lumped parameter approach, has been developed in the AMESim® environment. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental data shows good agreement in fluid transient characteristics for both time and frequency domains.