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Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine with Different Fuels

This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of the mixing and combustion of ethanol and gasoline in a single-cylinder 3-valve direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The numerical simulations are conducted with the KIVA code with global reaction models. However, an ignition delay model mitigates some of the deficiencies of the global one-step reaction model and is implemented via a two-dimensional look-up table, which was created using available detailed kinetics models. Simulations demonstrate the problems faced by ethanol operated engines and indicate that some of the strategies used for emission control and downsizing of gasoline engines can be employed for enhancing the combustion efficiency of ethanol operated engines.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations & Characterization Test Methods for Activated Carbon Foam Hydrocarbon Traps in Automotive Air Induction Systems

As OEMs race to build their sales fleets to meet ever more stringent California Air Resources Board (CARB) mobile source evaporative emissions requirements, new technologies are emerging to control pollution. Evaporative emissions emanating from sources up-stream in the induction flow and venting through the ducts of the engine air induction system (EIS) need to be controlled in order classify a salable vehicle as a Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) in the state of California. As other states explore adopting California's pollution control standards, demand for emissions control measures in the induction system is expected to increase. This paper documents some of the considerations of designing an adsorbent evaporative emissions device in to a 2007 production passenger car for the North American and Asian markets. This new evaporative emissions device will be permanently installed in the vehicle's air cleaner cover without requiring service for 150K miles (expected vehicle life).
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Maximum Dilution Limit Control using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

This paper presents a combustion stability index derived from an in-cylinder ionization signal to control the engine maximum EGR limit. Different from the existing approaches that use the ionization signal values to gauge how much EGR was added during the combustion, the proposed method concentrates on using the ionization signal duration and its stochastic properties to evaluate the end result of EGR on combustion stability. When the duration index or indexes are higher than pre-determined values, the EGR limit is set. The dynamometer engine test results have shown promise for closed loop EGR control of spark ignition engines.
Technical Paper

Inaudible Knock and Partial-Burn Detection Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. Maximizing engine power and fuel economy is limited by engine knock for a given air-to-fuel charge. Therefore, the ability to detect engine knock and run the engine at its knock limit is a key for the best power and fuel economy. This paper shows inaudible knock detection ability using in-cylinder ionization signals over the entire engine speed and load map. This is especially important at high engine speed and high EGR rates. The knock detection ability is compared between three sensors: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure and ionization sensors. The test data shows that the ionization signals can be used to detect inaudible engine knock while the conventional knock sensor cannot under some engine operational conditions.
Technical Paper

Requirements Setting, Optimization and “Best Fit” Application of AIS Hydrocarbon Adsorption Devices for Engine Evaporative Emissions Breathing Loss Control

To control engine intake evaporative emissions, or “breathing losses”, functions of both Fuel Vapor Storage and Air Induction Systems must be understood. The merging of these diverse systems results in a functional requirements set that is very broad in scope. Several known devices for controlling engine evaporative emissions breathing losses are reviewed and compared. Experimental methods of measuring and estimating hydrocarbon adsorption, approximated by n-butane, are shown, some utilizing scaled laboratory sample units. HC capture efficiency, capacity, flow losses and other performance characteristics of the various devices are then optimally matched to the numerous system needs. Thus, emission control requirements are met, while cost and deleterious effects are minimized, resulting in high level optimal systems.