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Video

Codes and Standards – Global Harmonization

2011-11-18
Electric vehicle codes and standards play a key role in deployment of interoperable charging and communication infrastructure. Harmonization of those standards on a global basis, even though they are not identical, they need to be compatible. There are a comprehensive set of EV standards, even standards to ensure that the EV, EVSE, energy measurement and electric utility are compatible (SAE J2953). This presentation is a summary of the state of standards and some of the commercial deployment of equipment that meets these standards. Presenter Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory
Video

Beyond MPG: Characterizing and Conveying the Efficiency of Advanced Plug-In Vehicles 

2011-11-08
Research in plug in vehicles (PHEV and BEV) has of course been ongoing for decades, however now that these vehicles are finally being produced for a mass market an intense focus over the last few years has been given to proper evaluation techniques and standard information to effectively convey efficiency information to potential consumers. The first challenge is the development of suitable test procedures. Thanks to many contributions from SAE members, these test procedures have been developed for PHEVs (SAE J1711 now available) and are under development for BEVs (SAE J1634 available later this year). A bigger challenge, however, is taking the outputs of these test results and dealing with the issue of off-board electrical energy consumption in the context of decades-long consumer understanding of MPG as the chief figure of merit for vehicle efficiency.
Video

Technical Keynote - Introduction to EcoCAR The NeXt Challenge Year Three: Vehicle Refinement and Testing

2012-06-06
This presentation will introduce the overall goals of the EcoCAR competition in brief, and will go into the third and final year of the competition in detail. The final year of competition saw teams refining and testing their student-built advanced technology vehicles including hybrids, plug-in hybrids, hydrogen fuel cell PHEVs and one battery electric. Important events, such as the Spring Workshop chassis dynamometer testing event at the U.S. Environmental Protection agency, as well as significant competition results, such as vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and efficiency will be presented. Presenter Patrick Walsh
Video

Impact of Supervisory Control on Criteria Tailpipe Emissions for an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle

2012-06-05
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech participated in the three-year EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition organized by Argonne National Laboratory, and sponsored by General Motors and the U.S. Department of Energy. The team established goals for the design of a plug-in, range-extended hybrid electric vehicle that meets or exceeds the competition requirements for EcoCAR. The challenge involved designing a crossover SUV powertrain to reduce fuel consumption, petroleum energy use, regulated tailpipe emissions, and well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions. To interface with and control the hybrid powertrain, the team added a Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Controller, which enacts a torque split control strategy. This paper builds on an earlier paper [1] that evaluated the petroleum energy use, criteria tailpipe emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions of the Virginia Tech EcoCAR vehicle and control strategy from the 2nd year of the competition.
Video

Impact of Technology on Electric Drive Fuel Consumption and Cost

2012-05-25
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
Video

Vehicle Duty Cycles and Their Role in the Design and Evaluation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies

2012-04-10
Understanding in-use fleet operating behavior is of paramount importance when evaluating the potential of advanced/alternative vehicle technologies. Accurately characterizing real world vehicle operation assists in properly allocating advanced technologies, playing a role in determining initial payback period and return on investment. In addition, this information contributes to the design and deployment of future technologies as the result of increased awareness regarding tractive power requirements associated with typical operating behavior. In this presentation, the concept of vehicle duty cycles and their relation to advanced technologies will be presented and explored. Additionally, current research attempts to characterize school bus operation will be examined, and existing computational analysis and evaluation tools associated with these efforts discussed. Presenter Adam Duran, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Technical Paper

Model Reference Adaptive Control of a Pneumatic Valve Actuator for Infinitely Variable Valve Timing and Lift

2007-04-16
2007-01-1297
Electro-pneumatic valve actuators are used to eliminate the cam shaft of a traditional internal combustion engine. They are used to control the opening timing, duration, and lift of both intake and exhaust valves. A physics based nonlinear mathematical model called the level one model was built using Newton's law, mass conservation and thermodynamic principles. A control oriented model, the level two model, was created by partially linearizing the level one model for model reference parameter identification. This model reduces computational throughput and enables real-time implementation. A model reference adaptive control system was used to identify the nonlinear parameters that were needed for generating a feedforward control signal. The closed-loop valve lift tracking, valve opening and closing timing control strategies were proposed.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Vehicle Temperatures and Fuel Use from Cabin Ventilation, Solar-Reflective Paint, and a New Solar-Reflective Glazing

2007-04-16
2007-01-1194
A new type of solar-reflective glass that improves reflection of the near-infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum has been developed. Also developed was a prototype solar-reflective paint that increases the NIR reflection of opaque vehicle surfaces while maintaining desired colors in the visible portion of the spectrum. Both of these technologies, as well as solar-powered parked car ventilation, were tested on a Cadillac STS as part of the Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program (I-MAC). Significant reductions in interior and vehicle skin temperatures were measured. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed an analysis to determine the impact of reducing the thermal load on the vehicle. A simplified cabin thermal/fluid model was run to predict the potential reduction in A/C system capacity. The potential reduction in fuel use was calculated using a vehicle simulation tool developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
Technical Paper

Control Method of Dual Motor-Based Steer-by-Wire System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1149
This paper describes a front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuator motors on the rack and pinion assembly to move the road wheels. Dual actuators are used to provide actuator redundancy and to enhance the fault tolerance capability. When one actuator faults or fails, the other actuator is designed to work independently and maintain full system performance. The paper emphasizes control method to implement the motion control for the front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuators on the common load. The proposed dual servo synchronization motion control implements the angle tracking for the road wheel reference input by controlling two actuators synchronously and cooperatively. It includes two servo feedback control loops to track the common reference input. The angular position error between two feedback loops is compensated using a synchronized compensator.
Technical Paper

Morphological Examination of Nano-Particles Derived from Combustion of Cerium Fuel-Borne Catalyst Doped with Diesel Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-1943
This experimental work focuses on defining the detailed morphology of secondary emission products derived from the combustion of cerium (Ce) fuel-borne catalyst (FBC) doped with diesel fuel. Cerium is often used to promote the oxidation of diesel particulates collected in diesel aftertreatment systems, such as diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However, it is suspected that the secondary products could be emitted from the vehicle tailpipe without being effectively filtered by the aftertreatment systems. In this work, these secondary emissions were identified by means of a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), and their properties were examined in terms of morphology and chemistry. In preparation for fuel doping, a cerium-based aliphatic organic compound solution was mixed with a low-sulfur (110 ppm) diesel fuel at 50 ppm in terms of weight concentration.
Technical Paper

Automotive HVAC Flow Noise Prediction Models

2001-04-30
2001-01-1498
Flow noise from automotive HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems is one of the major considerations of occupant comfort. The noise generated at high blower speed is a major contributor to the vehicle interior noise. This paper reviews automotive HVAC air rush noise prediction models for estimating register, buck (air handling subsystem) and vehicle noise levels. The vehicle noise prediction method correlates well with measured noise levels at driver right ear location: with a standard deviation of 1.31 dB where standard deviation is the difference between measured and predicted noise levels for a sample size of 10 vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements through Improved Automatic Transmission Warmup - Stand Alone Oil to Air (OTA) Transmission Cooling Strategy with Thermostatic Cold Flow Bypass Valve

2001-05-14
2001-01-1760
The stand alone oil to air (OTA) transmission cooling strategy with thermostatic cold flow bypass valve has been shown to be an effective means of improving the warmup of an automatic transmission. Improving the system warmup rate of an automatic transmission significantly improves its efficiency by reducing losses resulting from extremely viscous transmission fluid and can allow for calibration changes that improve overall transmission performance. Improved transmission efficiency in turn allows for improved engine efficiency and performance. The improvements obtained from increased transmission and engine efficiency result in an overall increase in vehicle fuel economy. Fuel economy and consumption are important parameters considered by the vehicle manufacturer and the customer. Fuel economy can be considered as important as reliability and durability.
Technical Paper

R134A Suction Line Heat Exchanger in Different Configurations of Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems

2001-05-14
2001-01-1694
A suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) transfers heat from the condenser outlet to the suction gas. In a TXV (thermostatic expansion valve) system, the performance improvement with a 60 to 80 % effective SLHX is expected to be on the order of 8 to 10 % for capacity, and 5 to 7 % for COP for high outdoor air temperatures of 43ºC. In a FOT (fixed orifice tube) system, the performance improvement was calculated to be about 10 to 15 %. The calculated improvements have been verified experimentally within a few percent.
Technical Paper

Design and Transient Simulation of Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems

2001-05-14
2001-01-1692
This paper describes the need for dynamic (transient) simulation of automotive air conditioning systems, the reasons why such simulations are challenging, and the applicability of a general purpose off-the-shelf thermohydraulic analyzer to answer such challenges. An overview of modeling methods for the basic components are presented, along with relevant approximations and their effect on speed and accuracy of the results.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Metal-free Solar Reflective Film on Vehicle Climate Control

2001-05-14
2001-01-1721
The air-conditioning system can significantly impact the fuel economy and tailpipe emissions of automobiles. If the peak soak temperature of the passenger compartment can be reduced, the air-conditioner compressor can potentially be downsized while maintaining human thermal comfort. Solar reflective film is one way to reduce the peak soak temperature by reducing the solar heat gain into the passenger compartment. A 3M non-metallic solar reflective film (SRF) was tested in two minivans and two sport utility vehicles (SUV). The peak soak temperature was reduced resulting in a quicker cooldown. Using these data, a reduction in air-conditioner size was estimated and the fuel economy and tailpipe emissions were predicted.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems Using Transient Air Conditioning Performance Analysis

2001-05-14
2001-01-1734
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a transient air conditioning (A/C) system model using SINDA/FLUINT analysis software. It captures all the relevant physics of transient A/C system performance, including two-phase flow effects in the evaporator and condenser, system mass effects, air side heat transfer on the condenser/evaporator, vehicle speed effects, temperature-dependent properties, and integration with a simplified cabin thermal model. It has demonstrated robust and powerful system design optimization capabilities. Single-variable and multiple variable design optimizations have been performed and are presented. Various system performance parameters can be optimized, including system COP, cabin cool-down time, and system heat load capacity. This work presents this new transient A/C system analysis and optimization tool and shows some high-level system design conclusions reached to date.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

2001-05-14
2001-01-2071
Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.
Technical Paper

The DOE/NREL Environmental Science Program

2001-05-14
2001-01-2069
This paper summarizes the several of the studies in the Environmental Science Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Environmental Science Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources. The Program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. Each project in the Program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Current projects in the Environmental Science Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements; emission inventory development/improvement; ambient impacts, including health effects.
Technical Paper

The DOE/NREL Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program - An Overview

2001-05-14
2001-01-2068
This paper summarizes the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NG-NGV) Program that is led by the U.S. Department Of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of this program is to develop and implement one Class 3-6 compressed natural gas (CNG) prototype vehicle and one Class 7-8 liquefied natural gas (LNG) prototype vehicle in the 2004 to 2007 timeframe. OHVT intends for these vehicles to have 0.5 g/bhp-hr or lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by 2004 and 0.2 g/bhp-hr or lower NOx by 2007. These vehicles will also have particulate matter (PM) emissions of 0.01 g/bhp-hr or lower by 2004. In addition to ambitious emissions goals, these vehicles will target life-cycle economics that are compatible with their conventionally fueled counterparts.
Technical Paper

Oxygenates screening for AdvancedPetroleum-Based Diesel Fuels: Part 2. The Effect of Oxygenate Blending Compounds on Exhaust Emissions

2001-09-24
2001-01-3632
Adding oxygenates to diesel fuel has shown the potential for reducing particulate (PM) emissions in the exhaust. The objective of this study was to select the most promising oxygenate compounds as blending components in diesel fuel for advanced engine testing. A fuel matrix was designed to consider the effect of molecular structure and boiling point on the ability of oxygenates to reduce engine-out exhaust emissions from a modern diesel engine. Nine test fuels including a low-sulfur (∼1 ppm), low-aromatic hydrocracked base fuel and 8 oxygenate-base fuel blends were utilized. All oxygenated fuels were formulated to contain 7% wt. of oxygen. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine for light-duty vehicles was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control System. The base fuel was evaluated in four speed-load modes and oxygenated blends only in one mode. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate.
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