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Video

Codes and Standards – Global Harmonization

2011-11-18
Electric vehicle codes and standards play a key role in deployment of interoperable charging and communication infrastructure. Harmonization of those standards on a global basis, even though they are not identical, they need to be compatible. There are a comprehensive set of EV standards, even standards to ensure that the EV, EVSE, energy measurement and electric utility are compatible (SAE J2953). This presentation is a summary of the state of standards and some of the commercial deployment of equipment that meets these standards. Presenter Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory
Video

Beyond MPG: Characterizing and Conveying the Efficiency of Advanced Plug-In Vehicles 

2011-11-08
Research in plug in vehicles (PHEV and BEV) has of course been ongoing for decades, however now that these vehicles are finally being produced for a mass market an intense focus over the last few years has been given to proper evaluation techniques and standard information to effectively convey efficiency information to potential consumers. The first challenge is the development of suitable test procedures. Thanks to many contributions from SAE members, these test procedures have been developed for PHEVs (SAE J1711 now available) and are under development for BEVs (SAE J1634 available later this year). A bigger challenge, however, is taking the outputs of these test results and dealing with the issue of off-board electrical energy consumption in the context of decades-long consumer understanding of MPG as the chief figure of merit for vehicle efficiency.
Video

Technical Keynote - Introduction to EcoCAR The NeXt Challenge Year Three: Vehicle Refinement and Testing

2012-06-06
This presentation will introduce the overall goals of the EcoCAR competition in brief, and will go into the third and final year of the competition in detail. The final year of competition saw teams refining and testing their student-built advanced technology vehicles including hybrids, plug-in hybrids, hydrogen fuel cell PHEVs and one battery electric. Important events, such as the Spring Workshop chassis dynamometer testing event at the U.S. Environmental Protection agency, as well as significant competition results, such as vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and efficiency will be presented. Presenter Patrick Walsh
Video

Impact of Supervisory Control on Criteria Tailpipe Emissions for an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle

2012-06-05
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech participated in the three-year EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition organized by Argonne National Laboratory, and sponsored by General Motors and the U.S. Department of Energy. The team established goals for the design of a plug-in, range-extended hybrid electric vehicle that meets or exceeds the competition requirements for EcoCAR. The challenge involved designing a crossover SUV powertrain to reduce fuel consumption, petroleum energy use, regulated tailpipe emissions, and well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions. To interface with and control the hybrid powertrain, the team added a Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Controller, which enacts a torque split control strategy. This paper builds on an earlier paper [1] that evaluated the petroleum energy use, criteria tailpipe emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions of the Virginia Tech EcoCAR vehicle and control strategy from the 2nd year of the competition.
Video

Impact of Technology on Electric Drive Fuel Consumption and Cost

2012-05-25
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
Video

GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-05-29
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Video

Vehicle Duty Cycles and Their Role in the Design and Evaluation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies

2012-04-10
Understanding in-use fleet operating behavior is of paramount importance when evaluating the potential of advanced/alternative vehicle technologies. Accurately characterizing real world vehicle operation assists in properly allocating advanced technologies, playing a role in determining initial payback period and return on investment. In addition, this information contributes to the design and deployment of future technologies as the result of increased awareness regarding tractive power requirements associated with typical operating behavior. In this presentation, the concept of vehicle duty cycles and their relation to advanced technologies will be presented and explored. Additionally, current research attempts to characterize school bus operation will be examined, and existing computational analysis and evaluation tools associated with these efforts discussed. Presenter Adam Duran, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Technical Paper

Effect of Weld Geometry and HAZ Softening on Fatigue Performance of DP780 GMAW Lap Joint

2007-04-16
2007-01-0632
With the increasing demand for safety, energy saving and emission reduction, Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have become very attractive materials for automobile makers. Welding of AHSS remains one of the technical challenges in the successful application of AHSS in automobile structures, especially when durability of the welded structures is required. In this study, 2.0 mm uncoated DP780 was investigated. GMAW welding parameters for lap joints of this steel were developed in order to obtain different weld geometries defined by weld toe angle, weld leg sizes, and weld penetration. Metallurgical properties of the joints were evaluated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static and fatigue tests were conducted on the welded joints. Effect of weld geometry and HAZ softening on fatigue performance including fatigue life, crack initiation site and propagation path of the joints will be analyzed.
Technical Paper

Model Reference Adaptive Control of a Pneumatic Valve Actuator for Infinitely Variable Valve Timing and Lift

2007-04-16
2007-01-1297
Electro-pneumatic valve actuators are used to eliminate the cam shaft of a traditional internal combustion engine. They are used to control the opening timing, duration, and lift of both intake and exhaust valves. A physics based nonlinear mathematical model called the level one model was built using Newton's law, mass conservation and thermodynamic principles. A control oriented model, the level two model, was created by partially linearizing the level one model for model reference parameter identification. This model reduces computational throughput and enables real-time implementation. A model reference adaptive control system was used to identify the nonlinear parameters that were needed for generating a feedforward control signal. The closed-loop valve lift tracking, valve opening and closing timing control strategies were proposed.
Technical Paper

Control Method of Dual Motor-Based Steer-by-Wire System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1149
This paper describes a front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuator motors on the rack and pinion assembly to move the road wheels. Dual actuators are used to provide actuator redundancy and to enhance the fault tolerance capability. When one actuator faults or fails, the other actuator is designed to work independently and maintain full system performance. The paper emphasizes control method to implement the motion control for the front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuators on the common load. The proposed dual servo synchronization motion control implements the angle tracking for the road wheel reference input by controlling two actuators synchronously and cooperatively. It includes two servo feedback control loops to track the common reference input. The angular position error between two feedback loops is compensated using a synchronized compensator.
Technical Paper

Electrical Architectures and In-Vehicles Networks

2007-04-16
2007-01-1713
In-vehicle electronics are becoming more and more important; the functionalities are being distributed across several electronic control units (ECUs). These can be divided into body systems as well as new powertrain and chassis control systems. It is foreseen that the value of software per vehicle will increase for a normal vehicle. This situation creates the demand to perform a study to understand the trends and impacts of a massive electrification of the vehicle. This study and survey aims to identify the current status of the Vehicles E/E Architectures and the In-Vehicle Networks of Brazilian B entry vehicles. It is important to have in mind that Brazilian market represents about 70% of the total South America automotive industry. The study was divided into two parts: The first part approaches the topics above in generality. Goal was to identify the current electrical architecture elements affecting the B entry vehicles versus the main attributes for this kind of segment.
Technical Paper

IMPACT Phase II - Study to Remove 25% of the Weight from a Pick-up Truck

2007-04-16
2007-01-1727
This paper describes a joint project between Ford, the American Iron & Steel Institute, the University of Louisville, and the U. S. Army to reduce the weight of a full size pick-up truck by 25%, while keeping incremental costs to a minimum. Several alternate technologies were evaluated for each system, subsystem, and component of the vehicle and based on analysis of all combinations of these technologies, the solution which yielded the best overall cost and weight balance, while meeting all of the functional requirements, was selected. The major focus of the project was to develop new steel architectures and materials, since this would assure the maintenance of the lowest possible cost, though the study was not restricted to steel alone. The project was successful in meeting all of its targets, and a vehicle was built to demonstrate the feasibility of the various concepts.
Technical Paper

Morphological Examination of Nano-Particles Derived from Combustion of Cerium Fuel-Borne Catalyst Doped with Diesel Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-1943
This experimental work focuses on defining the detailed morphology of secondary emission products derived from the combustion of cerium (Ce) fuel-borne catalyst (FBC) doped with diesel fuel. Cerium is often used to promote the oxidation of diesel particulates collected in diesel aftertreatment systems, such as diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However, it is suspected that the secondary products could be emitted from the vehicle tailpipe without being effectively filtered by the aftertreatment systems. In this work, these secondary emissions were identified by means of a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), and their properties were examined in terms of morphology and chemistry. In preparation for fuel doping, a cerium-based aliphatic organic compound solution was mixed with a low-sulfur (110 ppm) diesel fuel at 50 ppm in terms of weight concentration.
Technical Paper

A Topographically Structural Optimization Methodology for Improving Noise Radiation in Transaxles

2007-05-15
2007-01-2287
In this paper, a new technology for the design of silent transaxles is developed, where topography optimization is adopted and an artificial parameter called β is proposed as an objective function, representing an upper bound of the surface velocity. The strategy of the optimization is to minimize β while getting the surface velocities less than β. as the constraints. A numerical example of reducing transaxle's radiated noise by using the new optimization technology is given in the paper. In the example, an entire Ford transaxle system was modeled numerically, where most internal components were included. First a modal frequency velocity analysis was conducted. Then an acoustic power analysis based on the Acoustic Transfer Vector (ATV) was carried out. Finally, a topography optimization based on the β - method for the transaxle was performed to minimize the radiated noise.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Wheel Fight Objective Metric Development

2007-05-15
2007-01-2391
Wheel Fight is the undesirable rotational response of a vehicle's steering wheel due to road input at any or all of the road/wheel tire patches. The type of road input that will cause wheel fight comes in two forms: continuous rough road surfaces such as broken concrete or transient inputs such as pot-holes and tar strips. An objective method to quantify a vehicle's wheel fight sensitivity would be of great value to the vehicle development engineer. To that end, a study was conducted on Ford's Vehicle Vibration Simulator (VVS) to gather subjective responses and use those as a basis for correlation to an objective metric. One road surface known to induce wheel fight consists of using a rubber strip and driving over it while impacting only one side of the vehicle. Under this condition, steering wheel data was acquired on five different light trucks from which paired comparison studies were conducted.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements through Improved Automatic Transmission Warmup - Stand Alone Oil to Air (OTA) Transmission Cooling Strategy with Thermostatic Cold Flow Bypass Valve

2001-05-14
2001-01-1760
The stand alone oil to air (OTA) transmission cooling strategy with thermostatic cold flow bypass valve has been shown to be an effective means of improving the warmup of an automatic transmission. Improving the system warmup rate of an automatic transmission significantly improves its efficiency by reducing losses resulting from extremely viscous transmission fluid and can allow for calibration changes that improve overall transmission performance. Improved transmission efficiency in turn allows for improved engine efficiency and performance. The improvements obtained from increased transmission and engine efficiency result in an overall increase in vehicle fuel economy. Fuel economy and consumption are important parameters considered by the vehicle manufacturer and the customer. Fuel economy can be considered as important as reliability and durability.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management for the HEV Liquid-Cooled Electric Machine

2001-05-14
2001-01-1713
The future of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is very promising for the automotive industry. In order to take a full advantage of this concept, a better thermal performance of the electric motor is required. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was first verified through several prototypes testing and then is going to be used to execute a series of design of experiment via simulation. Based on the thermal studies in this paper, the integrated coolant jacket design has a better performance than that of separated one. The thermal performance of the stator with the 3M coating is better than the one with paper liner. In addition, using 3M coating reduces the packaging size of the stator.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility, Load, and Speed on HC Emissions Due to Piston Wetting

2001-05-07
2001-01-2024
Piston wetting can be isolated from the other sources of HC emissions from DISI engines by operating the engine predominantly on a gaseous fuel and using an injector probe to impact a small amount of liquid fuel on the piston top. This results in a marked increase in HC emissions. In a previous study, we used a variety of pure liquid hydrocarbon fuels to examine the influence of fuel volatility and structure on the HC emissions due to piston wetting. It was shown that the HC emissions correspond to the Leidenfrost effect: fuels with very low boiling points yield high HCs and those with a boiling point near or above the piston temperature produce much lower HCs. All of these prior tests of fuel effects were performed at a single operating condition: the Ford World Wide Mapping Point (WWMP). In the present study, the effects of load and engine speed are examined.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

2001-05-14
2001-01-2071
Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.
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