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Technical Paper

Blind Spot Monitoring by a Single Camera

2009-04-20
2009-01-1291
A practical and low cost Blind Spot Monitoring system is proposed. By using a single camera, the range and azimuth position of a vehicle in a blind spot are measured. The algorithm is based on the proposed RWA (Range Window Algorithm). The camera is installed on the door mirror and monitoring the side and rear of the host vehicle. The algorithm processes the image and identifies range and azimuth angle of the vehicle in the adjacent lane. This algorithm is applied to real situations. The 388 images including several kinds of vehicles are analyzed. The detection rate is 86% and the range accuracy is 1.6[m]. The maximum detection range is about 30[m].
Technical Paper

Human Factors Flight Test Evaluation of an Airport Surface Display with Indications & Alerts (SURF IA)

2010-09-30
2010-01-1663
This paper presents the results of a human factors flight test evaluation of a display of Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA). The study is an element of the FAA-sponsored Surface Conflict Detection and Alerting with Consideration of Arrival Applications program. The objective of the flight test was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two candidate SURF IA displays: a detailed Airport Surface Situation Awareness (ASSA) display and a runways-only Final Approach Runway Occupancy Awareness (FAROA) display. Six pilots with a current Air Transport Pilot Certificate each completed 18 scenarios. A Beechcraft King Air C-90 and a Cessna Citation Sovereign aircraft were deployed for the flight tests. The scenarios were conducted at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and at Snohomish County Paine Field Airport, with each aircraft acting as ‘traffic’ for the other aircraft.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Analysis of Tunable Compression Bushing for Stabilizer Bars

2004-03-08
2004-01-1548
Stabilizer bars in a suspension system are supported with bushings by a frame structure. To prevent the axial movement of the stabilizer bar within the bushing, several new stabilizer bar-bushing systems have been developed. The new systems introduce permanent compressive force between the bar and the bushing thereby preventing the relative movement of the bar within the bushing. This mechanical bond between the bar and the bushing can eliminate features such as grippy flats, collars etc. In addition, by controlling the compression parameters, the properties of the bushing such as bushing rates can be tuned and hence can be used to improve the ride and handling performance of the vehicle. In this paper, nonlinear CAE tools are used to evaluate one such compressively loaded bushing system. Computational difficulties associated with modeling such a system are discussed.
Technical Paper

Environmental Systems Considerations for Aircraft Cabins During Ground Operation

2002-11-05
2002-01-2941
The quality of outside air during ground operations was analyzed by comparing airport and engine exhaust data to exposure limits and odor thresholds. The results indicated that the outside air may contain compounds in high enough concentrations to be odorous. If the odor is to be treated, the important design criteria that must be considered include the phase of compounds, compound type, location of treatment device on the aircraft, pressure drop, operating temperature, and maintenance interval. Finally, a control strategy is outlined that monitors the air quality as well as the efficiency of an air treatment system.
Technical Paper

Development of Modular Electrical, Electronic, and Software System Architectures for Multiple Vehicle Platforms

2003-03-03
2003-01-0139
Rising costs continue to be a problem within the automotive industry. One way to address these rising costs is through modularity. Modular systems provide the ability to achieve product variety through the combination and standardization of components. Modular design approaches used in development of vehicle electrical, electronic, and software (EES) systems allow sharing of architectures/modules between different product lines (vehicles). This modular design approach may provide economies of scale, reduced development time, reduced order lead-time, easier product diagnostics, maintenance and repair. Other benefits of this design approach include development of a variety of EES systems through component swapping and component sharing. In this paper, new optimization algorithms and software tools are presented that allow vehicle EES system design engineers to develop modular architectures/modules that can be shared across vehicle platforms (for OEMs) and across OEMs (for suppliers).
Technical Paper

Bushing Characteristics of Stabilizer Bars

2003-03-03
2003-01-0239
A stabilizer bar in a suspension system is useful for preventing excessive rolls in vehicle maneuvers like cornering. Stabilizer bars are supported with bushings by either a frame or a subframe. To prevent the axial movement of the stabilizer bar within the bushing, features like add on collars, upset rings, grippy flats etc. are used on the stabilizer bar. At Visteon Corporation, several new stabilizer bar - bushing systems are developed where such axial movement is prevented by the use of compressive force. Relative merits of different stabilizer bar - bushing systems are compared in terms of roll stiffness and maximum stress on the bar through the use of finite elements.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Strength of Catalytic Converter Ultra Thin Wall Substrates

2003-03-03
2003-01-0662
Application of Ultra Thin Wall (UTW) ceramic substrates in the catalytic converter system requires the canner and component manufacturers to better understand the root cause and physics behind substrate breakage during the canning process. For this purpose, a ceramic substrate strength study for shoebox design has been conducted within Visteon Corporation. Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machined top and bottom fixtures, with identical inner surfaces as shoebox converter upper and lower shells, were used to crush mat wrapped substrates. Thin film pressure sensor technology enables the recording of substrate surface pressure during the compression process. Shell rib, washcoat, canning speed and cell density effects on substrate failure have been experimentally investigated. The development of a mathematical model helps to identify a better indicator to evaluate the substrate strength in the canning process and establish the strength for uncoated & coated substrates.
Journal Article

Advanced Electric Drives for Aerospace More Electric Architectures

2008-11-11
2008-01-2861
This paper discusses the problem of obtaining electric machines (EM) for advanced electric drives (AED) used in more electric architecture (MEA) applicable to aircraft, spacecraft, and military ground vehicles. The AED are analyzed by those aspects of Six Sigma theory that relate to critical-to-quality (CTQ) subjects. Using this approach, weight, volume, reliability, efficiency, and cost CTQ are addressed to develop a balance among them, resulting in an optimized system. The influence of machine controllers and system considerations is discussed. As a part of the machine evaluation process, speeds, bearings, complexities, rotor mechanical and thermal limitations, torque pulsations, currents, and power densities are considered. A methodology for electric machine selection is demonstrated. An example of high-speed, high-performance machine application is shown. A system approach is used for overall electric machine selection and optimization.
Technical Paper

Compressor Body Temperature and Lubrication

2013-04-08
2013-01-1501
The paper addresses compressor body temperature (crankcase) importance to the vehicle AC system long-term durability. Majority of OEM vehicle test evaluation is to see if AC system can pass compressor discharge temperature and discharge pressure targets. Most OEMs adopt 130°C max compressor discharge temperature and 2350 kpag head pressure as the target. From the field, although some of the compressor failure results from a high compression ratio, and compressor discharge temperature that are caused by the poor front end airflow, etc., high percentage compressor failed systems exhibit not too high compression ratio and compressor discharge temperature, but having the trace of high temperature in the shaft area, gasket area, etc. With introducing more and more variable swash plate compressor applications, OEMs start to see more and more compressor failures that are not related to a high compressor discharge temperature but the trace of high compressor body temperature.
Technical Paper

Target Tracking by a Single Camera Based on Range-Window Algorithm and Pattern Matching

2006-04-03
2006-01-0140
An algorithm, which determines the range of a preceding vehicle by a single image, had been proposed. It uses a “Range-Window Algorithm”. Here in order to realize higher robustness and stability, the pattern matching is incorporated into the algorithm. A single camera system using this algorithm has an advantage over the high cost of stereo cameras, millimeter wave radar and non-robust mechanical scanning in some laser radars. And it also provides lateral position of the vehicle. The algorithm uses several portions of a captured image, namely windows. Each window is corresponding to a predetermined range and has the fixed physical width and height. In each window, the size and position of objects in the image are estimated through the ratio between the widths of the objects and the window, and a score is given to each object. The object having the highest score is determined as the best object. The range of the window corresponding to the best object becomes an estimated range.
Technical Paper

Design Parameter Tradeoffs for LED Headlamp Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0871
High-power LEDs and LED headlamps have become a serious consideration for the automotive industry. White LEDs have achieved the required performance for initial automotive headlamp applications. However tradeoffs among several attributes such as efficiency, cost, weight and performance profoundly affect LED headlamp development and need to be addressed by vehicle manufacturers, lamp set makers and LED source suppliers in order for LED headlamps to be effective. The solutions to these tradeoffs relates to the behavior of the LED sources, the thermo-mechanical integration of LEDs in a headlamp environment and input from the vehicle manufacturer regarding styling and packaging for an LED headlamp on the respective targeted vehicles.
Technical Paper

High Efficient LED Headlamp Design-Styling versus Light Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0874
First LED headlamps will be released into the market in 2007. Special permissions allow this introduction although the official regulation is still under discussion in ECE. The LED technology for front lighting has entered into a new phase from theoretical, prototype status to real and practical applications. Additionally in Europe the legislation, which is under preparation, defines LED modules with one or more LED chips in a row which should be replaceable. With this boundary conditions headlamp suppliers needs to balance between an attractive and innovative styling, demanded by car manufacturers and the light performance to gurantee good visibility at night. The paper describes the methods how to design an LED headlamp with high efficiency by keeping in mind the parameters: packaging, weight, styling and light perfromance. Results with specific design proposals are shown.
Technical Paper

Construction and Application of Near Field (TIR Type) Lenses for Automotive Lighting Functions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1040
Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are fast becoming the preferred light sources for automotive lighting applications. They emit light at cone angles equal (hemispherical) or less (conical) than 2Π radians. One way for efficiently collecting and collimating light from LED light sources is to use Near Field Lenses (NFLs). NFLs are collimators using refraction and total internal reflection (TIR) to efficiently collect and direct light. They tend to have thick sections and therefore require challenging molding techniques, and they may have the LED source optically coupled directly into them. Beside these functional aspects, NFLs offer unique styling for different lighting functions such as those in rear combination lamps (RCLs), front turn signal lamps, daytime running lamps (DRLs) and headlamps.
Technical Paper

Production Solutions for Utilization of Both R1234yf and R134a in a Single Global Platform

2009-04-20
2009-01-0172
As global automobile manufacturers prepare for the phase-out of R134a in Europe, they must address the issue of using the new refrigerant for European sales only or launching the product worldwide. Several factors play into this decision, including cost, service, risk, customer satisfaction, capacity, efficiency, etc. This research effort addresses the minimal vehicle-level hardware differences necessary to provide a European solution of R1234yf while continuing to install R134a into vehicles for the rest of the world. It is anticipated that the same compressor, lubricant and condenser; most fluid transport lines; and in most cases the evaporator can be common between the two systems.
Technical Paper

Lean Principles in Supply Chain Management for the Automotive Aftermarket

2009-04-20
2009-01-0263
The automotive aftermarket represents a challenge for supply chain management when compared to traditional practices in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) supply chain. This paper presents a case study for a Tier One automotive supplier’s challenges with inventory carrying costs, backorder risk, and supplier relationships for a rear seat entertainment system in the automotive aftermarket. It will also address the lean principles used to improve the business and increase material planning analyst productivity. A call for OEMs to examine their business practices is also included.
Technical Paper

Heat Simulation in Lighting

2007-04-16
2007-01-1388
During last 10-15 years we could have seen quite big changes in automotive lighting. The most important changes are: a) plastic materials mostly removed metal and glass material from lighting products raised heat issue of plastics materials b) escalation of competition between lighting suppliers (globalization, merging, …) decrease of time and cost for development of the new product as much as possible
Technical Paper

A Discussion on Interior Compartment Doors and Latches

2004-03-08
2004-01-1483
Interior compartment doors are required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201, to stay closed during physical head impact testing, and when subjected to specific inertia loads. This paper defines interior compartment doors, and shows examples of several different latches designed to keep these doors closed. It also explores the details of the requirements that interior compartment doors and their latches must meet, including differing requirements from automobile manufacturers. It then shows the conventional static method a supplier uses to analyze a latch and door system. And, since static calculations can't always capture the complexities of a dynamic event, this paper also presents a case study of one particular latch and door system showing a way to simulate the forces experienced by a latch. The dynamic simulation is done using Finite Element Analysis and instrumentation of actual hardware in physical tests.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Effects of Body Attachment Stiffness on Steering Column In-Vehicle Modes

2001-03-05
2001-01-0041
This paper presents an unambiguous and intuitive method for identification of steering column resonant (SCR) mode of vibration. One simple but overlooked technique to determine the SCR mode in-vehicle is to provide local stiffnesses of the body locations where the Instrument Panel (IP) attaches, to the IP suppliers to be used in their design and development. This paper describes how this technique is useful in predicting the first few important in-vehicle steering column modes for different classes of vehicles, with examples presented in each class. The results obtained from such analyses are compared against those from direct in-buck simulations. This technique is not limited to its application in developing IP systems, but can easily be extended to include other systems such as seats, fuel tanks, etc. Also it is shown that a design optimization analysis may be performed using these attachment stiffnesses as design variables resulting in a system level solution.
Technical Paper

Water Condensate Retention and “Wet” Fin Performance in Automotive Evaporators

2001-03-05
2001-01-1252
Water condensate retained inside an automotive evaporator has remained as one of the primary sources of unpleasant “odors”, which in turn can drive up the warranty cost for automotive manufacturers. The “wet” evaporator fin can also underperform due to the presence of condensate blocking the air passage. Moreover, condensate retention can be a potential factor of freezing up evaporators. Thus, an evaporator fin must be designed such that it can shed and drain water condensate as well as provide an excellent heat transfer capability. While the importance of water retention is well known, there seems lacking of a comprehensive way to evaluate the water retention characteristics of a particular product. In this work, attempts were made to answer four questions: (1) What is the mechanism that controls water condensate retention characteristics in an automotive evaporator? (2) Can different water retention evaluation methods reveal the same characteristics?
Technical Paper

Honeywell's Automotive Door Latch Design is Ideal for Corporate Latch Strategy

2003-03-03
2003-01-1190
In response to consumer demand, automakers are adding more safety, security, and convenience features to vehicle access control systems. Also, in a continuing effort to be more profitable, automakers are reducing costs by outsourcing the design of systems/sub-systems/components, reducing their supply base, and minimizing part numbers by sharing components across several platforms. In an attempt to improve efficiency and productivity, many OEM's have adopted a “corporate latch” strategy, implementing the same latch across several manufacturing platforms and marketing divisions. Honeywell's revolutionary door latch design efficiently and cost effectively addresses vehicle OEMs' current and future requirements for performance and functionality.
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