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Technical Paper

Analysis of Coatings Appearance and Durability Testing Induced Surface Defects Using Image Capture/Processing/Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-3798
This paper describes the applicability of optical imaging techniques to the analysis of the scratch resistance of automotive interior plastic materials. The evaluation of so-called “finger testing” has traditionally relied upon human vision for detection of the initial scratch position. Commonly performed under uniform and defined illumination conditions, the relative contrast difference signified by whitening on a surface as determined by unaided human vision is a highly variable subjective perception; thus individual inspectors may determine the “whitening” point differently. This paper compares test data obtained from both visual and instrumental evaluation methods and discusses the advantages of optical imaging techniques for surface defect analysis.
Technical Paper

An Electric Power Generation System for Launch Vehicles

2006-11-07
2006-01-3061
Launch vehicles that use electric actuators for thrust vector or flight control require a safe, reliable and lightweight source of electrical power. Honeywell, working with NASA Glenn Research Center and Lockheed Martin Space Systems, has developed and successfully tested a turbine-driven electric power generation system which meets these needs. This Turbine Power Unit (TPU) uses hydrogen and oxygen propellants which react catalytically to drive a shaft-speed turboalternator mounted on foil bearings. A high-reactance permanent-magnet machine (HRPMM) was selected for this application. The power conditioning and control electronics can be located within the TPU housing and the hydrogen fuel can be used to pressurize the bearings and electronics and to regeneratively cool the machine. A brassboard unit incorporating many of these features was successfully tested at output power levels from 0 to 138 kilowatts (kW).
Technical Paper

Power Distribution for Spacecraft Payloads that Employ State of the Art Radiation Hardened Integrated Circuits

2006-11-07
2006-01-3058
Recent advances in the state of the art of space-borne data processors and signal processors have occurred that present some unprecedented constraints relating to their power needs. Such processors include the class of multiprocessors providing computational capabilities in the billions of floating point operations per second. Processors of this type tend to require use of modern radiation tolerant or radiation hardened integrated circuits requiring very low voltage power supplies that place considerable challenge on power distribution and conversion within those processing payloads. The primary challenges are efficient conversion of power from the spacecraft power bus to these low voltages and distribution of the very high accompanying currents within the payload while maintaining proper voltage regulation (typically +/− 5%). Some integrated circuits require 10 Amps or more at 1Volt, as an example [3], [6].
Technical Paper

A Reusable Control System Architecture for Hybrid Powertrains

2002-10-21
2002-01-2808
System integration is the path to successful entry of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology into the marketplace. A modular solution capable of meeting varying customer requirements is needed. The controller must possess a flexible hierarchical architecture that insures cross-platform compatibility and provides adaptability for various engine, motor, transmission, and battery configurations. A hybrid powertrain supervisory controller (PSC) has been designed for an advanced parallel-type HEV prototype, which uses a continuously variable transmission (CVT). The controller schedules torque commands for the engine and motor and chooses the transmission ratio to meet driver demanded acceleration. The controller is organized around a state machine, which determines how best to employ powertrain components to satisfy the driver while maximizing fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Creating a Positive and Successful Experience for Black-Belt Candidates

2002-03-04
2002-01-0897
For a first-time Black-Belt, many factors will determine the difference between success and failure, satisfaction and frustration. While some factors are affected by company policy, many are still within the control of the Black-Belt. Black-Belts can improve their chance for success by recognizing the opportunities and pitfalls going into the process, setting achievable goals, carefully scoping projects, and being prepared to work around obstacles.
Technical Paper

Design of Experiments Application (DOE) to Prevent Mechanical Noise in Power Rack & Pinion Steering Systems

2004-11-16
2004-01-3377
Nowadays, ever market vehicle change affects body, suspension & steering gear systems. The purpose of this report is to quantify the methodology for evaluating and improving rattle mechanical noises in power rack & pinion steering systems. It is very important the correct process be used to adjust and approve the power steering gears in order to prevent the knock noise issue on services (warranty). This report describes how Visteon's Engineering makes efforts to achieve a reduction in warranty issues due to mechanical noise in the power steering gear, which affects its performance. We refer to this mechanical noise as “Knocking Noise” which derives from the gearing (meshing) adjustment loss. This experiment, supported by the Six Sigma methodology, led to new knowledge on how to improve the method of meshing adjust and test approval in process through of Design of Experiments (DOE).
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Analysis of Tunable Compression Bushing for Stabilizer Bars

2004-03-08
2004-01-1548
Stabilizer bars in a suspension system are supported with bushings by a frame structure. To prevent the axial movement of the stabilizer bar within the bushing, several new stabilizer bar-bushing systems have been developed. The new systems introduce permanent compressive force between the bar and the bushing thereby preventing the relative movement of the bar within the bushing. This mechanical bond between the bar and the bushing can eliminate features such as grippy flats, collars etc. In addition, by controlling the compression parameters, the properties of the bushing such as bushing rates can be tuned and hence can be used to improve the ride and handling performance of the vehicle. In this paper, nonlinear CAE tools are used to evaluate one such compressively loaded bushing system. Computational difficulties associated with modeling such a system are discussed.
Technical Paper

Ersatz Wastewater Formulations for Testing Water Recovery Systems

2004-07-19
2004-01-2448
This paper addresses the derivation of chemical ersatz recipes for use in the evaluation of development hardware designed for advanced spacecraft water recovery systems. The recipes simulate characteristics of wastewater generated on a transit mission and on an early planetary base (EPB). In addition, recipes are provided which simulate the water quality of the early planetary base wastewater as it moves through a combination biological and physical-chemical water recovery system. These ersatz are considered to be accurate representations of the wastewater as it passes through primary, secondary, and tertiary processing stages. The EPB ersatz formulas are based on chemical analyses of an integrated water recovery system performance test that was conducted over a period of one year. The major inorganic and organic chemical impurities in the raw wastewater, and in the effluent from the various subsystems, were identified and quantified.
Technical Paper

Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant - Phase II

2004-07-19
2004-01-2472
The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously.
Technical Paper

A Selected Operational History of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) for International Space Station (ISS)

2004-07-19
2004-01-2470
The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) has been developed jointly by Boeing Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama and Honeywell Engines & Systems, Torrance, California to meet the internal thermal control needs for the International Space Station (ISS). The ITCS provides heat removal for the critical life support systems and thermal conditioning for numerous experiment racks. The ITCS will be fitted on a number of modules on the ISS. The first US Element containing the ITCS, Node 1, was launched in December 1998. Since Node 1 does not contain a pump to circulate the fluid it was not filled with ITCS fluid until after the US Laboratory Module was installed. The second US Element module, US Laboratory Module, which contains the pumps and all the major ITCS control hardware, was launched in February 2001. The third US Element containing the ITCS, the US Airlock, was launched in July 2001.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (ISS CDRA) Troubleshooting and Evaluation

2004-07-19
2004-01-2548
An important aspect of air revitalization for life support in spacecraft is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air. Several types of carbon dioxide removal systems are in use in spacecraft life support. These systems rely on various removal techniques that employ different architectures and media for scrubbing CO2, such as permeable membranes, liquid amine, adsorbents, and absorbents. Sorbent systems have been used since the first manned missions. The current state of key technology is the existing International Space Station (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), a system that selectively removes carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere. The CDRA system was launched aboard UF-2 in February 2001 and resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory module. During the past three years, the CDRA system has operated with varying degrees of success.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Flight Test Evaluation of an Airport Surface Display with Indications & Alerts (SURF IA)

2010-09-30
2010-01-1663
This paper presents the results of a human factors flight test evaluation of a display of Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA). The study is an element of the FAA-sponsored Surface Conflict Detection and Alerting with Consideration of Arrival Applications program. The objective of the flight test was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two candidate SURF IA displays: a detailed Airport Surface Situation Awareness (ASSA) display and a runways-only Final Approach Runway Occupancy Awareness (FAROA) display. Six pilots with a current Air Transport Pilot Certificate each completed 18 scenarios. A Beechcraft King Air C-90 and a Cessna Citation Sovereign aircraft were deployed for the flight tests. The scenarios were conducted at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and at Snohomish County Paine Field Airport, with each aircraft acting as ‘traffic’ for the other aircraft.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection for a Large Displacement Air-Cooled V-Twin Motorcycle Engine Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signals

2008-09-09
2008-32-0028
To obtain the maximum output power and fuel economy from an internal combustion engine, it is often necessary to detect engine knock and operate the engine at its knock limit. This paper presents the ability to detect knock using in-cylinder ionization signals on a large displacement, air-cooled, “V” twin motorcycle engine over the engine operational map. The knock detection ability of three different sensors is compared: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure sensor, and ionization sensor. The test data shows that the ionization sensor is able to detect knock better than the production knock sensor when there is high mechanical noise present in the engine.
Technical Paper

Blind Spot Monitoring by a Single Camera

2009-04-20
2009-01-1291
A practical and low cost Blind Spot Monitoring system is proposed. By using a single camera, the range and azimuth position of a vehicle in a blind spot are measured. The algorithm is based on the proposed RWA (Range Window Algorithm). The camera is installed on the door mirror and monitoring the side and rear of the host vehicle. The algorithm processes the image and identifies range and azimuth angle of the vehicle in the adjacent lane. This algorithm is applied to real situations. The 388 images including several kinds of vehicles are analyzed. The detection rate is 86% and the range accuracy is 1.6[m]. The maximum detection range is about 30[m].
Technical Paper

Thermal Analysis of an Electric Machine for a Hybrid Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-0565
A twenty-five kilowatt (peak power for one minute), permanent magnet electric machine for a hybrid electric vehicle application was designed and tested. The electric machine is located in the clutch housing of an automatically shifted manual transmission and is subjected to 120 °C continuous ambient temperatures. The package constraints and duty cycle requirements resulted in an extremely challenging thermal design for an electric machine. The losses in the machine were predicted using models based on first principles and the heat transfer in the machine was modeled using computational fluid dynamics. The simulations were compared to test results over a variety of operating conditions and the results were used to validate the models. Parametric studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of potting materials and cooling topologies.
Technical Paper

Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant Loops

2003-07-07
2003-01-2568
The International Space Station (ISS) IATCS (Internal Active Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that use an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide was used initially as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms in the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing has demonstrated that the silver salt is rapidly depleted and not effective as a long-term biocide. Efforts are now underway to select an alternate biocide for the IATCS coolant loop with greatly improved performance. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to select several candidates for test trials.
Technical Paper

Breadboard Development of the Advanced Inflatable Airlock System for EVA

2003-07-07
2003-01-2449
The advanced inflatable airlock (AIA) system was developed for the Space Launch Initiative (SLI). The objective of the AIA system is to greatly reduce the cost associated with performing extravehicular activity (EVA) from manned launch vehicles by reducing launch weight and volume from previous hard airlock systems such as the Space Shuttle and Space Station airlocks. The AIA system builds upon previous technology from the TransHab inflatable structures project, from Space Shuttle and Space Station Airlock systems, and from terrestrial flexible structures projects. The AIA system design is required to be versatile and capable of modification to fit any platform or vehicle needing EVA capability. During the basic phase of the program, the AIA conceptual design and key features were developed to help meet the SLI program goals of reduced cost and program risk.
Technical Paper

Environmental Systems Considerations for Aircraft Cabins During Ground Operation

2002-11-05
2002-01-2941
The quality of outside air during ground operations was analyzed by comparing airport and engine exhaust data to exposure limits and odor thresholds. The results indicated that the outside air may contain compounds in high enough concentrations to be odorous. If the odor is to be treated, the important design criteria that must be considered include the phase of compounds, compound type, location of treatment device on the aircraft, pressure drop, operating temperature, and maintenance interval. Finally, a control strategy is outlined that monitors the air quality as well as the efficiency of an air treatment system.
Technical Paper

Localized Nonlinear Model of Plastic Air Induction Systems for Virtual Design Validation Tests

2005-04-11
2005-01-1516
Plastic air induction system (AIS) has been widely used in vehicle powertrain applications for reduced weight, cost, and improved engine performance. Physical design validation (DV) tests of an AIS, as to meet durability and reliability requirements, are usually conducted by employing the frequency domain vibration tests, either sine sweep or random vibration excitations, with a temperature cycling range typically from -40°C to 120°C. It is well known that under high vibration loading and large temperature range, the plastic components of the AIS demonstrate much higher nonlinear response behaviors as compared with metal products. In order to implement a virtual test for plastic AIS products, a practical procedure to model a nonlinear system and to simulate the frequency response of the system, is crucial. The challenge is to model the plastic AIS assembly as a function of loads and temperatures, and to evaluate the dynamic response and fatigue life in frequency domain as well.
Technical Paper

Instrument Clusters for Electric Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-3959
Environmental concerns and changes in regulations around the world are turning mass-production electric vehicles (EVs) a reality. While the average driver is very familiar with the instruments available for the current internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), the same does not hold for EVs. They require unique gages and tell-tales (also known as warning lights), tailored to their architecture, operating modes and intended use. This paper makes a comparison of the instruments used in ICEVs and EVs, suggesting a minimum set and standardization of the associated symbols.
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