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Technical Paper

Analysis of Coatings Appearance and Durability Testing Induced Surface Defects Using Image Capture/Processing/Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-3798
This paper describes the applicability of optical imaging techniques to the analysis of the scratch resistance of automotive interior plastic materials. The evaluation of so-called “finger testing” has traditionally relied upon human vision for detection of the initial scratch position. Commonly performed under uniform and defined illumination conditions, the relative contrast difference signified by whitening on a surface as determined by unaided human vision is a highly variable subjective perception; thus individual inspectors may determine the “whitening” point differently. This paper compares test data obtained from both visual and instrumental evaluation methods and discusses the advantages of optical imaging techniques for surface defect analysis.
Technical Paper

Creating a Positive and Successful Experience for Black-Belt Candidates

2002-03-04
2002-01-0897
For a first-time Black-Belt, many factors will determine the difference between success and failure, satisfaction and frustration. While some factors are affected by company policy, many are still within the control of the Black-Belt. Black-Belts can improve their chance for success by recognizing the opportunities and pitfalls going into the process, setting achievable goals, carefully scoping projects, and being prepared to work around obstacles.
Technical Paper

A Virtual Testing Methodology for Automotive Concept Product Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-1176
The process for accurately estimating product reliability early in the development process can be a difficult and costly task. Traditional methods like Reliability Prediction Models and Life Testing Strategies yield beneficial results when relative information is known about the product that is to be analyzed. When there is minimal information known (prior failure rates…) such a new concept design these above reliability methods have limitations. For these cases a Virtual Testing Strategies have proven to yield valuable results. This paper will demonstrate a reliability analysis procedure for a new automotive concept design. This analysis procedure composes of a mathematical model, model validation, parameter diagram, design of experiment (DOE), response surface, and optimization.
Technical Paper

An Integrated System Life Cycle-Based Risk Management Methodology

2002-03-04
2002-01-0145
A new risk management method, the System Integrated Life Cycle Risk Management Methodology (SILC RMM), is based on systems engineering principles and is compatible with current standards. The SILC method, created by automotive engineers, addresses shortcomings with FMEA and other risk management (RM) methods, and integrates the FMEA and risk management functions into day-to-day engineering project activities. The SILC approach accommodates technology, cost, schedule, environmental and safety risks throughout the systems engineering project life cycle - from conception to recycle. It allows direct integration of RM information with system and project information for more efficient and effective utilization of resources and optimal overall risk management.
Technical Paper

Software Validation a Vital Activity for a Mature Product Development Organization

2005-11-22
2005-01-4168
Software is today one of the most important components of electronic products. The capture and validation of the requirements makes a difference if the product will fulfill the customer's expectations or generate enormous frustration. The correct implementation of software validation makes the Product Development Organization more mature and reliable. Software validation is an opportunity for the product development team to identify if the requirements and customer expectations were achieved. It is also used to identify the risks and possible improvements to the product. Software testing is one element of a brooder topic that is often referred to as verification and validation (V&V). Verification refers to the set of activities that ensure that software correctly implements a specific function. Validation refers to a different set of activities that ensure that the software that has been built is traceable to customer requirements.
Technical Paper

On the Use of BEA with Engine Simulation as an Input to Predict Air Induction Inlet Noise

2005-05-16
2005-01-2350
Engine air induction noise can play a significant role in the reduction of vehicle interior noise levels and tuning interior sound quality. Given the need to reduce prototyping and testing costs, it is important to gain an understanding of the level and frequency structure of the noise radiating from the open inlet of the air induction system. Engine simulation used independently can predict inlet noise; however, its utility is limited to systems that are largely one-dimensional. Systems that exhibit a three-dimensional nature, such as the wave dynamics in an engine air cleaner, require a more intensive approach. Boundary Element Analysis (BEA) has been demonstrated to be a tool that can be used to predict the frequency response of ducted systems and is particularly useful in highly three-dimensional systems.
Technical Paper

Design of Experiments Application (DOE) to Prevent Mechanical Noise in Power Rack & Pinion Steering Systems

2004-11-16
2004-01-3377
Nowadays, ever market vehicle change affects body, suspension & steering gear systems. The purpose of this report is to quantify the methodology for evaluating and improving rattle mechanical noises in power rack & pinion steering systems. It is very important the correct process be used to adjust and approve the power steering gears in order to prevent the knock noise issue on services (warranty). This report describes how Visteon's Engineering makes efforts to achieve a reduction in warranty issues due to mechanical noise in the power steering gear, which affects its performance. We refer to this mechanical noise as “Knocking Noise” which derives from the gearing (meshing) adjustment loss. This experiment, supported by the Six Sigma methodology, led to new knowledge on how to improve the method of meshing adjust and test approval in process through of Design of Experiments (DOE).
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Analysis of Tunable Compression Bushing for Stabilizer Bars

2004-03-08
2004-01-1548
Stabilizer bars in a suspension system are supported with bushings by a frame structure. To prevent the axial movement of the stabilizer bar within the bushing, several new stabilizer bar-bushing systems have been developed. The new systems introduce permanent compressive force between the bar and the bushing thereby preventing the relative movement of the bar within the bushing. This mechanical bond between the bar and the bushing can eliminate features such as grippy flats, collars etc. In addition, by controlling the compression parameters, the properties of the bushing such as bushing rates can be tuned and hence can be used to improve the ride and handling performance of the vehicle. In this paper, nonlinear CAE tools are used to evaluate one such compressively loaded bushing system. Computational difficulties associated with modeling such a system are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Difficulties to Implement a Product Development Process

2007-11-28
2007-01-2779
The target of all product development engineering departments is to design products efficiently. To do that the organizations needs a solid development process that drives the product development team to achieve the performance, cost, quality, reliability and manufacturability objectives. If the objective and the way to achieve it are so clear, why is the implementation of a “product development” process not easy? The answer lies in the way the process is implemented. In most organizations is so dramatic and painful because the upper management team is not engaged to promote these changes. The concepts and benefits of these changes are not fully comprehended by the engineers and their support staff.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Flight Test Evaluation of an Airport Surface Display with Indications & Alerts (SURF IA)

2010-09-30
2010-01-1663
This paper presents the results of a human factors flight test evaluation of a display of Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA). The study is an element of the FAA-sponsored Surface Conflict Detection and Alerting with Consideration of Arrival Applications program. The objective of the flight test was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two candidate SURF IA displays: a detailed Airport Surface Situation Awareness (ASSA) display and a runways-only Final Approach Runway Occupancy Awareness (FAROA) display. Six pilots with a current Air Transport Pilot Certificate each completed 18 scenarios. A Beechcraft King Air C-90 and a Cessna Citation Sovereign aircraft were deployed for the flight tests. The scenarios were conducted at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and at Snohomish County Paine Field Airport, with each aircraft acting as ‘traffic’ for the other aircraft.
Technical Paper

Blind Spot Monitoring by a Single Camera

2009-04-20
2009-01-1291
A practical and low cost Blind Spot Monitoring system is proposed. By using a single camera, the range and azimuth position of a vehicle in a blind spot are measured. The algorithm is based on the proposed RWA (Range Window Algorithm). The camera is installed on the door mirror and monitoring the side and rear of the host vehicle. The algorithm processes the image and identifies range and azimuth angle of the vehicle in the adjacent lane. This algorithm is applied to real situations. The 388 images including several kinds of vehicles are analyzed. The detection rate is 86% and the range accuracy is 1.6[m]. The maximum detection range is about 30[m].
Technical Paper

Design Review a Tool for Product Development Quality Assurance

2003-11-18
2003-01-3670
Same of the more enticing and productive opportunities to a useful work in product assurance are those of influencing the design of a product. The primary concern of design assurance is preventing or correcting those design errors that lead to poor product integrity. One of the tools used by the development teams in many organizations is the Design Review. The impact in cost and quality is directly affected by the correct utilization of the tool.
Technical Paper

Control Software Interface for Managing System Requirements

2004-03-08
2004-01-0363
Not all software tools are created equal and not all software tools are created to perform the same tasks. Therefore, different software tools are used to perform different tasks. However, being able to share the information between the different software tools, without having to manually re-enter (duplicate) any of the information, can save a lot of time and improve the quality of the product. The control software interface presented in this paper, allows system engineers to exchange data between software tools in an efficient manner which maximizes each tools capabilities and ultimately reduces development time and improves the quality of the product.
Technical Paper

Virtual Key Life Tests of Instrument Panels for Product Development

2004-03-08
2004-01-1482
Visteon has developed a CAE procedure to qualify instrument panel (IP) products under the vehicle key life test environments, by employing a set of CAE simulation and durability techniques. The virtual key life test method simulates the same structural configuration and the proving ground road loads as in the physical test. A representative dynamic road load profile model is constructed based on the vehicle proving ground field data. The dynamic stress simulation is realized by employing the finite element transient analysis. The durability evaluation is based on the dynamic stress results and the material fatigue properties of each component. The procedure has helped the IP engineering team to identify and correct potential durability problems at earlier design stage without a prototype. It has shown that the CAE virtual key life test procedure provides a way to speed up IP product development, to minimize prototypes and costs.
Technical Paper

Environmental Systems Considerations for Aircraft Cabins During Ground Operation

2002-11-05
2002-01-2941
The quality of outside air during ground operations was analyzed by comparing airport and engine exhaust data to exposure limits and odor thresholds. The results indicated that the outside air may contain compounds in high enough concentrations to be odorous. If the odor is to be treated, the important design criteria that must be considered include the phase of compounds, compound type, location of treatment device on the aircraft, pressure drop, operating temperature, and maintenance interval. Finally, a control strategy is outlined that monitors the air quality as well as the efficiency of an air treatment system.
Technical Paper

CAE Virtual Test of Air Intake Manifolds Using Coupled Vibration and Pressure Pulsation Loads

2005-04-11
2005-01-1071
A coupled vibration and pressure loading procedure has been developed to perform a CAE virtual test for engine air intake manifolds. The CAE virtual test simulates the same physical test configuration and environments, such as the base acceleration vibration excitation and pressure pulsation loads, as well as temperature conditions, for design validation (DV) test of air intake manifolds. The original vibration and pressure load data, measured with respect to the engine speed rpm, are first converted to their respective vibration and pressure power spectrum density (PSD) profiles in frequency domain, based on the duty cycle specification. The final accelerated vibration excitation and pressure PSD load profiles for design validation are derived based on the key life test (KLT) duration and reliability requirements, using the equivalent fatigue damage technique.
Technical Paper

Integrate Structural Optimization into Upfront Carbon Canister Component Design Process

2005-04-11
2005-01-1066
An effort to integrate a structural optimization process into the carbon canister bracket design is presented to demonstrate the benefits of an upfront Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) driven design. Structural optimization methods - including topology, shape, and size optimization - are used to develop the injection molded plastic carbon canister bracket. Furthermore, the incorporation of the Knowledge Base Engineering (KBE) features in the design process not only accelerates the design process but also ease manufacturing feasibility. Even though topology optimization has been widely used to explore the initial topological designs of different products, it is still a great challenge to explore shell like structure designs with 3D solid design package spaces using topology optimization method.
Technical Paper

Applying Lean Principles in a Test Laboratory Environment

2005-04-11
2005-01-1051
Much research exists on the application of lean concepts in a traditional manufacturing setting and new research is broadening the scope of lean to encompass the product development cycle, yet little is documented about how lean can apply in a product development test laboratory. Testing is a hybrid environment, facing challenges unique from the takt-time driven manufacturing environment and multi-value stream product development environment. This paper will address how lean is being adapted to a product development test laboratory, where the objective and method to create a competitive edge remains the same: to drive waste out of the system and reduce the lead-time to the customer.
Technical Paper

Localized Nonlinear Model of Plastic Air Induction Systems for Virtual Design Validation Tests

2005-04-11
2005-01-1516
Plastic air induction system (AIS) has been widely used in vehicle powertrain applications for reduced weight, cost, and improved engine performance. Physical design validation (DV) tests of an AIS, as to meet durability and reliability requirements, are usually conducted by employing the frequency domain vibration tests, either sine sweep or random vibration excitations, with a temperature cycling range typically from -40°C to 120°C. It is well known that under high vibration loading and large temperature range, the plastic components of the AIS demonstrate much higher nonlinear response behaviors as compared with metal products. In order to implement a virtual test for plastic AIS products, a practical procedure to model a nonlinear system and to simulate the frequency response of the system, is crucial. The challenge is to model the plastic AIS assembly as a function of loads and temperatures, and to evaluate the dynamic response and fatigue life in frequency domain as well.
Technical Paper

Design Evaluations On IRS Axle System NVH Through Analytical Studies

2005-05-16
2005-01-2289
Axle whine is an important driveline NVH issue that originates in the hypoid gear sets due to transmitted error excitations. Improving gear quality to reduce the transmitted error has a cost penalty, as well as practical manufacturing limitations. On the other hand, axle system dynamics play a significant role in the system response to gear excitations and in transmissibility from gears to the structure. Analytical tools can be used to tune axle system dynamics in order to alleviate noise and vibration issues. Analytical results can be utilized to evaluate design alternatives, reduce the number of prototypes, thus to reduce product development time. However, analytical results need to be verified and correlated with test results. In this paper, dynamic behavior of a driveline system is investigated. The finite element model is validated at both component and system levels using frequency response functions and mode shapes.
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