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Technical Paper

Heat Simulation in Lighting

2007-04-16
2007-01-1388
During last 10-15 years we could have seen quite big changes in automotive lighting. The most important changes are: a) plastic materials mostly removed metal and glass material from lighting products raised heat issue of plastics materials b) escalation of competition between lighting suppliers (globalization, merging, …) decrease of time and cost for development of the new product as much as possible
Technical Paper

Analysis of Coatings Appearance and Durability Testing Induced Surface Defects Using Image Capture/Processing/Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-3798
This paper describes the applicability of optical imaging techniques to the analysis of the scratch resistance of automotive interior plastic materials. The evaluation of so-called “finger testing” has traditionally relied upon human vision for detection of the initial scratch position. Commonly performed under uniform and defined illumination conditions, the relative contrast difference signified by whitening on a surface as determined by unaided human vision is a highly variable subjective perception; thus individual inspectors may determine the “whitening” point differently. This paper compares test data obtained from both visual and instrumental evaluation methods and discusses the advantages of optical imaging techniques for surface defect analysis.
Technical Paper

High Efficient LED Headlamp Design-Styling versus Light Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0874
First LED headlamps will be released into the market in 2007. Special permissions allow this introduction although the official regulation is still under discussion in ECE. The LED technology for front lighting has entered into a new phase from theoretical, prototype status to real and practical applications. Additionally in Europe the legislation, which is under preparation, defines LED modules with one or more LED chips in a row which should be replaceable. With this boundary conditions headlamp suppliers needs to balance between an attractive and innovative styling, demanded by car manufacturers and the light performance to gurantee good visibility at night. The paper describes the methods how to design an LED headlamp with high efficiency by keeping in mind the parameters: packaging, weight, styling and light perfromance. Results with specific design proposals are shown.
Technical Paper

Design Parameter Tradeoffs for LED Headlamp Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0871
High-power LEDs and LED headlamps have become a serious consideration for the automotive industry. White LEDs have achieved the required performance for initial automotive headlamp applications. However tradeoffs among several attributes such as efficiency, cost, weight and performance profoundly affect LED headlamp development and need to be addressed by vehicle manufacturers, lamp set makers and LED source suppliers in order for LED headlamps to be effective. The solutions to these tradeoffs relates to the behavior of the LED sources, the thermo-mechanical integration of LEDs in a headlamp environment and input from the vehicle manufacturer regarding styling and packaging for an LED headlamp on the respective targeted vehicles.
Technical Paper

Construction and Application of Near Field (TIR Type) Lenses for Automotive Lighting Functions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1040
Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are fast becoming the preferred light sources for automotive lighting applications. They emit light at cone angles equal (hemispherical) or less (conical) than 2Π radians. One way for efficiently collecting and collimating light from LED light sources is to use Near Field Lenses (NFLs). NFLs are collimators using refraction and total internal reflection (TIR) to efficiently collect and direct light. They tend to have thick sections and therefore require challenging molding techniques, and they may have the LED source optically coupled directly into them. Beside these functional aspects, NFLs offer unique styling for different lighting functions such as those in rear combination lamps (RCLs), front turn signal lamps, daytime running lamps (DRLs) and headlamps.
Technical Paper

Target Tracking by a Single Camera Based on Range-Window Algorithm and Pattern Matching

2006-04-03
2006-01-0140
An algorithm, which determines the range of a preceding vehicle by a single image, had been proposed. It uses a “Range-Window Algorithm”. Here in order to realize higher robustness and stability, the pattern matching is incorporated into the algorithm. A single camera system using this algorithm has an advantage over the high cost of stereo cameras, millimeter wave radar and non-robust mechanical scanning in some laser radars. And it also provides lateral position of the vehicle. The algorithm uses several portions of a captured image, namely windows. Each window is corresponding to a predetermined range and has the fixed physical width and height. In each window, the size and position of objects in the image are estimated through the ratio between the widths of the objects and the window, and a score is given to each object. The object having the highest score is determined as the best object. The range of the window corresponding to the best object becomes an estimated range.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Analysis of Tunable Compression Bushing for Stabilizer Bars

2004-03-08
2004-01-1548
Stabilizer bars in a suspension system are supported with bushings by a frame structure. To prevent the axial movement of the stabilizer bar within the bushing, several new stabilizer bar-bushing systems have been developed. The new systems introduce permanent compressive force between the bar and the bushing thereby preventing the relative movement of the bar within the bushing. This mechanical bond between the bar and the bushing can eliminate features such as grippy flats, collars etc. In addition, by controlling the compression parameters, the properties of the bushing such as bushing rates can be tuned and hence can be used to improve the ride and handling performance of the vehicle. In this paper, nonlinear CAE tools are used to evaluate one such compressively loaded bushing system. Computational difficulties associated with modeling such a system are discussed.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Flight Test Evaluation of an Airport Surface Display with Indications & Alerts (SURF IA)

2010-09-30
2010-01-1663
This paper presents the results of a human factors flight test evaluation of a display of Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA). The study is an element of the FAA-sponsored Surface Conflict Detection and Alerting with Consideration of Arrival Applications program. The objective of the flight test was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two candidate SURF IA displays: a detailed Airport Surface Situation Awareness (ASSA) display and a runways-only Final Approach Runway Occupancy Awareness (FAROA) display. Six pilots with a current Air Transport Pilot Certificate each completed 18 scenarios. A Beechcraft King Air C-90 and a Cessna Citation Sovereign aircraft were deployed for the flight tests. The scenarios were conducted at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and at Snohomish County Paine Field Airport, with each aircraft acting as ‘traffic’ for the other aircraft.
Technical Paper

Blind Spot Monitoring by a Single Camera

2009-04-20
2009-01-1291
A practical and low cost Blind Spot Monitoring system is proposed. By using a single camera, the range and azimuth position of a vehicle in a blind spot are measured. The algorithm is based on the proposed RWA (Range Window Algorithm). The camera is installed on the door mirror and monitoring the side and rear of the host vehicle. The algorithm processes the image and identifies range and azimuth angle of the vehicle in the adjacent lane. This algorithm is applied to real situations. The 388 images including several kinds of vehicles are analyzed. The detection rate is 86% and the range accuracy is 1.6[m]. The maximum detection range is about 30[m].
Technical Paper

Model-Based Analysis and Tuning of Electronic Throttle Controllers

2004-03-08
2004-01-0524
This paper describes two electronic throttle controllers of Visteon Corporation with one already in production and the other currently under development. Analysis and tuning of the two controllers are described. The general structure of the controllers consists of a reference shaping subsystem and a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative(PID) controller supplemented with additional terms that deal with the nonlinearility of the electronic throttle body. Due to a friction cancellation term in the controller that minimizes the nonlinearity of the system, linear system analysis techniques are applied. The transfer functions of the electronic throttle body at six different operating conditions are derived. Analysis of the closed-loop dynamics is performed based on the plant and the controller transfer-functions. Controller fine-tuning is performed using frequency response techniques, MATLAB simulations and testing on the actual system.
Technical Paper

A Computer Aided Optimization Tool to Design Electromagnetic Retarders

2004-03-08
2004-01-0382
The work presented here outlines the development of a robust CAO tool for optimal design of electromagnetic retarder machines. The developed EM-CAO tool is then used to perform a wide variety of CAE/CAO tasks, from automatically computing the torque versus rpm performance curves of the EM retarder to performing optimization. Two specific examples of optimal design of the EM retarder are reported. Through the use of a task manager/optimizer repetitive jobs are fully automated thereby making the analysis and optimization of electromagnetic retarders faster and user-friendlier.
Technical Paper

Virtual Key Life Tests of Instrument Panels for Product Development

2004-03-08
2004-01-1482
Visteon has developed a CAE procedure to qualify instrument panel (IP) products under the vehicle key life test environments, by employing a set of CAE simulation and durability techniques. The virtual key life test method simulates the same structural configuration and the proving ground road loads as in the physical test. A representative dynamic road load profile model is constructed based on the vehicle proving ground field data. The dynamic stress simulation is realized by employing the finite element transient analysis. The durability evaluation is based on the dynamic stress results and the material fatigue properties of each component. The procedure has helped the IP engineering team to identify and correct potential durability problems at earlier design stage without a prototype. It has shown that the CAE virtual key life test procedure provides a way to speed up IP product development, to minimize prototypes and costs.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study of Computational Techniques to Model Engine Air Induction System Response Including BEM, FEM and 1D Methods

2003-05-05
2003-01-1644
Induction noise, which radiates from the open end of the engine air induction system, can be of significant importance in reducing vehicle interior noise and tuning the interior sound to meet customer expectations. This makes understanding the source noise critical to the development of the air induction system and the vehicle interior sound quality. Given the ever-decreasing development times, it is highly desirable to use computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools to accelerate this process. Many tools are available to simulate induction noise or, more generally, duct acoustics. The tools vary in degrees of complexity and inherent assumptions. Three-dimensional tools will account for the most general of geometries. However, it is also possible to model the duct acoustics with quasi-three-dimensional or one-dimensional tools, which may be faster as well.
Technical Paper

Environmental Systems Considerations for Aircraft Cabins During Ground Operation

2002-11-05
2002-01-2941
The quality of outside air during ground operations was analyzed by comparing airport and engine exhaust data to exposure limits and odor thresholds. The results indicated that the outside air may contain compounds in high enough concentrations to be odorous. If the odor is to be treated, the important design criteria that must be considered include the phase of compounds, compound type, location of treatment device on the aircraft, pressure drop, operating temperature, and maintenance interval. Finally, a control strategy is outlined that monitors the air quality as well as the efficiency of an air treatment system.
Technical Paper

CAE Virtual Test of Air Intake Manifolds Using Coupled Vibration and Pressure Pulsation Loads

2005-04-11
2005-01-1071
A coupled vibration and pressure loading procedure has been developed to perform a CAE virtual test for engine air intake manifolds. The CAE virtual test simulates the same physical test configuration and environments, such as the base acceleration vibration excitation and pressure pulsation loads, as well as temperature conditions, for design validation (DV) test of air intake manifolds. The original vibration and pressure load data, measured with respect to the engine speed rpm, are first converted to their respective vibration and pressure power spectrum density (PSD) profiles in frequency domain, based on the duty cycle specification. The final accelerated vibration excitation and pressure PSD load profiles for design validation are derived based on the key life test (KLT) duration and reliability requirements, using the equivalent fatigue damage technique.
Technical Paper

Integrate Structural Optimization into Upfront Carbon Canister Component Design Process

2005-04-11
2005-01-1066
An effort to integrate a structural optimization process into the carbon canister bracket design is presented to demonstrate the benefits of an upfront Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) driven design. Structural optimization methods - including topology, shape, and size optimization - are used to develop the injection molded plastic carbon canister bracket. Furthermore, the incorporation of the Knowledge Base Engineering (KBE) features in the design process not only accelerates the design process but also ease manufacturing feasibility. Even though topology optimization has been widely used to explore the initial topological designs of different products, it is still a great challenge to explore shell like structure designs with 3D solid design package spaces using topology optimization method.
Technical Paper

Automating Instrument Panel Head Impact Simulation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1221
Occupant head impact simulations on automotive instrument panels (IP) are routinely performed as part of an integrated design process during the course of IP development. Based on the requirements (F/CMVSS, ECE), head impact zones on the IP are first established, which are then used to determine the various “hit” locations to be tested/analyzed. Once critical impact locations are identified, CAE simulations performed which is a repetitive process that involves computing impact angles, positioning the rigid head form with an assigned initial velocity and defining suitable contacts within the finite element model. A commercially available CAE process automation tool was used to automate these steps and generate a head impact simulation model. Once the input model is checked for errors by the automated process, it can be submitted to a solver without any user intervention for analysis and report generation.
Technical Paper

Localized Nonlinear Model of Plastic Air Induction Systems for Virtual Design Validation Tests

2005-04-11
2005-01-1516
Plastic air induction system (AIS) has been widely used in vehicle powertrain applications for reduced weight, cost, and improved engine performance. Physical design validation (DV) tests of an AIS, as to meet durability and reliability requirements, are usually conducted by employing the frequency domain vibration tests, either sine sweep or random vibration excitations, with a temperature cycling range typically from -40°C to 120°C. It is well known that under high vibration loading and large temperature range, the plastic components of the AIS demonstrate much higher nonlinear response behaviors as compared with metal products. In order to implement a virtual test for plastic AIS products, a practical procedure to model a nonlinear system and to simulate the frequency response of the system, is crucial. The challenge is to model the plastic AIS assembly as a function of loads and temperatures, and to evaluate the dynamic response and fatigue life in frequency domain as well.
Technical Paper

Robustness Considerations in the Design of a Stabilizer Bar System

2005-04-11
2005-01-1718
Modern automobiles utilize stabilizer bars to increase vehicle roll stiffness. Stabilizer bars are laterally mounted torsional springs which resist vertical displacement of the wheels relative to one another. A stabilizer bar is constructed in such a way that it will meet package constraints and fatigue requirements. In order to design a robust stabilizer bar, Taguchi's “Design of Experiment method” is used. The objective of this paper is to develop a robust stabilizer bar design that will maximize the fatigue life and the roll stiffness while minimizing weight. This study is based on results obtained by CAE analysis.
Technical Paper

Analytical Calculation of the Critical Speed of a Driveshaft

2005-05-16
2005-01-2310
Determination of the critical speed of a driveshaft is critical for development and validation of its design for use in a vehicle because of its destructive effects. Typical calculations to determine critical speed are either over simplistic and not very accurate or very complicated requiring CAE software and capabilities. An analytical five-section non-prismatic beam model was developed to fill in this gap. The model was developed to compute the critical speed in a worksheet and proven to be as or more accurate as utilizing FEA methods. The model worksheet calculates the critical speed for one-piece conventional driveshafts and adapted for Visteon's Slip-In-Tube (SIT) driveshafts.
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