Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Heat Simulation in Lighting

2007-04-16
2007-01-1388
During last 10-15 years we could have seen quite big changes in automotive lighting. The most important changes are: a) plastic materials mostly removed metal and glass material from lighting products raised heat issue of plastics materials b) escalation of competition between lighting suppliers (globalization, merging, …) decrease of time and cost for development of the new product as much as possible
Technical Paper

Control Method of Dual Motor-Based Steer-by-Wire System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1149
This paper describes a front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuator motors on the rack and pinion assembly to move the road wheels. Dual actuators are used to provide actuator redundancy and to enhance the fault tolerance capability. When one actuator faults or fails, the other actuator is designed to work independently and maintain full system performance. The paper emphasizes control method to implement the motion control for the front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuators on the common load. The proposed dual servo synchronization motion control implements the angle tracking for the road wheel reference input by controlling two actuators synchronously and cooperatively. It includes two servo feedback control loops to track the common reference input. The angular position error between two feedback loops is compensated using a synchronized compensator.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Coatings Appearance and Durability Testing Induced Surface Defects Using Image Capture/Processing/Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-3798
This paper describes the applicability of optical imaging techniques to the analysis of the scratch resistance of automotive interior plastic materials. The evaluation of so-called “finger testing” has traditionally relied upon human vision for detection of the initial scratch position. Commonly performed under uniform and defined illumination conditions, the relative contrast difference signified by whitening on a surface as determined by unaided human vision is a highly variable subjective perception; thus individual inspectors may determine the “whitening” point differently. This paper compares test data obtained from both visual and instrumental evaluation methods and discusses the advantages of optical imaging techniques for surface defect analysis.
Technical Paper

High Efficient LED Headlamp Design-Styling versus Light Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0874
First LED headlamps will be released into the market in 2007. Special permissions allow this introduction although the official regulation is still under discussion in ECE. The LED technology for front lighting has entered into a new phase from theoretical, prototype status to real and practical applications. Additionally in Europe the legislation, which is under preparation, defines LED modules with one or more LED chips in a row which should be replaceable. With this boundary conditions headlamp suppliers needs to balance between an attractive and innovative styling, demanded by car manufacturers and the light performance to gurantee good visibility at night. The paper describes the methods how to design an LED headlamp with high efficiency by keeping in mind the parameters: packaging, weight, styling and light perfromance. Results with specific design proposals are shown.
Technical Paper

Design Parameter Tradeoffs for LED Headlamp Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0871
High-power LEDs and LED headlamps have become a serious consideration for the automotive industry. White LEDs have achieved the required performance for initial automotive headlamp applications. However tradeoffs among several attributes such as efficiency, cost, weight and performance profoundly affect LED headlamp development and need to be addressed by vehicle manufacturers, lamp set makers and LED source suppliers in order for LED headlamps to be effective. The solutions to these tradeoffs relates to the behavior of the LED sources, the thermo-mechanical integration of LEDs in a headlamp environment and input from the vehicle manufacturer regarding styling and packaging for an LED headlamp on the respective targeted vehicles.
Technical Paper

Construction and Application of Near Field (TIR Type) Lenses for Automotive Lighting Functions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1040
Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are fast becoming the preferred light sources for automotive lighting applications. They emit light at cone angles equal (hemispherical) or less (conical) than 2Π radians. One way for efficiently collecting and collimating light from LED light sources is to use Near Field Lenses (NFLs). NFLs are collimators using refraction and total internal reflection (TIR) to efficiently collect and direct light. They tend to have thick sections and therefore require challenging molding techniques, and they may have the LED source optically coupled directly into them. Beside these functional aspects, NFLs offer unique styling for different lighting functions such as those in rear combination lamps (RCLs), front turn signal lamps, daytime running lamps (DRLs) and headlamps.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Light Weight Al Spindle

2002-03-04
2002-01-0676
The demand for improved vehicle fuel economy drives the auto engineers to look for opportunities in weight reduction of automotive systems and components. This paper presents inventions on the design and development of a lightweight spindle. In this new product, the spindle body is made from an Al alloy for a substantial weight reduction in comparison to the tradition iron spindle body. The shaft of the spindle is made from high strength steel to meet strength requirements. The design shows the unique feature of the joining area between the spindle body and shaft. The related joining process is applied to produce a strong joint between the two parts made of different materials. The testing results will be presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Water Condensate Retention and “Wet” Fin Performance in Automotive Evaporators

2001-03-05
2001-01-1252
Water condensate retained inside an automotive evaporator has remained as one of the primary sources of unpleasant “odors”, which in turn can drive up the warranty cost for automotive manufacturers. The “wet” evaporator fin can also underperform due to the presence of condensate blocking the air passage. Moreover, condensate retention can be a potential factor of freezing up evaporators. Thus, an evaporator fin must be designed such that it can shed and drain water condensate as well as provide an excellent heat transfer capability. While the importance of water retention is well known, there seems lacking of a comprehensive way to evaluate the water retention characteristics of a particular product. In this work, attempts were made to answer four questions: (1) What is the mechanism that controls water condensate retention characteristics in an automotive evaporator? (2) Can different water retention evaluation methods reveal the same characteristics?
Technical Paper

Effect of Post Brazed Flux Residues of CAB Evaporators on the Consistency of Conversion Coating

2005-04-11
2005-01-1773
Evaporators for automotive air-conditioning systems are being coated externally to improve corrosion resistance, water drainage, and reduce potential odor concerns. The coating durability and efficiency in achieving its corrosion resistance depends on the coating uniformity and adhesion characteristics. Good coating adhesion on aluminum surface can be achieved after freeing the surface from the oxide and flux residues. Evaporators manufactured by the Controlled Atmosphere Brazing (CAB) process have flux residue remaining on the surface, the presence of which interferes with the coating process and also affects the performance of coated components. A methodology to quantify the effect of high Nocolok flux residue on heat exchanger coating uniformity has been presented.
Technical Paper

Target Tracking by a Single Camera Based on Range-Window Algorithm and Pattern Matching

2006-04-03
2006-01-0140
An algorithm, which determines the range of a preceding vehicle by a single image, had been proposed. It uses a “Range-Window Algorithm”. Here in order to realize higher robustness and stability, the pattern matching is incorporated into the algorithm. A single camera system using this algorithm has an advantage over the high cost of stereo cameras, millimeter wave radar and non-robust mechanical scanning in some laser radars. And it also provides lateral position of the vehicle. The algorithm uses several portions of a captured image, namely windows. Each window is corresponding to a predetermined range and has the fixed physical width and height. In each window, the size and position of objects in the image are estimated through the ratio between the widths of the objects and the window, and a score is given to each object. The object having the highest score is determined as the best object. The range of the window corresponding to the best object becomes an estimated range.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Robust Design of Heat Sinks for Automotive Electronics Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0685
The increasing power requirement for automotive electronics (radios, etc.), combined with ever-shrinking size and weight allowances, is creating a greater need for optimization and robust design of heat sinks. Not only does a heat sink directly affect the overall performance and reliability of a specific electronics application, but a well-designed, optimized heat sink can have other benefits - such as eliminating the requirement for special fans, reducing weight of the application, eliminating additional heat sink support structures, etc. Optimizing heat sink efficiency and thermal performance offers a challenge, due to the many competing design requirements. These requirements include effecting greater temperature reductions, accommodating vehicle packaging requirements and size limitations, generating a uniform heat distribution, etc., and all the while reducing the heat sink cost.
Technical Paper

CAE Considerations in the Modeling of Welded Joints

2005-04-11
2005-01-0512
Welding is one of the most commonly used fabrication method in various automotive applications. Welding is a metallurgical fusion process in which parts or work pieces to be joined are heated above their melting temperature and then solidified. Some of the effects of the welding include residual stresses and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). A methodology is proposed to study the welding process using the commercial finite element software, ABAQUS. Non linear transient heat transfer analysis is used. Effects of heat energy input rate and heat input time on residual stresses and HAZ are determined.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Analysis of Tunable Compression Bushing for Stabilizer Bars

2004-03-08
2004-01-1548
Stabilizer bars in a suspension system are supported with bushings by a frame structure. To prevent the axial movement of the stabilizer bar within the bushing, several new stabilizer bar-bushing systems have been developed. The new systems introduce permanent compressive force between the bar and the bushing thereby preventing the relative movement of the bar within the bushing. This mechanical bond between the bar and the bushing can eliminate features such as grippy flats, collars etc. In addition, by controlling the compression parameters, the properties of the bushing such as bushing rates can be tuned and hence can be used to improve the ride and handling performance of the vehicle. In this paper, nonlinear CAE tools are used to evaluate one such compressively loaded bushing system. Computational difficulties associated with modeling such a system are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Selected Operational History of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) for International Space Station (ISS)

2004-07-19
2004-01-2470
The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) has been developed jointly by Boeing Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama and Honeywell Engines & Systems, Torrance, California to meet the internal thermal control needs for the International Space Station (ISS). The ITCS provides heat removal for the critical life support systems and thermal conditioning for numerous experiment racks. The ITCS will be fitted on a number of modules on the ISS. The first US Element containing the ITCS, Node 1, was launched in December 1998. Since Node 1 does not contain a pump to circulate the fluid it was not filled with ITCS fluid until after the US Laboratory Module was installed. The second US Element module, US Laboratory Module, which contains the pumps and all the major ITCS control hardware, was launched in February 2001. The third US Element containing the ITCS, the US Airlock, was launched in July 2001.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (ISS CDRA) Troubleshooting and Evaluation

2004-07-19
2004-01-2548
An important aspect of air revitalization for life support in spacecraft is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air. Several types of carbon dioxide removal systems are in use in spacecraft life support. These systems rely on various removal techniques that employ different architectures and media for scrubbing CO2, such as permeable membranes, liquid amine, adsorbents, and absorbents. Sorbent systems have been used since the first manned missions. The current state of key technology is the existing International Space Station (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), a system that selectively removes carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere. The CDRA system was launched aboard UF-2 in February 2001 and resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory module. During the past three years, the CDRA system has operated with varying degrees of success.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Flight Test Evaluation of an Airport Surface Display with Indications & Alerts (SURF IA)

2010-09-30
2010-01-1663
This paper presents the results of a human factors flight test evaluation of a display of Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA). The study is an element of the FAA-sponsored Surface Conflict Detection and Alerting with Consideration of Arrival Applications program. The objective of the flight test was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two candidate SURF IA displays: a detailed Airport Surface Situation Awareness (ASSA) display and a runways-only Final Approach Runway Occupancy Awareness (FAROA) display. Six pilots with a current Air Transport Pilot Certificate each completed 18 scenarios. A Beechcraft King Air C-90 and a Cessna Citation Sovereign aircraft were deployed for the flight tests. The scenarios were conducted at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and at Snohomish County Paine Field Airport, with each aircraft acting as ‘traffic’ for the other aircraft.
Technical Paper

Blind Spot Monitoring by a Single Camera

2009-04-20
2009-01-1291
A practical and low cost Blind Spot Monitoring system is proposed. By using a single camera, the range and azimuth position of a vehicle in a blind spot are measured. The algorithm is based on the proposed RWA (Range Window Algorithm). The camera is installed on the door mirror and monitoring the side and rear of the host vehicle. The algorithm processes the image and identifies range and azimuth angle of the vehicle in the adjacent lane. This algorithm is applied to real situations. The 388 images including several kinds of vehicles are analyzed. The detection rate is 86% and the range accuracy is 1.6[m]. The maximum detection range is about 30[m].
Technical Paper

Application of DOE Methods to RPM-Domain Data for Hydraulic Steering Pump NVH Improvement

2003-05-05
2003-01-1431
The present work demonstrates the application of Design of Experiments (DOE) statistical methods to the design and optimization of a hydraulic steering pump for NVH performance. DOE methods were applied to RPM-domain data to examine the effect of several different factors, as well as the interactions between these factors, on pump NVH. Whereas most DOE analyses typically consider only a single response variable, the present work considered multiple response variables. Specifically, pump NVH performance curves for several pump rotational orders over a range of shaft speeds were analyzed. Thus, it was possible to determine the effect of the factors in question over the entire speed range of pump operation, rather than a single speed or setting. Statistical methods were applied to determine which factors and interactions had a significant effect on pump NVH. These factors were used to construct an empirical mathematical prediction model for NVH performance.
Technical Paper

Environmental Systems Considerations for Aircraft Cabins During Ground Operation

2002-11-05
2002-01-2941
The quality of outside air during ground operations was analyzed by comparing airport and engine exhaust data to exposure limits and odor thresholds. The results indicated that the outside air may contain compounds in high enough concentrations to be odorous. If the odor is to be treated, the important design criteria that must be considered include the phase of compounds, compound type, location of treatment device on the aircraft, pressure drop, operating temperature, and maintenance interval. Finally, a control strategy is outlined that monitors the air quality as well as the efficiency of an air treatment system.
Technical Paper

Localized Nonlinear Model of Plastic Air Induction Systems for Virtual Design Validation Tests

2005-04-11
2005-01-1516
Plastic air induction system (AIS) has been widely used in vehicle powertrain applications for reduced weight, cost, and improved engine performance. Physical design validation (DV) tests of an AIS, as to meet durability and reliability requirements, are usually conducted by employing the frequency domain vibration tests, either sine sweep or random vibration excitations, with a temperature cycling range typically from -40°C to 120°C. It is well known that under high vibration loading and large temperature range, the plastic components of the AIS demonstrate much higher nonlinear response behaviors as compared with metal products. In order to implement a virtual test for plastic AIS products, a practical procedure to model a nonlinear system and to simulate the frequency response of the system, is crucial. The challenge is to model the plastic AIS assembly as a function of loads and temperatures, and to evaluate the dynamic response and fatigue life in frequency domain as well.
X